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Transcript of Degenerate art - resources.saylor.org · F.W. Murnau's Nosferatu (1922), brought Expressionism to...

Degenerate art 1

Degenerate art

- Cover of the exhibition program: Degenerate Art exhibition, 1937. Note the word

"Kunst", meaning art, in scare quotes - Cover of the exhibition program: Degeneratemusic exhibition, Dsseldorf, 1938Degenerate art is the English translation of the German entartete Kunst, a term adopted by the Nazi regime inGermany to describe virtually all modern art. Such art was banned on the grounds that it was un-German or JewishBolshevist in nature, and those identified as degenerate artists were subjected to sanctions. These included beingdismissed from teaching positions, being forbidden to exhibit or to sell their art, and in some cases being forbiddento produce art entirely.Degenerate Art was also the title of an exhibition, mounted by the Nazis in Munich in 1937, consisting of modernistartworks chaotically hung and accompanied by text labels deriding the art. Designed to inflame public opinionagainst modernism, the exhibition subsequently traveled to several other cities in Germany and Austria.While modern styles of art were prohibited, the Nazis promoted paintings and sculptures that were narrowlytraditional in manner and that exalted the "blood and soil" values of racial purity, militarism, and obedience.Similarly, music was expected to be tonal and free of any jazz influences; films and plays were censored.[1]

Reaction against modernismThe early twentieth century was a period of wrenching changes in the arts. In the visual arts, such innovations ascubism, Dada and surrealismfollowing hot on the heels of symbolism, post-Impressionism and Fauvismwerenot universally appreciated. The majority of people in Germany, as elsewhere, did not care for the new art whichmany resented as elitist, morally suspect, and too often incomprehensible.[2]

Under the Weimar government of the 1920s, Germany emerged as a leading center of the avant-gardethebirthplace of Expressionism in painting and sculpture, of the atonal musical compositions of Arnold Schoenberg, andthe jazz-influenced work of Paul Hindemith and Kurt Weill. Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), andF.W. Murnau's Nosferatu (1922), brought Expressionism to cinema.

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Degenerate art 2

A still from The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari

The Nazis viewed the culture of the Weimarperiod with disgust. Their response stemmedpartly from a conservative aesthetic taste,and partly from their determination to useculture as a propaganda tool.[3] On bothcounts, a painting such as Otto Dix's WarCripples (1920) was anathema to them. Itunsparingly depicts four badly disfiguredveterans of the First World War, then afamiliar sight on Berlin's streets, rendered incaricatured style. Featured in theDegenerate Art exhibition, it would hangnext to a label accusing Dixhimself avolunteer in World War Iof "an insult tothe German heroes of the Great War".[4]

As dictator, Hitler gave his personal taste in art the force of law to a degree never before seen. Only in Stalin's SovietUnion, where Socialist Realism was the mandatory style, had a state shown such concern with regulation of thearts.[5] In the case of Germany, the model was to be classical Greek and Roman art, seen by Hitler as an art whoseexterior form embodied an inner racial ideal.[6]

The reason for this, as Henry Grosshans points out, is that Hitler "saw Greek and Roman art as uncontaminated byJewish influences. Modern art was [seen as] an act of aesthetic violence by the Jews against the German spirit. Suchwas true to Hitler even though only Liebermann, Meidner, Freundlich, and Marc Chagall, among those who madesignificant contributions to the German modernist movement, were Jewish. But Hitler [...] took upon himself theresponsibility of deciding who, in matters of culture, thought and acted like a Jew."[7]

The supposedly "Jewish" nature of all art that was indecipherable, distorted, or that represented "depraved" subjectmatter was explained through the concept of degeneracy, which held that distorted and corrupted art was a symptomof an inferior race. By propagating the theory of degeneracy, the Nazis combined their anti-Semitism with their driveto control the culture, thus consolidating public support for both campaigns.[8]

DegeneracyThe term Entartung (or "degeneracy") had gained currency in Germany by the late 19th century when the critic andauthor Max Nordau devised the theory presented in his 1892 book, Entartung.[9] Nordau drew upon the writings ofthe criminologist Cesare Lombroso, whose The Criminal Man, published in 1876, attempted to prove that there were"born criminals" whose atavistic personality traits could be detected by scientifically measuring abnormal physicalcharacteristics. Nordau developed from this premise a critique of modern art, explained as the work of those socorrupted and enfeebled by modern life that they have lost the self-control needed to produce coherent works. Heattacked Aestheticism in English literature and described the mysticism of the Symbolist movement in Frenchliterature as a product of mental pathology. Explaining the painterliness of Impressionism as the sign of a diseasedvisual cortex, he decried modern degeneracy while praising traditional German culture. Despite the fact that Nordauwas Jewish and a key figure in the Zionist movement (Lombroso was also Jewish), his theory of artistic degeneracywould be seized upon by German National Socialists during the Weimar Republic as a rallying point for theiranti-Semitic and racist demand for Aryan purity in art.Belief in a Germanic spiritdefined as mystical, rural, moral, bearing ancient wisdom, and noble in the face of a tragic destinyexisted long before the rise of the Nazis; the composer Richard Wagner celebrated such ideas in his work.[10] Beginning before World War I the well-known German architect and painter Paul Schultze-Naumburg's

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Degenerate art 3

influential writings, which invoked racial theories in condemning modern art and architecture, supplied much of thebasis for Adolf Hitler's belief that classical Greece and the Middle Ages were the true sources of Aryan art.[11]

Schultze-Naumburg subsequently wrote such books as Die Kunst der Deutschen. Ihr Wesen und ihre Werke (The artof the Germans. Its nature and its works) and Kunst und Rasse (Art and Race), the latter published in 1928, in whichhe argued that only racially pure artists could produce a healthy art which upheld timeless ideals of classical beauty,while racially mixed modern artists produced disordered artworks and monstrous depictions of the human form. Byreproducing examples of modern art next to photographs of people with deformities and diseases, he graphicallyreinforced the idea of modernism as a sickness.[12] Alfred Rosenberg developed this theory in Der Mythos des 20.Jahrhunderts (Myth of the Twentieth Century), published in 1933, which became a best-seller in Germany and madeRosenberg the Party's leading ideological spokesman.[13]

Membership in the Nazi Party did not protectEmil Nolde, whose 1912 woodcut The Prophetis shown here, from being proscribed by Hitler.1052 of Nolde's paintings were removed fromGerman museums, more than any other artist

Purge

Hitler's rise to power on January 31, 1933 was quickly followed byactions intended to cleanse the culture of degeneracy: book burningswere organized, artists and musicians were dismissed from teachingpositions, and curators who had shown a partiality to modern art werereplaced by Party members.[14] In September 1933 theReichskulturkammer (Reich Culture Chamber) was established, withJoseph Goebbels, Hitler's Reichminister fr Volksaufklrung undPropaganda (Reich Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda)in charge. Subchambers within the Culture Chamber, representing theindividual arts (music, film, literature, architecture, and the visual arts)were created; these were membership groups consisting of "raciallypure" artists supportive of the Party, or willing to be compliant.Goebbels made it clear: "In future only those who are members of achamber are allowed to be productive in our cultural life. Membership isopen only to those who fulfill the entrance condition. In this way allunwanted and damaging elements have been excluded."[15] By 1935 theReich Culture Chamber had 100,000 members.[16]

Nonetheless there was, during the period 1933-1934, some confusionwithin the Party on the question of Expressionism. Goebbels and some others believed that the forceful works ofsuch artists as Emil Nolde, Ernst Barlach and Erich Heckel exemplified the Nordic spirit; as Goebbels explained,"We National Socialists are not unmodern; we are the carrier of a new modernity, not only in politics and in socialmatters, but also in art and intellectual matters."[17] However, a faction led by Rosenberg despised theExpressionists, leading to a bitter ideological dispute which was settled only in September 1934, when Hitlerdeclared that there would be no place for modernist experimentation in the Reich.[18]

Although books by Franz Kafka could no longer be bought by 1939, works by ideologically suspect authors such asHermann Hesse and Hans Fallada were widely read.[19] Mass culture was less stringently regulated than high culture,possibly because the authorities feared the consequences of too heavy-handed interference in popularentertainment.[20] Thus, until the outbreak of the war, most Hollywood films could be screened, including ItHappened One Night, San Francisco, and Gone with the Wind. While performance of atonal music was banned, theprohibition of jazz was less strictly enforced. Benny Goodman and Django Reinhardt were popular, and leadingBritish and American jazz bands continued to perform in major cities until the war; thereafter, dance bands officiallyplayed "swing" rather than the banned jazz.[21]

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Degenerate art 4

Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the Degenerate Art exhibition, 1937.

Goebbels views the Degenerate Art exhibition

The Entartete Kunst exhibit

By 1937, the concept of degeneracy wasfirmly entrenched in Nazi policy. On June30 of that year Goebbels put Adolf Ziegler,the head of the Reichskammer derBildenden Knste (Reich Chamber ofVisual Art), in charge of a six-mancommission authorized to confiscate frommuseums and art collections throughout theReich, any remaining art deemed modern,degenerate, or subversive. These workswere then to be presented to the public in anexhibit intended to incite further revulsionagainst the "perverse Jewish spirit"penetrating German culture.[22]

Over 5,000 works were seized, including1,052 by Nolde, 759 by Heckel, 639 byErnst Ludwig Kirchner and 508 by MaxBeckmann, as well as smaller numbers ofworks by such artists as AlexanderArchipenko, Marc Chagall, James Ensor,Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso and Vincentvan Gogh.[23] The Entartete Kunst exhibit,featuring over 650 paintings, sculptures,prints, and books from the collections ofthirty two German museums, premiered inMunich on July 19, 1937 and remained onview until November 30 before travelling toeleven other cities in Germany and Austria.

The exhibit was held on the second floor ofa building formerly occupied by the Institute of Archaeology. Viewers had to reach the exhibit by means of a narrowstaircase. The first sculpture was an oversized, theatrical portrait of Jesus, which purposely intimidated viewers asthey literally bumped into it in order to enter. The rooms were made of temporary partitions and deliberately chaoticand overfilled. Pictures were crowded together, sometimes unframed, usually hung by cord.

The first three rooms were grouped thematically. The first room contained works considered demeaning of religion;the second featured works by Jewish artists in particular; the third contained works deemed insulting to the women,soldiers and farmers of Germany. The rest of the exhibit had no particular theme.There were slogans painted on the walls. For example: Insolent mockery of the Divine under Centrist rule Revelation of the Jewish racial soul An insult to German womanhood The idealcretin and whore Deliberate sabotage of national defense German farmersa Yiddish view

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Degenerate art 5

The Jewish longing for the wilderness reveals itselfin Germany the Negro becomes the racial ideal of adegenerate art

Madness becomes method Nature as seen by sick minds Even museum bigwigs called this the "art of the German people"[24]

Speeches of Nazi party leaders contrasted with artist manifestos from various art movements, such as Dada andSurrealism. Next to many paintings were labels indicating how much money a museum spent to acquire the artwork.In the case of paintings acquired during the post-war Weimar hyperinflation of the early 1920s, when the cost of akilo loaf of bread reached 233 billion German marks,[25] the prices of the paintings were of course greatlyexaggerated. The exhibit was designed to promote the idea that modernism was a conspiracy by people who hatedGerman decency, frequently identified as Jewish-Bolshevist, although only six of the 112 artists included in theexhibition were in fact Jewish.[26]

A few weeks after the opening of the exhibition, Goebbels ordered a second and more thorough scouring of Germanart collections; inventory lists indicate that the artworks seized in this second round, combined with those gatheredprior to the exhibition, amounted to some 16,558 works.[27]

Coinciding with the Entartete Kunst exhibition, the Grosse deutsche Kunstausstellung (Great German art exhibition)made its premiere amid much pageantry. This exhibition, held at the palatial Haus der deutschen Kunst (House ofGerman Art), displayed the work of officially approved artists such as Arno Breker and Adolf Wissel. At the end offour months Entartete Kunst had attracted over two million visitors, nearly three and a half times the number thatvisited the nearby Grosse deutsche Kunstausstellung.[28]

A confiscated self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh is auctioned at Gallerie Fisher, Lucerne,in 1939. The winning bid was $US 40.000 by Dr. Frankfurter.[29]

The fate of the artists andtheir work

Avant-garde German artists were nowbranded both enemies of the state and athreat to German culture. Many wentinto exile. Max Beckmann fled toAmsterdam on the opening day of theentartete Kunst exhibit.[30] Max Ernstemigrated to America with theassistance of Peggy Guggenheim.Ernst Ludwig Kirchner committedsuicide in Switzerland in 1938. PaulKlee spent his years in exile inSwitzerland, yet was unable to obtainSwiss citizenship because of his status

as a degenerate artist.

Other artists remained in internal exile. Otto Dix retreated to the countryside to paint unpeopled landscapes in ameticulous style that would not provoke the authorities.[31] The Reichskulturkammer forbade artists such as EdgarEnde and Emil Nolde from purchasing painting materials. Those who remained in Germany were forbidden to workat universities and were subject to surprise raids by the Gestapo in order to ensure that they were not violating theban on producing artwork; Nolde secretly carried on painting, but using only watercolors (so as not to be betrayed bythe telltale odor of oil paint).[32] Although no artists were put to death because of their work, those of Jewish descentwho did not escape from Germany in time were sent to concentration camps.[33]

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Degenerate art 6

After the exhibit, paintings were sorted out for sale and sold in Switzerland at auction; some pieces were acquired bymuseums, others by private collectors. Nazi officials took many for their private use: for example, Hermann Gringtook fourteen valuable pieces, including a Van Gogh and a Czanne. In March, 1939, the Berlin Fire Brigade burnedapproximately 4000 works which had little value on the international market.[34] [35]

A large amount of 'degenerate art' by Picasso, Dal, Ernst, Klee, Lger and Mir was destroyed in a bonfire on thenight of July 27, 1942 in the gardens of the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume in Paris.[36]

After the collapse of Nazi Germany and the invasion of Berlin by the Red Army, some artwork from the exhibit wasfound buried underground. It is unclear how many of these then reappeared in the Hermitage Museum in SaintPetersburg where they still remain. The story of how these paintings survived is not documented in public.In 2010, as work began to extend an underground line from Alexanderplatz through the historic city centre to theBrandenburg Gate, a number of sculptures from the degenerate art exhibition were unearthed in the cellar of aprivate house close to the "Rote Rathaus". These included, for example, the bronze cubist style statue of a femaledancer by the artist Marg Moll, and are now on display at the Neues Museum.[37] [38] [39] [40]

Artists in the 1937 Munich show

Jankel Adler Max Ernst Wassily Kandinsky Emil Nolde Ernst Barlach Hans Feibusch Hanns Katz Otto Pankok Rudolf Bauer Lyonel Feininger Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Max Pechstein Philipp Bauknecht Conrad Felixmller Paul Klee Max Peiffer-Watenphul Otto Baum Otto Freundlich Cesar Klein Hans Purrmann Willi Baumeister Xaver Fuhr Paul Kleinschmidt Max Rauh Herbert Bayer Ludwig Gies Oskar Kokoschka Hans Richter Max Beckmann Werner Gilles Otto Lange Emy Rder Rudolf Belling Otto Gleichmann Wilhelm Lehmbruck Christian Rohlfs Paul Bindel Rudolph Grossmann El Lissitzky Edwin Scharff Theo Brn George Grosz Oskar Lthy Oskar Schlemmer Max Burchartz Hans Grundig Franz Marc Rudolf Schlichter Fritz Burger-Mhlfeld Rudolf Haizmann Gerhard Marcks Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Paul Camenisch Raoul Hausmann Ewald Matar Werner Scholz Heinrich Campendonk Guido Hebert Ludwig Meidner Lothar Schreyer Karl Caspar Erich Heckel Jean Metzinger Otto Schubert Maria Caspar-Filser Wilhelm Heckrott Constantin von Mitschke-Collande Kurt Schwitters Pol Cassel Jacoba van Heemskerck Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Lasar Segall Marc Chagall Hans Siebert von Heister Margarethe (Marg) Moll Friedrich Skade Lovis Corinth Oswald Herzog Oskar Moll Friedrich (Fritz) Stuckenberg Heinrich Maria Davringhausen Werner Heuser Johannes Molzahn Paul Thalheimer Walter Dexel Heinrich Hoerle Piet Mondrian Johannes Tietz Johannes Diesner Karl Hofer Georg Muche Arnold Topp Otto Dix Eugen Hoffmann Otto Mueller Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart Pranas Domaitis Johannes Itten Erich(?) Nagel Karl Vlker Hans Christoph Drexel Alexej von Jawlensky Heinrich Nauen Christoph Voll Johannes Driesch Eric Johanson Ernst Wilhelm Nay William Wauer Heinrich Eberhard Hans Jrgen Kallmann Karel Niestrath Gert Heinrich Wollheim

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hermann_G%C3%B6ringhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vincent_van_Goghhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_C%C3%A9zannehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pablo_Picassohttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salvador_Dal%C3%ADhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joan_Mir%C3%B3http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Galerie_nationale_du_Jeu_de_Paumehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parishttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Red_Armyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hermitage_Museumhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saint_Petersburghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saint_Petersburghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Underground_railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexanderplatzhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brandenburg_Gatehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bronzehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cubisthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neues_Museumhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jankel_Adlerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Ernsthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wassily_Kandinskyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Emil_Noldehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Barlachhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Feibuschhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanns_Katzhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Pankokhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rudolf_Bauer_%28artist%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lyonel_Feiningerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Ludwig_Kirchnerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Pechsteinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philipp_Bauknechthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Conrad_Felixm%C3%BCllerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_Kleehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Peiffer-Watenphulhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Baum_%28artist%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Freundlichhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cesar_Kleinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Purrmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Willi_Baumeisterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xaver_Fuhrhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_Kleinschmidthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Rauhhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Herbert_Bayerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ludwig_Gieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oskar_Kokoschkahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Richter_%28artist%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Beckmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Werner_Gilleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Langehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Emy_R%C3%B6derhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rudolf_Bellinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Gleichmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wilhelm_Lehmbruckhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Christian_Rohlfshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_Bindelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rudolph_Grossmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=El_Lissitzkyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edwin_Scharffhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Theo_Br%C3%BCnhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Groszhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oskar_L%C3%BCthyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oskar_Schlemmerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Burchartzhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Grundighttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Franz_Marchttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rudolf_Schlichterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fritz_Burger-M%C3%BChlfeldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rudolf_Haizmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gerhard_Marckshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Karl_Schmidt-Rottluffhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_Camenischhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Raoul_Hausmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ewald_Matar%C3%A9http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Werner_Scholzhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heinrich_Campendonkhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guido_Heberthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ludwig_Meidnerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lothar_Schreyerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Karl_Casparhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erich_Heckelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jean_Metzingerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Schuberthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maria_Caspar-Filserhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wilhelm_Heckrotthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constantin_von_Mitschke-Collandehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kurt_Schwittershttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pol_Casselhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jacoba_van_Heemskerckhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Laszlo_Moholy-Nagyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lasar_Segallhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marc_Chagallhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Siebert_von_Heisterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Margarethe_%28Marg%29_Mollhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Skadehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lovis_Corinthhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oswald_Herzoghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oskar_Mollhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_%28Fritz%29_Stuckenberghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heinrich_Maria_Davringhausenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Werner_Heuserhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johannes_Molzahnhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_Thalheimerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Walter_Dexelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heinrich_Hoerlehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Piet_Mondrianhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johannes_Tietzhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johannes_Diesnerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Karl_Hoferhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg_Muchehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arnold_Topphttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Dixhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugen_Hoffmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Muellerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Vordemberge-Gildewarthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pranas_Dom%C5%A1aitishttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johannes_Ittenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erich_Nagelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Karl_V%C3%B6lkerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Christoph_Drexelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexej_von_Jawlenskyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heinrich_Nauenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Christoph_Vollhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johannes_Drieschhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eric_Johansonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Wilhelm_Nayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Wauerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heinrich_Eberhardhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_J%C3%BCrgen_Kallmannhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Karel_Niestrathhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gert_Heinrich_Wollheim

Degenerate art 7

Artistic movements condemned as degenerate

Bauhaus Cubism Dada Expressionism

Fauvism Impressionism New Objectivity Surrealism

ReferencesNotes[1] "The Collection | Entartete Kunst" (http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ theme. php?theme_id=10077). MoMA. . Retrieved 2010-08-12.[2] Adam 1992, p. 29[3] Adam 1992, p. 110[4] Barron 1991, p.54[5] Barron 1991, p.10[6] Grosshans 1983, p. 87[7] Grosshans 1983, p. 86[8] Barron 1991, p.83[9] Barron 1991, p.26[10] Adam 1992, pp.23-24[11] Adam 1992, pp. 29-32.[12] Grosshans 1983, p. 9. Grosshans calls Schultze-Naumburg "[u]ndoubtedly the most important" of the era's German critics of modernism.[13] Adam 1992, p. 33[14] Adam 1992, p.52[15] Adam 1992, p.53[16] Adam 1992, p. 53[17] Adam 1992, p.56[18] Grosshans 1983, p. 73-74[19] Laqueur 1996, p. 74.[20] Laqueur 1996, p. 73.[21] Laqueur 1996, pp. 73-5.[22] Adam 1992, p.123, quoting Goebbels, November 26, 1937, in Von der Grossmacht zur Weltmacht.[23] Adam 1992, pp. 121-122[24] Barron 1991, p.46[25] Evans 2004, p. 106.[26] Barron 1991, p.9.[27] Barron 1991, pp.47-48[28] Adam 1992, pp.124-125[29] Hammerstingl, Werner (1998). "Entartete Kunst" (http:/ / www. olinda. com/ ArtAndIdeas/ lectures/ ArtWeDontLike/ entarteteKunst. htm),

olinda.com. Retrieved December 31, 2007.[30] Schulz-Hoffmann and Weiss 1984, p. 461[31] Karcher 1988, p. 206[32] Bradley 1986, p. 115.[33] Petropoulos 2000, p. 217.[34] Grosshans 1983, p. 113[35] "Entartete Kunst" (http:/ / www. olinda. com/ ArtAndIdeas/ lectures/ ArtWeDontLike/ entarteteKunst. htm). Olinda.com. 1937-07-19. .

Retrieved 2010-08-12.[36] Hellman, Mallory, Let's Go Paris, page 84[37] Hickley, Catherine (1946-09-27). "Degenerate Art Unearthed From Berlin Bomb Rubble" (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ news/

2010-11-08/ -degenerate-sculptures-unearthed-from-bomb-rubble-put-on-show-in-berlin. html). Bloomberg. . Retrieved 2010-11-10.[38] "Rescued pre-WWII 'degenerate art' on display in the Neues Museum in Berlin" (http:/ / www. nydailynews. com/ lifestyle/ 2010/ 11/ 09/

2010-11-09_rescued_prewwii_degenerate_art_on_display_in_the_neues_museum_in_berlin. html). Nydailynews.com. . Retrieved2010-11-10.

[39] (AP) (2010-11-08). "Art believed destroyed by Nazis found in Berlin" (http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ ap/ article/ALeqM5iGppXUlEiOYSr2lNWBJGuUXBakcw?docId=d67bb2f5db774d528cea58e203221cb1). The Associated Press. . Retrieved2010-11-10.

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bauhaushttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cubismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dadahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Expressionismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fauvismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Impressionismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Objectivityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Surrealismhttp://www.moma.org/collection/theme.php?theme_id=10077http://www.olinda.com/ArtAndIdeas/lectures/ArtWeDontLike/entarteteKunst.htmhttp://www.olinda.com/ArtAndIdeas/lectures/ArtWeDontLike/entarteteKunst.htmhttp://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-08/-degenerate-sculptures-unearthed-from-bomb-rubble-put-on-show-in-berlin.htmlhttp://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-08/-degenerate-sculptures-unearthed-from-bomb-rubble-put-on-show-in-berlin.htmlhttp://www.nydailynews.com/lifestyle/2010/11/09/2010-11-09_rescued_prewwii_degenerate_art_on_display_in_the_neues_museum_in_berlin.htmlhttp://www.nydailynews.com/lifestyle/2010/11/09/2010-11-09_rescued_prewwii_degenerate_art_on_display_in_the_neues_museum_in_berlin.htmlhttp://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5iGppXUlEiOYSr2lNWBJGuUXBakcw?docId=d67bb2f5db774d528cea58e203221cb1http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5iGppXUlEiOYSr2lNWBJGuUXBakcw?docId=d67bb2f5db774d528cea58e203221cb1

Degenerate art 8

[40] Charles Hawley (11/08/2010). "Nazi Degenerate Art Rediscovered in Berlin" (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ zeitgeist/0,1518,727971,00. html). Der Spiegel. .

Bibliography Adam, Peter (1992). Art of the Third Reich. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.. ISBN 0-8109-1912-5 Barron, Stephanie, ed. (1991). 'Degenerate Art:' The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. New York: Harry

N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-3653-4 Bradley, W. S. (1986). Emil Nolde and German expressionism: A prophet in his own land Ann Arbor, Mich: UMI

Research Press. ISBN 0835717003 Evans, R. J. (2004). The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: The Penguin Press. ISBN 1594200041 Grosshans, Henry (1983). Hitler and the Artists. New York: Holmes & Meyer. ISBN 0-8419-0746-3 Grosshans, Henry (1993). Hitler and the Artists. New York: Holmes & Meyer. ISBN 0-8109-3653-4 Karcher, Eva (1988). Otto Dix 1891-1969: His Life and Works. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen. OCLC21265198 Laqueur, Walter (1996). Fascism: Past, Present, Future. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN

0-19-509245-7 Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut (1973). Art Under a Dictatorship. New York: Oxford University Press. Minnion, John (2nd edition 2005). Hitler's List: an Illustrated Guide to 'Degenerates' . Liverpool: Checkmate

Books. ISBN 0-9544499-2-4 Nordau, Max (1998). Degeneration, introduction by George L. Mosse. New York: Howard Fertig. ISBN

0-8032-8367-9 Petropoulos, Jonathan (2000). The Faustian Bargain: the Art World in Nazi Germany. New York, N.Y.: Oxford

University Press. ISBN 0195129644 Rose, Carol Washton Long (1995). Documents from the End of the Wilhemine Empire to the Rise of National

Socialism. San Francisco: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20264-3 Schulz-Hoffmann, Carla; Weiss, Judith C. (1984). Max Beckmann: Retrospective. Munich: Prestel. ISBN

0-393-01937-3 Suslav, Vitaly (1994). The State Hermitage: Masterpieces from the Museum's Collections vol. 2 Western

European Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 1-873968-03-5

External links Original Source 1937/1938, Gothic type, including pictures, 32 pp. (http:/ / kunst. gymszbad. de/

nationalsozialismus/ entartet/ schandausstellungen/ katalog_1937/ faksimilekatalog_1937. htm) the same, but Latin type, without pictures (http:/ / www. netzplan. info/ download-area/ entart. pdf) "Degenerate Art" (http:/ / fcit. coedu. usf. edu/ holocaust/ arts/ artDegen. htm), A Teacher's Guide to the

Holocaust Nazis Looted Europe's Great Art (http:/ / www. crimelibrary. com/ gangsters_outlaws/ gang/ stolen_art/ 2.

html?sect=25) State Hermitage Museum, Russia (http:/ / www. hermitage. museum. ru/ ) How Greatest War in history became a war for history (http:/ / www. greatesttheft. com) Entartete Kunst website (http:/ / mason. gmu. edu/ ~mhobbs/ entartetekunst/ index. htm) Sensational Find in a Bombed-Out Cellar (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ fotostrecke/ fotostrecke-61436. html) -

slideshow by Der Spiegel "Entartete Kunst: Degenerate Art" (http:/ / cla. calpoly. edu/ ~mriedlsp/ History437/ Art/ Entartete Kunst. htm),

notes and a supplement to the film

http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,727971,00.htmlhttp://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,727971,00.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_N._Abrams%2C_Inc.http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oxford_University_Presshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jonathan_Petropouloshttp://kunst.gymszbad.de/nationalsozialismus/entartet/schandausstellungen/katalog_1937/faksimilekatalog_1937.htmhttp://kunst.gymszbad.de/nationalsozialismus/entartet/schandausstellungen/katalog_1937/faksimilekatalog_1937.htmhttp://www.netzplan.info/download-area/entart.pdfhttp://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/artDegen.htmhttp://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/stolen_art/2.html?sect=25http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/stolen_art/2.html?sect=25http://www.hermitage.museum.ru/http://www.greatesttheft.comhttp://mason.gmu.edu/~mhobbs/entartetekunst/index.htmhttp://www.spiegel.de/fotostrecke/fotostrecke-61436.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Der_Spiegelhttp://cla.calpoly.edu/~mriedlsp/History437/Art/Entartete%20Kunst.htm

Article Sources and Contributors 9

Article Sources and ContributorsDegenerate art Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425556820 Contributors: 1717, 777sms, Accotink2, Al Lemos, Alisonsage, Artegis, Beyond My Ken, Bjrn som tegner,C6541, CALR, Camembert, Cethegus, Chl, Chris 73, Clockwrist, DJ Clayworth, DanielRigal, Darobsta, David Warner, Demiurge1000, Deville, Didactohedron, Eastlaw, Ebobbie, Eisbaer4419,Ellywa, Eloquence, Etxrge, Ewulp, EyeSerene, Filpaul, Ghirlandajo, Gilliam, Gogafax, Gonzalo84, Hede2000, Hemlock Martinis, HiDrNick, Hmains, Hobbsmr, Iameukarya, Ihcoyc, Interslice,J.delanoy, JLaTondre, Jayn boyd, Jmabel, Jonathunder, K. Lastochka, KConWiki, KTo288, Kbdank71, Kelisi, King of Hearts, Kingdon, Kob zilla, Konstable, ML, Macrakis, Man vyi, Mandarax,Mattabat, Mcginnly, MegX, Megalopsychia, Michaelmas1957, Mingaling, Miq, Mistico, Mjpotter, Mkweise, Modernist, Nabokov, Nathan, Ncik, Neddyseagoon, Ninjakiyoko, Novickas, Patrick,Paul Barlow, Petri Krohn, Picander, Pink!Teen, Plrk, R'n'B, Redroach, Redthoreau, Rich Farmbrough, Roscelese, Russavia, Saintswithin, Sam Hocevar, Shirik, Snoyes, Son of More, Spajini,Sparkit, Spotharaju, Spring Rubber, Stan J Klimas, Stevertigo, Sugar Bear, Tazmaniacs, Tbhotch, The Anome, Throbbinghotrod, Trevyn, Tyrenius, Vanished188, Wayland, Woohookitty,XavierTheGreat, Xdenizen, Ziggurat, Zoicon5, Zosodada, 109 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and ContributorsImage:EntarteteKunst.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EntarteteKunst.jpg License: Fair Use Contributors: DanielRigal, LilHelpa, 2 anonymous editsImage:Entartete musik poster.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Entartete_musik_poster.jpg License: Fair Use Contributors: Bender235, KonstableFile:CABINET DES DR CALIGARI 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CABINET_DES_DR_CALIGARI_01.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Robert Wiene,director, died 1938; Rudolf Meinert, producer, died 1943; Erich Pommer, producer, died 1966; Hans Janowitz, writer, died 1954; Carl Mayer, writer, died 1944; Willy Hameister,Cinematographer, died 1938;File:'The Prophet', woodcut by Emil Nolde, 1912.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'The_Prophet',_woodcut_by_Emil_Nolde,_1912.jpg License: unknownContributors: Mechamind90, Melesse, OfOrebOrOfSinai, Petropoxy (Lithoderm Proxy), WmpearlImage:Degenerate-Hitler-Ziegler.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Degenerate-Hitler-Ziegler.jpg License: unknown Contributors: TyreniusImage:Ausstellung entartete kunst 1937.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ausstellung_entartete_kunst_1937.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike3.0 Germany Contributors: Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-H02648,_Mnchen,_Goebbels_im_Haus_der_Deutschen_Kunst.jpg: derivative work: Emma7stern (talk)Image:Degenerate-Auction.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Degenerate-Auction.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Tyrenius

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Degenerate artReaction against modernismDegeneracyPurgeThe Entartete Kunst exhibitThe fate of the artists and their workArtists in the 1937 Munich showArtistic movements condemned as degenerateReferencesExternal links

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