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2. Index Introduction to construction materials Stone Cement Mortar Concrete Reinforced concrete Plaster Ceramics Ceramic products What is clay? How do we manufacture ceramics? Phases of contructing buildings Machines for construction 3. Introducction to construction materials From ancient times to thye present day, builders have used a wide variety of materials for constuction: mud, stone, wood, thatch, etc Wood and metal are good for making beams because they are resistant to tension and compression and because they are light weight Ceramics are good for making roof tiles because clay is easily moulded and ceramics are water proof. 4. Stone Stone is a natural material that we stract from quarries. There are different types: granite, slate and marble. It has uses as a construction material: foundatins, break- water,etc. It can be shaped into blocks or into panels. We use stone broken into chip stone to make foundations for roads and railways. Sometimes stone is part of other materials. 5. Cement It is a binder,like glu. It is a mixture of ground and baked minerals, oxides and other substances. We use cement to produce mortar and concrete 6. Mortar It is a mixture of cement, sand and water. First cement and sand are mix, then we add water and it becomes a paste. Setting is the chemical reaction between the chemical elements of the different minerals and also water. The water does not evaporate, it is essential for the reaction. Before laying bricks with mortar, we dip bricks in water. Bricklayers lay a row of wet bricks and cover them with the mortar paste. The result is like a sandwich. 7. Concrete It is mortar with added pebbles, so it is a mixture of cement, water , sand & pebbles. The pebbles make the concrete stronger than the mortar. We use it to make structural elements. We make a mould with the shape of the element we are going to make. Then we pour the concrete into it. To remove the air, it is vibrated to help the bubbles come out. 8. Reinforced concrete It is concrete with steel bars inside it. Reinforcing is very important if the elements will suffer tension forces. Concrete has good resistance to corrosion but not to tension. Steel has good resistance to both. The reinforcing bars help to prevent catastrophic failure. Concrete break without previous deformation. However steel deform breaking. 9. Plaster It is a soft solid that we use for aesthetic purposes, to cover brick walls which have a rough surface. It is used as a fire-resistant material. It comes from gypsum that is extract from quarries and then grind it. Advantages: it gives a smooth surface and has a nice finish, it is easy to work with and it is a good thermal and sound insulator. Disadvantages: it is weak & absorb water. 10. Ceramics It is the oldest artificial material. It was used for pottery and ornaments,but no for construction materials. We use ceramics for ornamental purposes , but the main use is the manufacture of bricks. Bricks are cheap and durable, they require very little maintenance. 11. Ceramic products The most common ceramic product is bricks. Other are tiles such as roofing tiles, wall tiles and roof tiles. Wall and floor tiles are croated with porcelain. Porcelain is much harder it gives a soft surface and it is complety waterproof. The hard and soft surface makes tiles easier to clean. 12. What is clay? Ceramic is made from clay. Clay is a mass of very small particles of rock, which is formed by a long process of natural erosion from the rock. Silicon is the most common mineral in clay, we use clays with very different compositions to make ceramics. Clay is a natural material, but ceramic is an artificial material. 13. How do we manufacture ceramics? 1- Moulding:the first step in making ceramics is to give the clay the required shape, ex: brick. We make a mould with the negative shape o a brick, then we fill it with clay. 2- Drying: There are two kinds of water in clay :The absorb water and the chemically bound water. The absorved water is what it makes the clay wet. When it evaporates the caly becomes hard, but if water is added it becomes soft again. 3- Firing: To remove the chemically bound water we need high temperatures. This process is called bakin or firing the clay. Use of bricks: bricks are used to make walls. They are arranged in patterns so that the construction is stronger. Bricks are stronger than mortar. 14. Phases of contructing buildings 1-FITNESS AREA: paving the way to demolition, rubble removal and leveling. The machinery is the excavator and bulldozer 2-FOUNDATION: placement of elements that form the base, below ground and its shape and size depends on the field: Shoes: basic pillars for normal soil. Piles, shotcrete, is subject to the ground to difficult terrain To make the foundation are used bulldozers and concrete mixers 15. Phases of constructions 3-STRUCTURE: a building structure with pillars, floors and beams. It is made with reinforced concrete (concrete round) gives greater strength. The machines used are the cranes and cement mixers. 4-COVERING OF WATER: they use different types of decks: Wood Texas Slate Sheet Before the cover of the roof with polyurethane coating is sound and heat insulation. And get Roussillon and bards. 5-ENVELOPE: exterior is coated inside FOLLOW: Colorful brick Polyurethane Air Thin Brick (interior) 16. Phases of construction 6-SEPTATE SALAD: Salad: placement and preparation of the soil can be covered with the following materials: Wood Natural stones Gres (tiles and tiles) Septate: interior wall cladding materials such as: Single brick Drywall (plasterboard) In covering our walls and floor will use the following machines: Shoulders and stirrers Frates Squares Feathered Bubble Level Galidos 17. MACHINES USED IN CONSTRUCTION Excavators and loaders, are used in the excavation and earthworks Bulldozer and motor graders, used in land leveling And dump trucks, transporting materials Cranes: raising materials, basic structure consists of the tower, boom and counterweight Concrete: preparation of mortars and concretes 18. MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTIION Materials used in construction of buildings: Stone: compact rocks, disintegrated, clays and aggregates Binder: lime, plaster and cement Concrete, mass concrete, cyclopean and cellular Ceramic materials: bricks, tiles, tiles, stoneware and porcelain Other materials include metals, wood, plastic and glass 19. THE END 20. Created by: Ins Snchez Sanpedro & Raquel Romero Gallego