DUB (uterine bleeding)

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Benha University Hospital, Egypt E-mail:

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  • 1.Abnormaluterine bleeding Prof. Aboubakr Elnashar Benha University Hospital, Egypt E-mail: [email protected]

2. DEFINE Any deviation in normal frequency, duration or amount of menstruation in women of reproductive age. NORMAL MENSES Frequency:21-35 d Duration:3-7 d Volume:30-80 ml 3. CLINICAL TYPES Polymenorrhoea:frequent (80 ml) & / or prolonged menstruation, at regular intervals Metrorrhagia: Excessive (>80 ml) & / or prolonged menstruation at irregular intervals. Menometrorrhagia: both. Intermenstual bleeding:episodes of uterine bleeding between regular menstruations Hypomenorrhoea: scanty menstruation. Oligomenorrhoea: infrequent menstruation (>35 d) 4.

  • CAUSES
      • .Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
      • .Pregnancy complications:
      • Abortion, Ectopic pregnancy, Trophoblastic disease
      • .Genital disease:
      • .Tumors:
      • Benign: fibroid, polyps (cervical, endometrial, fibroid)
  • Malignant: cervical, endometrial, ovarian(estrogen secreting)
      • .Infection: PID
      • .Endometriosis ,adenomyosis
      • .IUCD
      • .Marked uterovaginalprolapseorretroversion

5.

      • .Extragenital:
      • .Endocrine :hypo- or hyperthyroidism
      • .Haematological: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Von-Willebrand disease
      • .Chronic systemic disease:liver failure, renal failure, hypertension with uterine artery atherosclerosis.
      • .Iatrogenic: Sex hormones, anticoagulants.
      • .Emotional:(change of country, climate & work; stress; psychosomatic disorders)
      • .Obesity: [increased peripheral estrogen conversion]

6.

      • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
  • Define
    • Abnormal uterine bleeding in absence of pelvic organ disease or a systemic disorder
      • Incidence
  • 60 % of AUB

7. PathologyEndocrine abnormality Endometrium Anovulatory 90% Insufficient folliclesInadequate proliferative or atrophic Persistent follicles Proliferative or hyperplastic Ovulatory 10% Short proliferative phaseNormal Long proliferative phaseNormal Insufficient C. luteumIrregular or deficient secretory leading to short luteal phase Persistent C luteum leading toIrregular shedding long luteal phase 8. 9.

  • Risk of endometrial cancer
  • Chronic anovulationhas 3 times increased risk (Coulam,1989). Chronic proliferation of the endometrium leading to adenomatous hyperplasia, leading to atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinoma.Transitioncan take up to 10 yrs or more.

10.

      • Diagnosis
  • Aim:
  • 1. Nature & severity of bleeding
  • 2. Exclusion of organic causes
  • 3. Ovulatory or anovulatory
  • How:

11. I. History: 1. Personal:age, wishes of the patient 2. Menstrual 3. Obstetric 4. Past 5. Present:amount, duration, color, smell, relation to sexual intercourse, associated symptoms 12. II. Examination: 1. General: pallor, endocrinopathy, coagulopathy, pregnancy 2. Abdominal: liver, spleen, pelvic abdominal mass 3. Pelvic: origin of the bleeding, cause 13.

          • III.Investigations
  • Systemic:
  • 1. CBC (for all, Grade A)
  • 2. BHCG
  • 3. Prolactin & TSH
  • 4. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, platelets, Von Willebrand factor

14. Local: 1. Pap smear 2. Endometrial biopsy 3. D & C 4. Hysteroscopy 5. U/S 15. 16. Assessment of the amount of the bleeding: 50% of excessive menstruation have normal amount of blood loss by objective methods 1.Subjective methods: history of passage of clots, flooding, use of large number of pads, do not reflect the actual blood loss 2.Semiobjective: i.Iron deficiency anemia ii.Menstrual calendar (August,1996)III. Pictorial blood loss chart (Higham,1990) : 17. Menstrual calender (August,1996) Saturday 7 14 21 28 Sunday 1 8 15 22 29 Monday2 9 16 23 30 Tuesday 3 10 17 24 31 Wednesday 4 11 18 25 Thursday 5 12 19 26 Friday 6 13 20 27 .Spotting -Slight loss O Moderate loss Very heavy loss 18. Pictorial blood loss chart: (Higham,1990) Days of the bleedingScore 12345678 Towel1 point 5 points 10 points Clots1p clot1 point 5p clot5 points Flooding 5 points Score >100 = Menorrrhagia 19. Endometrial biopsy: Indications: .Between 20 & 40 .If endometrial thickness on TVS is >12mm, endometrial sample should be taken to exclude endometrial hyperplasia (Grade A).Failure to obtain sufficient sample for H/P does not require further investigation unless the endometrial thickness is >12 mm (Grade B) Aim: diagnosis of the type of the bleeding 20. Methods:As an outpatient procedure, without general anesthesia. 1.Pipelle curette 2.Sharman curette, Gravlee jet washer, Isac cell sampler 3.Accrette 4.vabra aspirator Advantages:An adequate & acceptable screening procedure in females under 40 yrs 21. 22. D & C: Indications: 1. Mandatory after 40 yrs2. Persistent or recurrent bleeding between 20 & 40 yrs Aim: 1.Diagnosis of organic disease e.g. endometritis, polyp, carcinoma, TB, fibroid 2.Diagnosis of the type of the endometrium: hyperplastic, proliferative, secretory, irregular ripening, shedding, atrophic. This provides a guide to etiology & treatment 23. 3.Arrest of the bleeding, if the bleeding is severe or persistent, particularly hyperplastic endometrium.Curettage is essentially a diagnostic & not a therapeutic procedure. Disadvantages: 1.Small lesions can be missed 2.The sensitivity of detecting intrauterine pathology is only 65% 24. Fractional curretage: Indication:>40 yrs Method:3 samples: endocervical, lower segment & upper segment 25. Hysteroscopy: Indications: Mandatory after 40 yrs 1. Erratic menstrual bleeding 2. Failed medical treatment 3. TVS suggestive of intrauterine pathology e.g. polyp, fibroid (Grade B) 26. Aim: 1.Excellent view of the uterine cavity & diagnosis of polyps, submucous fibroid, hyperplasia. 2.Biopsy of the suspected areas 3.Treatment 27. Advantages over D &C 1.The whole uterine cavity can be visualized2.Very smalllesions such as polyps can be identified & biopsed or removed 3.Bleeding from ruptured venules & echymoses can be readily identified 4.The sensitivity in detecting intrauterine pathology is 98% (Loffer,1989) 5.Outpatient procedure 28. Disadvantages: 1.Cost of the apparatus 2.Lack of availability or experience 29. Ultrasonography: 1. TAS:can exclude pelvic masses, pregnancy complications 2. TVS:More informative than TAS. Measurement of the endometrial thickness is not a replacement for biopsy. All endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal with endometrial thickness>4 mm (Osmers,1990) 3. Saline sonography:an alternative to office hysteroscopy in selected cases. It is better tolerated than office hysteroscopy or HSG 30. TVS is recommended in: 1. Weight >90 Kg 2. Age > 40 yrs 3. Other risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma e.g. infertility, nulliparity, family history of colon or endometrial cancer, exposure to unopposed estrogen (Grade B) 31.

      • Treatment
      • A. General
  • 1. Menstrual calendar
  • 2. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia

32.

          • B. Medical
  • I. Hormonal:
  • 1.Progestagen
  • 2.Oestrogen
  • 3.COCP
  • 4.Danazol
  • 5.GnRh agonist
  • 6.Levo-nova (Merina)
  • II. Non hormonal
  • 1.Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PSI)
  • 2.Antifibrinolytics
  • 3.Ethamsylate

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          • C. Surgical
  • 1. Endometrial ablation
  • 2. Hysterectomy

34. Strategy of treatment 40 yrs MedicalAlways First resort after endometrial biopsy Temporizing & ifsurgery is refused orimminent menopause SurgicalNever Seldom, only if medical treatment fail First resort if bleedingis recurrent 35. Medical treatment: Antifibrinolytics Mechanism of action: The endometrium possess an active fibrinolytic system, & the fibrinolytic activity is higher in menorrhagia.Effect: Greater reduction of menstrual bleeding than other therapies (PSI, oral luteal phase progestagen & etamsylate)(Cochrane library,2002).Tranexamic acid is effective in treating menorrhagia associated with IUCD. 36. Side effects:is dose related.Nausea , vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness. Rarely: transient color vision disturbance, intracranial thrombosis. But, no evidence that tranxemic acid increases the risk in absence of past or family history of thrombophilia. This treatment is not associated with an increase in side effects compared to placebo or other therapies (Cochrane library,2002). Dose: 3-6 gm /d for the first 3 days of the cycle 37. PSI: Mechanism; the endometrium is a rich source of PGE 2& PGF 2 & its concentrations are greater in menorrhagia. PSI decreases endometrial PG concentrations. Effect: PSI decreased menstrual blood by 24% & norethisterone by 20%.The beneficial effect of mefenamic acid on MBL & other symptomse.g. dysmenorrhea, headache, nausea, diarrhea & depressionpersists for several months. 38. Dose: Mefenamic acid 500 mg tds during menses.Side effects: nausea, vomiting, gastric discomfort, diarrhea, dizziness. Rarely: haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia. The degree of reduction of MBL is not as great as it is with tranxamic acid but PSI have a lower side effect profile. 39.

    • Etamsylate:
    • Mechanism of action:
    • maintain capillary integrity, anti-hyalurunidase activity & inhibitory effect on PG
    • Dose:
    • 500 mg qid, starting 5 days before anticipated onset of the cycle & continued for 10 days

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    • Effect:
    • 20% reduction in MBL.
    • There is no conclusive evidence of the effectivness of etamsylate in reducing menorrhgea (Grade A)
    • Side effects:
    • headache, rash, nausea

41. Systemic progestagens: Norethisterone & medroxyprogesterone acetate Effect: Ovulatory DUB:not effective if given at low dose for short duration (5-10 days) in the luteal phase. Effective if NEA is given at higher dose for 3 w out of 4 w (5 mg tds from D5 to 26) Anovulatory DUB:useful Side effects: weight gain, nausea, bloating, edema, headache, acne, depression, exacerbation of epilepsy & migraine, loss of libido 42.

    • Intrauterine progestagens
  • Levonorgestrel intrauterine systemlevonova,Mirena:Delivers 20ug LNG /d. for 5 yr
  • Metraplant:T shaped IUCD & levonorgestrel on the shoulder & stem
  • Azzam IUCD:Cu T & levonorgestrel on the stem

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    • Effect;
    • 1. Comparableto endometrial resection for management of DUB.
    • 2. Superiorto PSI & antifibrinolytics
    • 3.May be analternativeto hysterectomy in some patients

44. 45.

    • Side effects;
    • 1.BTB in the first cycles
    • 2.20% develop amenorrhea within 1 yr
    • 3.Functional ovarian cysts
    • Special indications:
    • 1. Intractable bleeding associated with chronic illness
    • 2. Ovulatory heavy bleeding

46. The combined contraceptive pill: Effect: Reduce MBL by 50% Mechanism of action: endometrial suppression Side effects; headache, migraine, weight gain, breasttenderness, nausea, cholestatic jaundice, hypertension, thromboticepisodes, 47. Danazol: synthetic androgen with antioestrogenic & antiprogestagenic activity Mechanism; inhibits the release of pituitary Gnt & has direct suppressive effect on the endometrium Effect: reduction in MBL (more effective than PSI) & amenorhea at doses >400 mg/d 48. Side effects: headache, weight gain, acne, rashes, hirsuitism, mood & voice changes, flushes, muscle spasm, reduced HDL, diminished breast size. Rarely: cholestatic jaundice. It is effective in reducing blood loss but side effects limit it to a second choice therapy or short term use only (Grade A)Dose:200 mg/d 49.

    • GnRH analog
    • Side effects;
    • hot flushes, sweats, headache, irritability, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, lethargy, reduced bone density.

50.

    • Surgical treatment
    • Endometrial ablation
    • Methods:
    • I. Hysteroscopic:
    • 1. Laser
    • 2. Electrosurgical: a. Roller ball
    • b. Resection
    • II. Non-hysteroscopic:
    • 1. Thermachoice
    • 2. Microwave.

51. 52. 53. 54.

    • Indications:
    • 1. Failure of medical treatment
    • 2. Family is completed
    • 3. Uterine cavity