Designing for behaviour change

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    11-Aug-2014
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Behaviour change is the measurable outcome of good UX design. Here's a review of a few design techniques and processes to help UX designers to create sustainable behaviour change.

Transcript of Designing for behaviour change

  • Designing for behaviour change Phil Barrett Director Flow Interactive South Africa A few techniques
  • Flickr:HeatherHopkins/ClevergrrlFlickr:Mel/Karamellzucker Flickr:DarrenTunnicli/{mostlyabsent} Flickrr:Etolane Remove the negative posts: people post more positive stu. Facebook manipulated 689,003 users emotions for science Flickr:quantumbunny Remove the positive posts: people post more negative stu.
  • I am worried about the ability of Facebook and others to manipulate peoples thoughts [] If people are being thought-controlled in this kind of way, there needs to be protection and they at least need to know about it. Jim Sheridan, MP Member of Commons Media Select committee
  • Facebooks real motives Facebook wants you to use Facebook more. Facebook always builds a users feed by compiling the content they will nd most relevant and engaging. Facebook has built a behaviour in users: Smartphone users check Facebook 14 times a day. keeping us on Facebook!
  • Computers can change peoples behaviour
  • So can TV, Radio, Books, Speeches, Posters, Games, Smells, Conversations, Balloons
  • Behaviour-change is the measurable outcome of UX work
  • Behaviour is our medium. Robert Fabricant Frog Design
  • Sustained behaviour change. Creating an itch that people want to keep on scratching HayDay:Agreatgameonfacebook.Playitnow!
  • And what about in the real world? Exercise more, eat better, save for retirement, recycle, use less electricity, volunteer to help a charity, spend more time with the kids Flickr:ElAlvi/alvi2047
  • Mindbloom Fitbit Do these kinds of things work? A show of hands
  • What kinds of behaviour change can we hope to achieve? What techniques can we use? Flickr:JackKeane/whatknot
  • These are helping Sebastian Deterding CodingConduct.cc
  • Get people to take an action Exploit mental quirks to persuade Build habits Design a compelling behavioural plan Cheat Flickr:JackKeane/whatknot
  • CONCEPT 1 Getting people to take action is hard
  • BJ Fogg, Professor of Persuasive Tech Stanford University Three elements must converge at the same moment for a behavior to occur: Motivation, Ability, and Trigger. Easy to doHard to do Low motivation High motivation No action: Triggers fail here Ability Motivation Action! Triggers succeed here
  • Easy to doHard to do Low motivation High motivation No action: Triggers fail here Action! Triggers succeed here Ability Motivation More compelling Less eort
  • Foggs motivation factors Attain Avoid Pleasure Pain Hope Fear Social acceptance Social rejection
  • Even harder: Behaviour change funnel Execute action CUE REACTION EVALUATION ABILITY TIMING Distractions Distractions Distractions Distractions Distractions Doesnt notice Negative reaction Cost > benet Cant act No urgency CREATE action funnel
  • CONCEPT 2 You can exploit mental quirks to get a more positive reaction
  • System 1 System 2 Automatic vs deliberate thinking Does the job properly but uses a lot of glucose. Substitutes easy questions for hard ones Believes things that are easy to believe Operates using habits
  • System 2 System 1 Flickr:Thomas/Indelic
  • Exploiting system 1: some examples Free stu. People make irrational decisions when things are free. Loss aversion: People are more motivated by avoiding a loss than by acquiring a similar gain. If the same choice is framed as a loss, rather than a gain, people will behave dierently. Ikea eect: We value things we have made more highly. Social proof: Everyone else is doing it, so it must be a good thing.
  • People behave strangely when things are free
  • Framing a choice as a loss makes it less popular Imagine that the US is preparing for the outbreak of a lethal u, which is expected to kill 600 people. Choose a program to address the problem. ! a) 200 people will be saved ! b) 1/3rd chance that 600 people will be saved. 2/3rd chance that no people will be saved. 72%
  • Framing a choice as a loss makes it less popular Imagine that the US is preparing for the outbreak of a lethal u, which is expected to kill 600 people. Choose a program to address the problem. ! a) 400 people will die. ! b) 1/3rd that no-one will die. 2/3rd chance that 600 people will die. 22%
  • The IKEA eect. With origami frogs. They were hard to make and most people did a bad job. How much would people bid for their own frogs? And the frogs of others? And expert -made frogs? Flickr:ToddJordan/Tojosan
  • We become attached to the things we make. Average bid for expert-made frog: 27 Average bid for own frog: 23 Average bid by someone else for that same frog: 5c Flickr:Nanimo
  • Whats this one? And this one?
  • CONCEPT 3 For sustained behaviour change you need to create habits
  • Habits let system 2 ooad much of the days eort onto system 1. Create a habit, and the action can be performed many times without conscious thought from the rider. Flickr:Thomas/Indelic
  • Habit loop Icons made by Icons8 from aticon.com Cue Routine Reward triggers provides becomes associated with
  • Habit loop: key details Cue must be clear, unambiguous, single-purpose. User must be motivated and able to do the routine. User must know about the reward, want it and get it immediately after the routine.
  • Rewards
  • Promising a reward for an activity is tantamount to declaring that the activity is not worth doing for its own sake. Remove the reward and the behaviour stops
  • But in the commercial world, rewards dont have to stop.
  • Variable reward Variability causes increased levels of dopamine, the neurotransmitter that drives us to search for rewards.
  • Types of reward TribeHunt Self
  • Old habits never die. But sometimes you can get past them. Avoid the cue Replace the routine Get people to think about the habit Mindfulness Crowd out the old habit with new behaviour
  • CONCEPT 4 Design a behaviour plan that helps people build ability and stay motivated
  • Behavioural plan* Get shoes Decide route Set date 1st run! Expensive Not sure of right distance Feels unfamiliar Cant commit Might forget or chicken out *AKA Customer journey
  • Behavioural plan* Get shoes Decide route Set date 1st run! Expensive Not sure of right distance Feels unfamiliar Cant commit Might forget or chicken out *AKA Customer journey Suggest distance Suggest route Social proof Social proof Behavioural bridge Reminder Commitment contract Target/goal Social proof Behavioural bridge
  • Learn from game design!
  • We dont need no stinkin badges Adding points and badges does not make a bad game fun.
  • 7 principles of good games Clear, worthwhile goal Clear, bite-sized actions and choices Clear action-goal relations Clear status Lots of positive feedback Scaolded challenges Social comparison
  • Ingredients for a state of Flow Clear goal: You know what youre trying to achieve Rapid Feedback: Visibility of distance to go and of motion towards the goal Challenge/mastery: You have to play better over time if you want to win Skills Challenge Anxiety Boredom Flow