Container Cargo

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Cargo Work Container CargoSea Containers were invented in the mid 1950s by Malcolm McLean, a North Carolina trucking owner who grew tired of wasting his trucking companys time with trucks standing idle in line as ships were unloaded bit by bit by dockworkers. McLean developed sealed truck trailers and the concept of loading and unloading the trailer interiors only at the points of origin and destination. The first ship modified to accept these containers on deck, sailed with 58 of them from New York to Houston in April 1956. This was the start of McLeans company, the Sea-Land Corporation. The Matson Line (Hawaii) put the first fully containerized ship into service in 1960. The International Standards Organization (ISO) first established container standards in 1961. The ISO standard is not prescriptive and instead simply stipulates tests that the containers must pass. Modern container ships have only one problem when the ship arrives in port, the object is to unload the containers quickly to get them on to their final destination and to get the container ships back out to sea fully loaded heading for the next port. To accomplish this, container ships are equipped with steel skeletons called cell guides. A special lifting fixture is used with remote actuators, which engage the corner blocks on the top of the container. A recent survey indicates that port crane operators can execute full crane cycles to remove and position containers at rates of between 30 and 60 boxes per hour.

Containers come in two basic sizes 20 Footer and 40 Footer and are commonly known as TEU (Twenty Equivalent Units) and FEU (Forty Equivalent Units). The external body of the container is made of corrugated sheet metal and is not capable of taking any load. The four corners have shoes and are strengthened to take in load.

Cargo Work and Seamanship II NDT Nautical

By Capt Ajantha Pushpakumara

Page 1 of 20

Identification System

Example of an ISO 6346 conform container number

[edit] Owner CodeThe owner code consists of three capital letters of the Latin alphabet to indicate the owner or principal operator of the container. Such code needs to be registered at the Bureau International des Containers in Paris to ensure uniqueness worldwide.

[edit] Equipment Category IdentifierThe equipment category identifier consists of one of the following three capital letters of the Latin alphabet:

U for all freight containers J for detachable freight container-related equipment Z for trailers and chassis

[edit] Serial NumberThe serial number consists of 6 (Arabic) numeric digits, assigned by the owner or operator, uniquely identifying the container within that owner/operator's fleet.

[edit] Check DigitThe check digit consists of one (Arabic) numeric digit providing a means of validating the recording and transmission accuracies of the owner code and serial number.

[edit] Calculation Step 1An equivalent numerical value is assigned to each letter of the alphabet, beginning with 10 for the letter A (11 and multiples thereof are omitted): A B C D E F G H I J K L M

10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z Page 2 of 20

Cargo Work and Seamanship II NDT Nautical

By Capt Ajantha Pushpakumara

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 The individual digits of the serial number keep their numeric value.

[edit] Calculation Step 2Each of the numbers calculated in step 1 is multiplied by 2position, where position is the exponent to basis 2. Position starts at 0, from left to right. The following table shows the multiplication factors: 1. nbr 2. nbr 3. nbr 4. nbr 5. nbr 6. nbr 7. nbr 8. nbr 9. nbr 10. nbr

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

1

2

4

8

16

32

64

128

256

512

[edit] Calculation Step 3a) Sum up all results of step 2 b) Divide them by 11 c) Erase all decimal digits of the division (i. e. make the result an integer value) d) Multiply the integer value by 11 e) Subtract result of d) from result of a): This is the check digit! If the final difference is 10, then the check digit becomes 0. To ensure that this does not happen, the standard recommends that serial numbers should not be used which produce a final difference of 10, however there are containers in the market which do not follow this recommendation, so handling this case has to be included if a check digit calculator is programmed. Notice that step b) to e) mean to find the integer rest of dividing the result of a) by 11. Most programming languages have a modulo operator for this. Attention should be paid on how it is working in the language chosen; i. e. if it is giving back the decimal rest or the integer rest in order to get proper results. - 11 is used as divisor because a containernumber has 11 digits in total. In step 1 the numbers 11, 22 and 33 are left out as they are multiples of the divisor.

[edit] ExampleC S Q U 3 0 5 4 3 8 Calc.

13

30

28

32

3

0

5

4

3

8

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x Page 3 of 20

Cargo Work and Seamanship II NDT Nautical

By Capt Ajantha Pushpakumara

1

2

4

8

16

32

64

128

256

512

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

13

60

112

256

48

0

320

512

768

4096

6185 [a)]

b) Division by 11:

562.272...

c) Erase decimal digits:

562

d) Multiply by 11:

6182

e) a) minus d) = Check Digit:

3

[edit] Practical ProblemsIn day-to-day business it happens that containers do appear which do not follow the ISO 6346 identification at all, however they are fully CSC safety approved containers. Usually these are "shippers owned" containers what means that they are not owned by the carrier but supplied by the cargo owners (shippers). They may have no or no registered owner code and no category identifier and have no check digit. Generally it is not advisable not to follow ISO 6346 as this causes problems to the carriers and container terminals to correctly identify the equipment and to properly deliver the cargo because computer systems require ISO 6346 conform naming and as such missing prefixes are invented, for example YYYY at the carrier and XXXX at the terminal what causes the equipment to mismatch.

[edit] Size and Type CodesISO 6346 also gives size and type codes for containers. When displayed on the container, the size and type codes shall be used as a whole. The codes are compiled of the following elements:

First character, representing the length (coded) Second character, representing the width and height (coded) Third and fourth character indicating the type of the container

The following is an overview of the most common codes:

Cargo Work and Seamanship II NDT Nautical

By Capt Ajantha Pushpakumara

Page 4 of 20

ISO Type Group

ISO Size Type

Code

Description

Code 20G0

Description GENERAL PURPOSE CONT. GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.

20GP

GENERAL PURPOSE CONT. 20G1

20HR

INSULATED CONTAINER

20H0

INSULATED CONTAINER

20PF

FLAT (FIXED ENDS)

20P1 20T3 20T4

FLAT (FIXED ENDS) TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER

20TD

TANK CONTAINER 20T5 TANK CONTAINER

20T6 20T7 20TG TANK CONTAINER 20T8 20T0 20T1

TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER

20TN

TANK CONTAINER

20T2

TANK CONTAINER

22BU

BULK CONTAINER

22B0

BULK CONTAINER

Cargo Work and Seamanship II NDT Nautical

By Capt Ajantha Pushpakumara

Page 5 of 20

22G0 22GP GENERAL PURPOSE CONT. 22G1

GENERAL PURPOSE CONT. GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.

22HR

INSULATED CONTAINER

22H0 22P3 22P8

INSULATED CONTAINER FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE) FLAT (COLL.FLUSH FOLDING)

22PC

FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)

22P9 22P1 22PF FLAT (FIXED ENDS) 22P7

FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE) FLAT (FIXED ENDS) FLAT (GENSET CARRIER)

22RC

REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)

22R9

REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)

22RS

BUILT-IN GEN. F. POWER SPLY OF REEF

22R7

BUILT-IN GEN. F. POWER SPLY OF REEF

22RT

REEFER CONTAINER

22R1

REEFER CONTAINER

22SN

NAMED CARGO CONTAINER

22S1 22T3 22T4

NAMED CARGO CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER

22TD

TANK CONTAINER 22T5 TANK CONTAINER

22T6

TANK CONTAINER

Cargo Work and Seamanship II NDT Nautical

By Capt Ajantha Pushpakumara

Page 6 of 20

22T7 22TG TANK CONTAINER 22T8 22T0 22T1

TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER TANK CONTAINER

22TN

TANK CONTAINER

22T2

TANK CONTAINER

22UP

HARDTOP CONTAINER

22U6

HARDTOP CONTAINER

22UT

OPEN TOP CONTAINER

22U1 22V0 22V2

OPEN TOP CONTAINER VENTILATED CONTAINER VENTILATED CONTAINER

22VH

VENTILATED CONTAINER

22V3

VENTILATED CONTAINER

25GP

GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT

25G0

GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT

26GP

GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT

26G0

GP-CONTAINER OVER-HE