Dehydration reaction Macromoleculesdstratto/bcor011/05_Macromolecules1.pdf · 1 Macromolecules •...

of 4 /4
1 Macromolecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Monomers and Polymers dehydration reactions • Carbohydrates Sugars and starches • Lipids Fats and oils – Phospholipids How soap works Start proteins, if time 14 Sept. 2020 Figure 5.2 (a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer 1 2 3 Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond. 1 2 3 4 H 2 O (b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer 1 2 3 4 H 2 O Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond. 1 2 3 H Sugars Aldoses (Aldehyde Sugars) Ketoses (Ketone Sugars) Trioses: three-carbon sugars (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone Pentoses: five-carbon sugars (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Ribose Ribulose Hexoses: six-carbon sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Glucose Galactose Fructose (Understand, but dont memorize structures) Monosaccharides Glucose Ribose Glucose CH 2 OH H 2 1 2 1 Fructose CH 2 OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH Sucrose OH H HO H O O O O O H 2 O Simple sugars can be linked by Dehydration reactions Sucrose is a common disaccharide: Glucose+Fructose Other common disaccharides Do not memorize

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Dehydration reaction Macromoleculesdstratto/bcor011/05_Macromolecules1.pdf · 1 Macromolecules •...

  • 1

    Macromolecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

    •  Monomers and Polymers –  dehydration reactions

    •  Carbohydrates –  Sugars and starches

    •  Lipids –  Fats and oils –  Phospholipids –  How soap works

    •  Start proteins, if time 14 Sept. 2020

    Figure 5.2 (a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer

    1 2 3

    Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond.

    1 2 3 4

    H2O

    (b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer

    1 2 3 4

    H2O Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond.

    1 2 3 H

    Sugars Aldoses

    (Aldehyde Sugars) Ketoses

    (Ketone Sugars) Trioses: three-carbon sugars (C3H6O3)

    Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone

    Pentoses: five-carbon sugars (C5H10O5)

    Ribose Ribulose

    Hexoses: six-carbon sugars (C6H12O6)

    Glucose Galactose Fructose

    (Understand, but don t memorize structures)

    Monosaccharides

    Glucose

    Ribose

    Glucose

    CH2OH H

    2 1 2 1

    Fructose

    CH2OH

    CH2OH

    CH2OH CH2OH

    CH2OH

    Sucrose

    OH

    H

    HO

    H O O O

    O

    O

    H2O

    Simple sugars can be linked by Dehydration reactions

    Sucrose is a common disaccharide:

    Glucose+Fructose

    Other common disaccharides

    Do not memorize

  • 2

    Fig. 5-8 β  Glucose monomer

    Cellulose molecules

    0.5 µm

    10 µm

    Cellulose Small difference in structure, big difference in function.

    Starch:

    Cellulose:

    Lipids (fats and oils)

    http://www.johnnyjet.com/images/PicForNewsletterItalyMarch2005FRIEDDOUGHnLARD.JPG

    Fried dough with lard . . . .

    Fats or triglycerides (glycerol + 3 fatty acids)

    Fat molecule

    H H H H

    H H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H O

    H O H C

    C

    C

    H

    H OH

    OH

    H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H

    H C C C

    C C

    C C

    C C

    C C

    C C

    C C C

    Glycerol + Fatty acid

    H

    H

    H

    H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H H H

    H H H H H H H H H H H H

    H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H H H H H H H H H

    H H H H H

    H

    H H

    H H H H H H H

    H H H H H

    H

    HO

    O

    O

    O

    O C

    C

    C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

    C

    C C C C C C C C C C C C C

    C C C

    C C C C C C C C C

    C C C C

    C C

    O

    O

    Dehydration reaction

    Figure 5.11 hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

    FATS OILS Solid Liquid

    WHY?

    Saturated Unsaturated or

    Polyunsaturated Like Fig 5-12

    What are trans fats?

  • 3

    Polar (charged) Head

    Very Hydrophobic Tail In water

    they can form a “micelle” -- why?

    “Amphipathic”

    Fatty Acids Why soap works

    •  Grease is attracted to the interior of the micele

    Soap micele

    Hydrophilic heads

    Hydrophobic tails

    Greasy mess on plate

    •  Phospholipids –  Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate

    CH2

    O P O O O

    CH2 CH CH2 O O

    C O C O

    Phosphate

    Glycerol

    (a) Structural formula

    Fatty acids

    Hyd

    roph

    obic

    tails

    Hyd

    roph

    ilic

    head

    CH2 Choline +

    Figure 5.13

    N(CH3)3

    Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails

    How will phospholipids behave in water?

    Form Boundaries

    Phospholipid Bilayer

    Proteins

    What are some of the functions of proteins?

    Can Keep adding to the end

    R5 Oil OH Duracell

    SH

    Nonpolar Polar Charged

    Polymers of Amino Acids •  Amino Acids differ only by their R group •  20 kinds of amino acids

    –  Same chasis, different cargo

  • 4

    Nonpolar Side Chains

    Glycine (Gly or G)

    Alanine (Ala or A)

    Valine (Val or V)

    Leucine (Leu or L)

    Isoleucine (Ile or I)

    Methionine (Met or M)

    Phenylalanine (Phe or F)

    Tryptophan (Trp or W)

    Proline (Pro or P)

    Polar Side Chains

    Serine (Ser or S)

    Threonine (Thr or T)

    Cysteine (Cys or C)

    Tyrosine (Tyr or Y)

    Asparagine (Asn or N)

    Glutamine (Gln or Q)

    Charged Side Chains

    Basic (positively charged)

    Acidic (negatively charged)

    Aspartic acid (Asp or D)

    Glutamic acid (Glu or E)

    Lysine (Lys or K)

    Arginine (Arg or R)

    Histidine (His or H)

    The amino and acid groups couple the monomers together

    •  Can make polymers that are 100s or 1000s of amino acids long

    Can Keep adding to the end

    R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

    4 Levels of Structure

    Secondary Structure: Local folding α helix and β sheet

    Primary Structure: Amino acid sequence

    Tertiary Structure: 3-D shape of one polypeptide Quaternary Structure:

    Assembly of several polypeptides to form one functional protein