DEMETER-MYTHS of FERTILITY

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DEMETER-MYTHS of DEMETER-MYTHS of FERTILITY FERTILITY FEMALE GAIA (GE)=Mother Earth came FEMALE GAIA (GE)=Mother Earth came from sexless CHAOS. From Gaia from sexless CHAOS. From Gaia sprang the world: Sky, Mountains, sprang the world: Sky, Mountains, Sea, and the Olympians and humans Sea, and the Olympians and humans No single goddess of fertility No single goddess of fertility (Artemis for wild life, Aphrodite (Artemis for wild life, Aphrodite for sexuality, Hera for family and for sexuality, Hera for family and marriage, Demeter goddess of grain marriage, Demeter goddess of grain and earth fertility) and earth fertility)

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DEMETER-MYTHS of FERTILITY. FEMALE GAIA (GE)=Mother Earth came from sexless CHAOS. From Gaia sprang the world: Sky, Mountains, Sea, and the Olympians and humans - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of DEMETER-MYTHS of FERTILITY

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DEMETER-MYTHS of DEMETER-MYTHS of FERTILITYFERTILITY

►FEMALE GAIA (GE)=Mother Earth came FEMALE GAIA (GE)=Mother Earth came from sexless CHAOS. From Gaia from sexless CHAOS. From Gaia sprang the world: Sky, Mountains, Sea, sprang the world: Sky, Mountains, Sea, and the Olympians and humansand the Olympians and humans

►No single goddess of fertility (Artemis No single goddess of fertility (Artemis for wild life, Aphrodite for sexuality, for wild life, Aphrodite for sexuality, Hera for family and marriage, Demeter Hera for family and marriage, Demeter goddess of grain and earth fertility)goddess of grain and earth fertility)

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HOMERIC HYMN TO DEMETERHOMERIC HYMN TO DEMETER

►StructureStructure►Demeter-Persephone-abduction by Demeter-Persephone-abduction by

HadesHades►Return from the UnderworldReturn from the Underworld►Embedded Story of Demeter while Embedded Story of Demeter while

looking for her daughterlooking for her daughter►Metaneira, the queen, and Metaneira, the queen, and

Demophoon, the son.Demophoon, the son.

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The Myth of Demeter and Persephone

► Abduction by Hades► Hecate and Helius► Demeter’s grief, anger and retaliation► Demeter comes to Eleusis and the

palace of Celeus.► The Maiden Well► Queen Metaneira► Iambe► Demeter breaks her fast.► Demeter Nurses Demphoön.

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► Hades and Persephone and her eating of the pomegranate

► Demeter’s ecstatic reunion with Persephone► Demeter restores fertility and establishes the

Mysteries.

► The Interpretation of the Hymn► Death and rebirth of vegetation► Spiritual metaphor or allegory► Kore (“girl”)► Hades (Pluto or Dis among the Romans)

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Interpretation of the MythInterpretation of the Myth

► Allegorical Interpretation- seasons changeAllegorical Interpretation- seasons change► Family experience, the daughter’s marriage Family experience, the daughter’s marriage

(voluntarily takes the flower, symbol of (voluntarily takes the flower, symbol of marriage, separation from natal family)marriage, separation from natal family)

► Symbolic interpretationSymbolic interpretation► Loss from child, as so many children are lost Loss from child, as so many children are lost

to war and disease. Lamentation rituals to war and disease. Lamentation rituals around this myth. Demeter is around this myth. Demeter is mater mater dolorosadolorosa. .

►Myth of Demeter becomes the Myth of Demeter becomes the etiologyetiology for for the presence of death. Thus the cult the presence of death. Thus the cult becomes an experience of afterlife.becomes an experience of afterlife.

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Eleusinian MysteriesEleusinian Mysteries

► Eleusis, near AthensEleusis, near Athens►MysteryMystery < < Mystes Mystes =the one who closes (the =the one who closes (the

eyes, mouth) Latin translation ieyes, mouth) Latin translation initiatusnitiatus (thus, modern English to initiate)(thus, modern English to initiate)

►Origin of mysteriesOrigin of mysteries► Two families in Charge the EUMOLPIDS, Two families in Charge the EUMOLPIDS,

Eumolpos, the ancestor, mythical ruler of Eumolpos, the ancestor, mythical ruler of ELEUSIS received the mysteries from ELEUSIS received the mysteries from Demeter and the KERYKES (heralds), Demeter and the KERYKES (heralds), descendants of Eumolpus’ son KERYX descendants of Eumolpus’ son KERYX (=herald)(=herald)

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►Eleusinian Mysteries► Special position of Athens► Initiates► Secrecy of rites► Mystery religions► Connection with Orpheus

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Structure of Eleusinian Structure of Eleusinian MysteriesMysteries

►High Priest (Hierophant= he who reveals the High Priest (Hierophant= he who reveals the hiera hiera sacred things), always a Eumolpidsacred things), always a Eumolpid

► From the family of the Kerykes, always the From the family of the Kerykes, always the torchbearer and the herald.torchbearer and the herald.

► Priestess of Demeter, who, like the hierophant Priestess of Demeter, who, like the hierophant lived in the sanctuarylived in the sanctuary

► Time of festival- FALL every yearTime of festival- FALL every year► The The Hiera (=sacred things)Hiera (=sacred things) removed from removed from

TELESTERION and carried to Athens, Procession.TELESTERION and carried to Athens, Procession.► All who could speak Greek (Except murderers) All who could speak Greek (Except murderers)

eligible for initiation including women and eligible for initiation including women and slaves)slaves)

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► Rituals- Nine day interval► Fasting- Torches- Jests► Kykeon: drink of barley and water► Revelation of divinity► Stages of initiation► Lesser Mysteries: preliminary to initiation► Greater Mysteries: full initiation► Participation in the highest mysteries► Procession► Stages of Greater Mysteries► Dramatic enactment of myth► Revelation of sacred objects► Utterance of certain words► The Final revelation: the hiera

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ELEUSISELEUSIS

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ARCHITECTURE OF ARCHITECTURE OF TELESTERIONTELESTERION

TELESTERION TELESTERION Temple of DemeterTemple of Demeter

Unique in Architecture. Ordinary Greek Unique in Architecture. Ordinary Greek temple to be viewed from exterior, the temple to be viewed from exterior, the interior was to hold the god’s statueinterior was to hold the god’s statue

-THE -THE TELESTERIONTELESTERION was built to receive was built to receive thousands of people under its roofthousands of people under its roof

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MAPS OF MAPS OF telesterion telesterion at at EleusisEleusis

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TRIPTOLEMUSTRIPTOLEMUS

►One of the princes of Eleusis to whom One of the princes of Eleusis to whom Demeter taught her sacred rites. More Demeter taught her sacred rites. More important after the 5important after the 5thth century. century.

►He was said to have traveled over the He was said to have traveled over the world teaching the art of growing world teaching the art of growing grain. Popular in art, supporting grain. Popular in art, supporting Athenian claims for cultural Athenian claims for cultural supremacy.supremacy.

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What were the Eleusinian What were the Eleusinian Mysteries?Mysteries?

►Group experienceGroup experience►Personal experience (afterlife)Personal experience (afterlife)►Ritual purity, fastingRitual purity, fasting►Magical rite ensuring the growth of Magical rite ensuring the growth of

graingrain►Political significancePolitical significance

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DemeterDemeter

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Demeter and PersephoneDemeter and Persephone

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Departure of Triptolemos Makron Painter, 490-480 BC. Attic red-figured Departure of Triptolemos Makron Painter, 490-480 BC. Attic red-figured skyphos. The eleusinian prince on the chariot. Persephone stands in front of skyphos. The eleusinian prince on the chariot. Persephone stands in front of

with a torch and an with a torch and an oinochoeoinochoe. Behind her nymph Eleusis, and behind . Behind her nymph Eleusis, and behind Triptolemos, Demeter.Triptolemos, Demeter.

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Detail of previous- departure of Triptolemos, red figure Detail of previous- departure of Triptolemos, red figure skyphos,Makron painterskyphos,Makron painter

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Hades and PersephoneHades and Persephone

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Museo Archaeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria, Italy. 480-450 Museo Archaeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria, Italy. 480-450 BCBC

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Demeter on the left (holding a staff in her left hand, authority Demeter on the left (holding a staff in her left hand, authority emblem, more restrained)-Triptolemos-Kore emblem, more restrained)-Triptolemos-Kore

Relief 440 BC- Athens Archaeological MuseumRelief 440 BC- Athens Archaeological Museum

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Attic red-figured bell-krater. Hecate with torches leads Persephone accompanied Attic red-figured bell-krater. Hecate with torches leads Persephone accompanied by Hermes from the underworld while Demeter, holding a sceptre, waits. The by Hermes from the underworld while Demeter, holding a sceptre, waits. The moment of reunion. With Inscriptions to identify figures. C. 440 B.C. (41 cm)moment of reunion. With Inscriptions to identify figures. C. 440 B.C. (41 cm)

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Demeter mosaicDemeter mosaic

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Demeter head of statueDemeter head of statue

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Demeter classical reliefDemeter classical relief

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Plaster cast: Height: 51cm. Copy of a fragment of marble relief. Plaster cast: Height: 51cm. Copy of a fragment of marble relief. 425-400 BC. probably from the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnous. 425-400 BC. probably from the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnous.

was purchased for Munich in 1853 now in Munich, Glyptothek/was purchased for Munich in 1853 now in Munich, Glyptothek/

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Demeter, Kore and Triptolemos, Museum of Arts, Providence Demeter, Kore and Triptolemos, Museum of Arts, Providence Rhode Rhode IslandIsland

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Demeter gives grain to Triptolemus, Harvard Demeter gives grain to Triptolemus, Harvard Museum, Polygnotos group Museum, Polygnotos group

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Demeter classicalDemeter classical

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Demeter, late Roman statueDemeter, late Roman statue

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Hellenistic Painting Abduction of Persephone by Hades (ca. 330), Hellenistic Painting Abduction of Persephone by Hades (ca. 330), from Tomb I at Vergina (Pliny mentions such a painting, by from Tomb I at Vergina (Pliny mentions such a painting, by

Nikomachos)Nikomachos)

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DemeterDemeterLater Art RepresentationsLater Art Representations

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Pluto and Proserpina (French Manuscript, 15Pluto and Proserpina (French Manuscript, 15thth century) century)

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The Abduction of PersephoneThe Abduction of Persephone, by Peter , by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

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Bernini 1621Bernini 1621

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Proserpina Proserpina Dante Gabriel Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882). Oil on Rossetti (1828-1882). Oil on canvas, 1874- Prerahaelitescanvas, 1874- Prerahaelites

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The Return of PersephoneThe Return of Persephone by by Frederic Frederic Leighton VictorianLeighton Victorian circacirca 1890-11890-1

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Abduction of Persephone- Benton- American painter, early 20Abduction of Persephone- Benton- American painter, early 20thth century Museum of Art, Kansas Missouricentury Museum of Art, Kansas Missouri