Crime & Punishment - Punishment

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18th Century Material Culture Punishment

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Punishment

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18th Century Material Culture Punishment

Prisons

Design for a Stage Set: the Interior of a Prison School of Francesco Gallil-Bibiena "Bibiena invenit" c. 1674 - 1739

(The British Museum)

Sarah Macholm in Prisonby William Hogarth 1733

(National Galleries of Scotland)

The Captive, from Sterneby John Wright of Derby c. 1774

The Captiveby John Raphael Smith after George Carter 1775

(The British Museum)

Small Prison Sceneby John Wright of Derby c. 1787

Prison Sceneby Francisco Goya 18th Century

London Gaol by Hosmer Shepherd 18th Century

An English Prisonby Anonymous 18th Century

(City of London Archives)

Unknown

A Prison SceneAttributed to Paul Sandby

(Royal Collection)

York, from without Castlegate postern; View on the River Ouse, including York Minster, Clifford's Tower, York Castle and the Prison, tower of St Michael's, spire of All Saints', the Ouse Bridge with the Council Chamber, and the tower of St Martins Coney St, with men fishing and figures drying linen by Francis Place c. 1647 - 1728

(The British Museum)

Derby Prison

A Scene from “The Begger’s Opera” , a Ballad in Three Acts by John Grayby William Hogarth c. 1728

“The Begger’s Opera”by William Blake, John Boydell, Published by Josiah Boydell 1790

(The British Museum)

Unknown

“John Howard Esq. Visiting and Relieving the Miseries of a Prison”by James Hogg, Thomas Simpson after Francis Wheatley c. 1790

(The British Museum)

“AMELIA Surprising her Husband and Miss Matthews as they are leaving the Prison”by Robert Laurie, Published by Robert Sayer after Henry Singleton 1790

(The British Museum)

Bronze Ticket for the Dublin Musical Society“I. WAS. IN. PRISON. AND. YE. CAME. UNTO. ME”

“PAUL - HALE”Cimon Nursed by his Daughter, Pero

18th Century(The British Museum)

Bronze Ticket for the Dublin Musical Society“I. WAS. IN. PRISON. AND. YE. CAME. UNTO. ME”

“ SR BOOTH GORE”Cimon Nursed by his Daughter, Pero

18th Century(The British Museum)

Bronze Ticket for the Dublin Musical Society“I. WAS. IN. PRISON. AND. YE. CAME. UNTO. ME”

“ MR ABR FULLER M”Cimon Nursed by his Daughter, Pero

18th Century(The British Museum)

Bronze Ticket for the Dublin Musical Society“I. WAS. IN. PRISON. AND. YE. CAME. UNTO. ME”

“ NICHOLAS COYNE ESQR”Cimon Nursed by his Daughter, Pero

18th Century(The British Museum)

Cimon Nursed by his Daughter, Peroby Jonas Umbach c. 1645 - 1700

(The British Museum)

by Johann Wilhelm Meil c. 1790(The British Museum)

Recreated Prison Cell - Mental Ward Cell(Colonial Williamsburg)

London Prison (Neal Hurst Photograph)

“Messrs P- and F- obtaining their Freedom”1784

(The British Museum)

The Bastille

Vue de la Bastille de Paris, de la Porte Saint-Antoine, et d'une partie du Fauxbourg”by Jacques Rigaud c. 1696 - 1754

(The British Museum)

BridewellPrison

William Hogarth - The Harlot’s Progress 1732Moll Hackabout in Bridewell Prison Beating Hemp for the Hangman’s Noose

“Debtor’s”Prison

Debtor’s Prison CourtyardUnknown Artist 18th Century

EssexGaol

“Elevation of a Design for a new Gaol for the County of Essex”by Robert Baldwin c. 1760 - 1800

(The British Museum)

Fleet PrisonLondon

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

Fleet Prisonfrom Moses Pitt “The Cry of the Oppressed” 1691

(Guildhall Library)

The Gaols Committee of the House of CommonsWarden Thomas Bembridge (Standing Far Left) on Trial for Murder Being Questioned by James Oglethorpe

by William Hogarth(National Portrait Gallery)

English Prison SceneWilliam Hogarth’s “A Rake’s Progress” 1735

English Prison SceneWilliam Hogarth’s “A Rake’s Progress” 1735

(Lewis Walpole Library)

English Prison SceneWilliam Hogarth’s “A Rake’s Progress” Printed 1768

(Fisher Collection)

“Debtor’s Welcome to their Brother”by G. Blickham c. 1740(Lewis Walpole Library)

“Debtor’s Welcome to their Brother”by G. Blickham c. 1740(Lewis Walpole Library)

“THE HUMOURS OF THE FLEET” (Fleet Prison)by Carington Bowles c. 1763

(Lewis Walpole Library)

A View of the Fleet Prisonby Anonymous c. 1780 - 1820

(The British Museum)

An illustration to Smollett's “Peregrine Pickle”, for the “Novelist's Magazine”Plate VIII; Hatchway and Pipes visit Peregrine in Fleet Prison

by William Waker after Thomas Stothard, Published by Harrison & Co. 1781(The British Museum)

Ludgate

LUD - GATEc. 1740 - 1760

(The British Museum)

Newgate PrisonLondon

Newgate Prisonby Richard Gaywood c. 1650

(The British Museum)

NEWGATE(The British Museum)

Newgate Prisonby Anonymous c. 1752 - 1770

(The British Museum)

The Windmill fixed on Newgate to work the Ventilators erected there April 17 1752by Anonymous 1752

(The British Museum)

“Front of New Newgate” "Published according to Act of Parliament, March 6th 1772"

Elevation of the front of the new prison, as it appeared before it was rebuilt following the 1780 riot; part of a larger plate with a further view of the New River Office;

illustration to Maitland's 'The History of London'. 1772(The British Museum)

Elevation of the west front of the new Newgate Prison, as designed by George Dance. 1782With dedication to Sir Robert Ladbroke and the "Committee appointed to Rebuild the Gaol of Newgate" from George

Dance, and below image to right "R. Baldwin sculp"(The British Museum)

Newgate Prisonby N. Thomas c. 1782 - 1800

(The British Museum)

“View of Surgeons Hall Old BaileyNext to Newgate Prison

by Anonymous c. 1761(The British Museum)

“View of New Sessions House Old Bailey”Front of the new building for the Central Criminal Court, on Newgate Street, next to Newgate Prison

by Anonymous 1748(The British Museum)

“Back premises of the Keepers Compartment &c. in Newgate Prison, now destroy'd”by Anonymous c. 1800(The British Museum)

“A Perspective View of the temporary Gallows in the Old Bailey”by Anonymous 1794

(The British Museum)

View of the inside of Newgateby Nuttall, Fisher & Co. 1809

(The British Museum)

Robert Smith, George Tankerfield & their Fellow Prisoners, conferring together in Newgateby Thomas Bowles II c. 1710 - 1767

(The British Museum)

“A new Tenant for the old Room”'M. Myddleton discharged from Newgate Mr Paxton committed the same day 24 Feby 1742'

by Thomas Kitchin c. 1742(The British Museum)

“The Solicitor COMMITTED, or the Dumb Screen.”A Satire on Nicholas Paxton, Solicitor to the Treasurey, and His Refusal to Answer Question on the Conduct of Robert Walpole

by Anonymous c. 1742(The British Museum)

“Newgate’s Lamentation, or, The Lady’s last farewell to Maclean”London 1750

(Lewis Walpole Library)

“Noscitur ex naso. Nosee Nosee”Holding a Paper Inscribed “Newgate Contract”

by Anonymous c. 1780(The British Museum)

“To the Glory of Colonel Don Francisco, upon his delivery out of Goal”by Anonymous 1730

(The British Museum)

Mrs. Margare Caroline Ruddby John Villette From the Annals of Newgate; or Malefactors Register 1776

(Wellcome Library)

“The British Patriot's Procession through London, and Westminster, Amidst the shouts & Acclamations, of all tru Friends to Freedom & Liberty”

by Anonymous 1751(The British Museum)

“The British Patriot's Procession through London, and Westminster, Amidst the shouts & Acclamations, of all tru Friends to Freedom & Liberty”

by Anonymous 1751(The British Museum)

'The Honble. Alex Murray Esqr. who by an Order of ye House of Commons, had been committed a close Prisoner to Newgate on the 6th. Feb. 1750 [corrected to 1751]

was on the 25 of June 1751, deliverd ... let him keep possession of his Chains as the most suitable Ornament for so degenerate a Member of a free Country'

and 'Brutus had rather be a Villager / Than to repute himself a Son of Rome / Under such hard conditions, as this time / is like to lay upon us. / I had rather be a

Dog and bay the Moon / Than such a Roman'.

Plan of the Watchman Posts at the Time of the Gordon Riots1780

(City of London)

Royal Proclamation Against the Rioters(Gordon Riots) June 5, 1780

(City of London)

“An exact representation of the Burning, Plundering and Destruction of Newgate by the rioters, on the memorable 7th of June 1780”

by Fielding & Walkder, P. Mitchell after Jeffryes Harnett O’neale 1781(The British Museum)

“The Burning & Plundering of NEWGATE & Setting the Felons at Liberty by the Mob.”Published July 1780

(City of London)

“The Devastations occasioned by the RIOTERS of LONDON Firing the New Goal of NEWGATEand burning MR. Akerman’s Furniture &c. June 7, 1780”

(City of London)

“The Devastations occasioned by the Rioters of London firing the New Goal of Newgate and burning Mr Akerman's Furniture &c June 6. 1780”

by T. Thormton after William Hamilton 1780(The British Museum)

“A FLEET of TRANSPORTS under CONVOY” Showing Newgate Prison in the Backgroundby Carington Bowles after Robert Dighton 1781

(The British Museum)

“A FLEET of TRANSPORTS under CONVOY” Showing Newgate Prison in the Backgroundby Carington Bowles after Robert Dighton 1781

(Lewis Walpole Library)

“PRISONERS stopping at the Baptist's Head in St John's Lane, on the day of removal from the New Prison to Newgate”

by T. Smith after Daniel Dodd c. 1780(The British Museum) B

“PRISONERS stopping at the Baptist's Head in St John's Lane, on the day of removal from the New Prison to Newgate”

by T. Smith after Daniel Dodd c. 1780(The British Museum) B

Reformation began in Denbighshire Anno 1741by Anonymous 1742

(The British Museum)

'Newgate Febry 24th 1741. / Reced. the Body of Willm, M - n Esqr. the High Sheriff of the County of Den - gh by the hand of Mr. Tho. Hollingshead Messinger to the Honble,, the House of Commons, by vertue of a Warrant from the Right Honourable the Speaker of the Said House. / Tho Bold Keeper / Publish'd

according to Act of Parliament by T. B. Feb: 27th. 1741.'.

Reformation began in Denbighshire Anno 1741by Anonymous 1742

(The British Museum)

The Notorious Jack Shepherd in Newgate PrisonLegendary 18th Century Robber & Highwayman

John Sheppardby Thomas Bowles 1724(The British Museum)

Jack Sheppard in the Stone Room at NewgateEngraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

Newgate Prison Courtyardby John Claude Nattes (1762 - 1822)

(Bolton Museum)

Newgate Prison Condor Token Half Penny dated MDCCXCIV '1794"

Newgate Prison Condor Token Half Penny dated MDCCXCIV '1794"

Newgate Prison Condor Token Half Penny dated MDCCXCIV '1794"

The 'Weekly Journal of 12 December 1724:

“This Day is published, A Print in Mezzotinto, of JOHN SHEPPARD, after the Original, taken by Sir James Thornhill. Done by G.White, and sold by T.Bowles in St.Paul's Church-Yard, J.Bowles against Stocks-Market, George White in Hart-Street, between the Church and Bloomsbury-Market, and the Printsellers of London and Westminster. Price 1s.”

Sir James Thornhill visited Sheppard at Newgate Prison in November 1724 (Weekly Journal, 14 November 1724). This verse was published by the British Journal of 28 November 1724:

'To Sir James Thornhill, on his Picture of John Sheppard

Sheppard is now secur'd at last:Thornhill has fix'd the Felon fast.Oft tho' he loos'd himself before,

The slippery Rogue escapes no more.

Thornhill, 'tis thine to gild with FameTh'obscure, and raise the humble Name,

To make the Form elude the Grave,And Sheppard from Oblivion save.

Tho' Life in vain the Wretch imploresAn Exile on the farthest Shores,

Thy Pencil brings a kind Reprieve,And bids the dying Robber live.

This Piece to latest Time shall stand,And shew the Wonders of thy Hand.

Thus former Masters grac'd their Name,And gave egregious Robbers Fame.

Apelles Alexander drew,Cesar is to Arellius due,

Cromwell in Lely's Work doth shine,And Sheppard, Thornhill, lives in thine.

Thous, that to Churches dost impart,And Hospitals, thy matchless Art;Let Prisons too thy Bounty share,

And Newgate boast thy Sheppard there.

Still to behold him Crowds shall sue:But hide from Homicides the View,

Lest fired by his daring Soul,They loose their Chains, and break the Gaol.'

A GANG OF MEN AND WOMEN TRANSPORTS BEING MARCHED FROM NEWGATE TO BLACKFRIARSChained neck to neck and hand to hand these wretches were led through the streets to Blackfriars Stairs, where they were taken aboard a

barge and carried down the river to the vessel which was to transport them to America.Engraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

John Sheppard escaping from Newgate ‘Tyburn Chronicle', Vol II, p.97.by Samuel Wale c. 1730 - 1786

(The British Museum)

The Imprisonment of Eliza Frances Robertson"Pray remember poor debtors!"

The Condemned Jonathan Wild in his Cell at Newgate Prison

Joseph Blake Attempting the Life of Jonathan WildEngraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

Jonathan Wild Pelted by the Mob on His Way to TyburnEngraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

William Spiggott under pressure in Newgate for not pleading to his indictmentby Samuel Wale c. 1730 - 1786

(The British Museum)

William Spiggott under pressure in Newgate for not pleading to his indictmentby Samuel Wale c. 1730 - 1786

(The British Museum)

“PLOT against PLOT, with the DEVIL, among the TAYLORS.”by Anonymous after Jefferys Hamett O’Neale c. 1763

(The British Museum)

“IN OFFICE” “OUT OF OFFICE”'Commit him to Newgate! Own Sentiments! - Government must be supported! Necessity!'

by Thomas Rowlandson 1784(The British Museum)

New-Gate PrisonGranby, Connecticut

“New-Gate” Prison in Granby, ConnecticutNamed after the Famed Newgate Prison in England

“New-Gate” Prison in Granby, ConnecticutNamed after the Famed Newgate Prison in England

“New-Gate” Prison in Granby, ConnecticutNamed after the Famed Newgate Prison in England

“New-Gate” Prison in Granby, ConnecticutNamed after the Famed Newgate Prison in England

The Tower of

London

A Plan of the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

16th Century Graffiti at the Tower of London

“WAARE AFBEELDING VAN Lord GEORGE FORDON, BEOLGT NA HET ECHTE POURET”c. 1780 - 1781

(The British Museum)

Constraints

18th Century Prison Cell Keys(The National Law Enforcement Museum, Washington, D.C.)

Brass Serf’s CollarFound in the River Forth in Sterling

1701Inscribed

ALEXR. STEUART FOUND GUILTY OF DEATH (Museum of Scotland)

Witch’s Collar17th Century

(National Museums of Scotland)

Joug’s or Witch’s CollarFrom the Old Church of Clova, Angus (Scotland)

Late 17th to 18th Century(Museum of Scotland)

18th Century Locks(Fort Ticonderoga)

Iron Foot Shackles with Rod18th Century

(Musée d’Aquitaine)

Ball & Chain Shackle Found in the Banks of the Thames River17th - 18th Century

(Museum of London)

Ball & Chain Shackle Found in the Banks of the Thames River17th - 18th Century

(Museum of London)

Shackle18th Century

(Musée d’Aquitaine)

Shackle18th Century

Shackle18th Century

Shackle18th Century

Shackles18th Century

(International Slavery Museum)

The Stocks

“Mr. Philpot conferring with Mr. Whittle in the Stocks”c. 1710 - 1767

(The British Museum)

“Hudibras in Tribulation”by Wm. Hogarth inven. et sculp. c. 1726

(Lewis Walpole Library)

Flogging

Flogging of a Woman for AdulteryCarl von Carlsberg or: On Human Misery (vol. 1, 1784) by Christian Gotthilf Salzmann

Execution

Woodcut from the Execution and Resuscitation of Anne Green Convicted of Murdering Her Bastard Child and Hiding its Corpse in the House of Her Employer

Castle Yard, Oxford1651

“The Manner of Execution at Tyburn”

A Condemned Man Drawn on a Sled to TyburnEngraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

"The IDLE PRENTICE Executed at Tyburn,"by William Hogarth 1747

“ENGLAND”S ROYAL PATTERN or the Execution of KING CHARLES ye 1st Jany 30”by Anonymous c. 1750(The British Museum)

Margaret Dickson arising from her Coffin near Edinburgh, as She was being taken from the Place of Executionc. 1730 - 1786

(The British Museum)

Margaret Dickson arising from her Coffin near Edinburgh, as She was being taken from the Place of Executionc. 1730 - 1786

(The British Museum)

“THE STRATAGEM” / “I Suspected there was foul Play -- Shakespeare” Reference to the Perreau Brothers Hanged for Forgery in 1776 by Anonymous c. 1775 - 1776

(Lewis Walpole Library)

The Hangman Arrested When Attending John Meff to TyburnEngraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

Stephen Gardiner Making His Dying Speach at TyburnEngraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

“Murder in the Carriage” (Probably a Design for The Tyburn Chronicle) by Samuel Wale, (1721 - 1786)(Yale Center for British Art(

The Hanging of John Perrott at Smithfield for Fraudulent Bankruptcy1761

An Execution in Smithfield MarketEngraving from The Annals of Newgate (1776), by John Villette

“To THE PUBLIC”

“The Ordinary of Newgate’s Account...”

“The Idle Prentice Executed at Tyburn”William Hogarth

Thomas Turlis, London Executioner from 1752 - 1771

Acknowledgements

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