Constructive Dialogues on Dams and Developments in Nepal

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Transcript of Constructive Dialogues on Dams and Developments in Nepal

CONSTRUCTIVE DIALOGUE ON

DevelopmentIN NEPALEDITORS Ajaya Dixit n Pradeep Adhikari n Shiva Bisangkhe CONTRIBUTORS Pradeep Adhikari, Shiv Kumar Basnet, Vinay Bhandari, Shiva Bisangkhe, Deepen B. Bista, Ajaya Dixit, Sudesh K. Malla, Dina Mani Pokharel, Annu Rajbhandari, Rakshya R. Thapa

ams and

Nepal Water Conservation Foundation

CONSTRUCTIVE DIALOGUE ON

DevelopmentIN NEPALEDITORSAjaya Dixit n Pradeep Adhikari n Shiva BisangkheNepal Water Conservation Foundation

ams and

Published for National Steering Committee on Dams and Development by: IUCNThe World Conservation Union Nepal P.O. Box: 3923, Bakhundole, Lalitpur Phone: 5528781, 5528761, 5526391 Fax: 5536786 E-mail: info@iucn.org.np Nepal Water Conservation Foundation (NWCF) P.O. Box: 2221, Kathmandu, Nepal Phone: 5528111, 5542354 Fax: 5524816 E-mail: nwcf@wlink.com.np Web: www.nwcf.org.np

Copyright, 2004 IUCNThe World Conservation Union Nepal and Nepal Water Conservation Foundation Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorised without prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN Nepal or NWCF.

ISBN 99933-795-2-2 First Edition: 500 Copies July, 2004

Cover Design Format Graphic Studio Kathmandu, Nepal

Layout

Nepal Water Conservation FoundationPrinted by Format Printing Press, Kathmandu, Nepal

iii

PREFACEIn January 2003, a consultative process was initiated to discuss issues regarding dams and development in Nepal. It was held in the context of the recommendations of the report of the World Commission on Dams (WCD), Dams and Development. Participating in this constructive engagement were government representatives, and their parastatals, private hydropower developers, non-governmental research organisations, and local people affected by dams. As a part of the process, a scoping study was carried out, which sought to compare Nepals legal provisions with the recommendations of Dams and Development. A task force and a steering committee were formed to oversee the study, which interacted with grassroots non-government organisations as well as those in the more formal sector. The findings of the study were presented at a national-level stakeholders meeting. Separate discussion programmes were held with government officials as well as at many taskforce and steering committee meetings. The consultative process came to an end in April 2004, when the draft report of scoping study was completed. This book summarises the scoping study and the consultative activities. It suggests that Nepals legal provisions do address many of the recommendations made in Dams and Development, indeed even more progressively than the WCDs report. It also notes that these new policies on water and energy development and their management have been introduced in Nepals pluralised policy terrain in the last decade and a half. Nepal must translate them into more effective implementation to benefit the people and the country while building local institutions and capacity. The way forward is for Nepal to continue the process of preparing its own guidelines on dams and development. The consultative process that this book describes has shown that a participatory approach can yield encouraging outcomes in developing Nepals water resources with sensitivity to both society and nature.

Nepal Water Conservation Foundation July 2004

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DISCLAIMERThis report summarises the findings of the scoping exercise. It is only meant to serve as a platform for continuing the dialogue on issues of water resources development and dams in Nepal. Its draft was discussed over a period of two months and has been published only after incorporating comments from all who participated in the consultative process. Some of the comments are included in annexes 6a and 6b. This report can assist in the evolution of the policy process, but it is not the policy document of any of the organisations involved in the consultative process or IUCN.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

On behalf of the team conducting the scoping exercise we thank all who have contributed directly or indirectly to this process. Special thanks go to all the members of the Nepals Dams and Development Steering Committee who were generous with their valuable time to discuss the issues as well as all those who participated in the consultative process. We would also like to thank IUCN Nepal for facilitating this exercise.

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CONTENTSPreface ................................................................................................................................ iii Disclaimer ............................................................................................................................ v Acknowledgement .............................................................................................................. vii Acronyms ............................................................................................................................. x Water Flow Rhythm and Discord ........................................................................................ 1 The World Commission on Dams Process ........................................................................... 1 Values, Principles and Guidelines ....................................................................................... 2 Response to Dams and Development .................................................................................. 3 Dialogue on Dams and Development in Nepal ................................................................... 4 Objectives of the Study ........................................................................................................ 5 Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 6 Organisation of this Report ................................................................................................. 8 Policy and legal status vis--vis Strategic Priorities (SPs) .................................................. 8 Public Discussion on Dams and Water Issues .................................................................... 26 Comments on Strategic Priorities ...................................................................................... 39 Ideas, Debates, Changes and Policy Processes ................................................................... 49 Strategic Priorities: The Basis for a Way Forward ............................................................. 53 Recommendations for Further Analysis ............................................................................. 56 Constructive Engagement ................................................................................................... 63 In the end ........................................................................................................................... 66 Notes .................................................................................................................................. 67 References .......................................................................................................................... 68 Annexes ...................................................................................................................... 69-107 Annex 1 : Comments on the WCD report Submitted to the World Bank on 23rd January 2001 ........................................................ 70 Annex 2 : Inventory of Electricity Generating Dams ............................................... 79 Annex 3a : National Stakeholders Workshop on Dams and Development ............... 81 Annex 3b : Consultation Meeting with NGOs ......................................................... 84 Annex 3c : Consultation with Government Officials ................................................. 85 Annex 4 : Status of Defining Issues ......................................................................... 86 Annex 5 : Comparison of Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank (WB) Policies on Water Related Issues ................................ 97 Annex 6a : NEA Comments on Scoping Study Report ............................................. 101 Annex 6b : Comments by Water and Energy Users Federation, Nepal on the Scoping Study Report of Dams and Development in Nepal ............ 106

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ACRONYMS

ADB AG CBO CG CHIA CMISP DAD DDC DDF DDP DI DoED DoI DWIDP EA EIA EPA EPR ER ETAFIC GHG HDP HIA HMG/N ICOLD IEE IHA IIDS IPP IRR IUCN IWRM JVS MDG MoPE MoWR MRDAP MSHP NEA NGO NWCF PAP PDF

Asian Development Bank Advisory Guidelines Community Based Organisation Criteria Group Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment Community-Managed Irrigation Sector Project Dams and Development District Development Committee Dams and Development Forum Dams and Development Project Defining Issue Department of Electricity Development Department of Irrigation Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention Electricity Act Environmental Impact Assessment Environment Protection Act Environment Protection Regulation Electricity Regulation Electricity Tariff Fixation Committee Green House Gases Hydropower Development Policy Health Impact Assessment His Majestys Government of Nepal International Commission on Large Dams Initial Environment Examination International Hydropower Association Institute of Integrated Development Studies Independent Power Producers Impoverishment, Risk and Resettlement The World Conservation Union Integrated Water Resources Management Jalasrot Vikas Sanstha Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Population and Environment Ministry of Water Resources Mitigation, Resettlement and Development A