Construction hazards and_safety_by_isti

Construction Hazatds and Safety BY, Industrial Safety Training Institute (ISTI).


Regards, Mr. SYED HAIDER ABBAS MOB. +92-300-2893683 MBA in progress, NEBOSH IGC, IOSH, HSRLI, NBCS,GI,FST,FOHSW,ISO 9001, 14001, 'BS OHSAS 18001, SAI 8000, Qualified .

Transcript of Construction hazards and_safety_by_isti

Page 1: Construction hazards and_safety_by_isti

Construction Hazatds and Safety

BY, Industrial Safety Training Institute (ISTI).

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Learning outcome

At the end of the lecture, students should be able to:

• Understand the different types of existing hazards on site

• Comprehend the diferent types of accident measurement


• Reflect on the Swedish construction accident records

• Appreciate the importance for improving health & safety

in construction

• Undertake the techniques of improving health & safety in


• Understand the existing legislative framework

• Understand an accident analysis if required.

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• Safety is free from risk and danger.

• Accidents is defined as an unexpected and desirable event resulting in damage or harm.

• Hazards is an unsafe condition or activity, that if left uncontrolled can contribute to an accident.

• Risk is the assessment of ’probability of loss’ and ’potential amount of loss’.

(concise Oxford Dictionary)


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Common situation on a construction site

• Construction work is dynamic, diverse, and constantly changing in nature.

• Constantly changing job site environments and conditions

• Multiple contractors and subcontractors

• High turnover; unskilled laborers

• Constantly changing relationships with other work groups

• Diversity of work activities occurring simultaneously • Construction workers are at risk of exposure to various

hazards and risks that can result in injury, illness, permanent disability, or even death.

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• Chemical

• Physical

• Biological

• Ergonomic

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Chemical Hazards

Chemicals can exist in the form of

• dusts, fumes, fibers (solids)

• liquids, mists

• gases, vapors

• welding fumes

• spray paints

• cutting oil mists

• xylene vapor

• solvents

Examples of chemical hazards found in

construction work:

• asbestos

• lead

• silica

• cadmium

• carbon monoxide

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Physical Hazards

• Noise

• Vibration

• Temperature extremes

• Radiation

Physical hazards are different types of energy which may be hazardous to workers.

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Biological Hazards

Exposure may occur during demolition, renovation, sewer work, work on air handling systems, or other construction work from contact with contaminated or disease-carrying

• soil

• water

• insects (mosquitoes, ticks)

• bird, bat droppings

• animals

• structures

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Ergonomic Hazards

Ergonomic hazards can cause painful and disabling injuries till example Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) .

This following situation may causes these injuries:

• heavy, frequent, or awkward lifting

• repetitive tasks

• awkward grips, postures

• using excessive force, overexertion

• using wrong tools for the job or using tools improperly

• using improperly maintained tools

• hand-intensive work

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Types of accident measurements

• Death

• Fatal injury (broken leg, hips, amputation)

• Non-fatal injury (finger cut)

• Occupational accidents (MSD, hearing loss)

• Absence from work ( >1 day, > 3 days etc)

• Near misses

• Rate per 100 000 – number of injuries or causes of ill health per 100 000 employees.

• Working days lost – days off work due to workplace injuries & work-related ill health

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Other health hazards

• Living conditions and welfare facilities

– Temporary accomodation

– Food

– Drinking water

– Sanitary conveniences

– Facility for clothing

• Work related mental stresses

– Alcoholism and drug addiction

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Personal protective clothing and eqiupment (PPE)

• Legal requirements

• Eye protection

• Respiratory protection

• Ear protection

• Face protection

• Head protection

• Hand protection

• Foot protection

• Body protection

• Fall protection

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Construction accident record for 2005 (Samuelson & Lundholm, 2006)











95 96 97 98 99 0 1 2 3 4 5





Occupational fatality

Occupational fatality /1000


Occupational health fatality

Occupational health

fatality/1000 person

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Leackage, flood


Landslide, fall,breaking

of material


Fire explosion


Other injuries


Body injury due to

physical lifting


Body injury not due to

physical lifting


Fall of person not from



Fall from height


Other form of loss of



Loss control of material



Loss control of tools


Lost control of vehicle


Lost control of machine


Samuelson & Lundholm, 2006

Causes of construction accidents 2005

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ISO EU Sweden UK Malaysia

ISO BS8800

Framework Directive Council Directive 89/391/EEC

The Work Environment Act (1997:1160)

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1994

The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994

Existing health & safety legislations in practice

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Reasons and benefits to improve

health and safety in construction

• Responsibility;

• Economic reasons;

• Impact of safety on overall performance;

• Contractor’s performance;

• Control of accident causes.

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• Safety is everyone’s responsibility.

• It is a moral and legal obligation of employers to provide a safe working place and of employees to work safely.

• Employer’s duty of care to employees as covering the following areas:

– safe system of work;

– a safe place of work;

– plant and machinery that is safe to use;

– competent supervision and/or suitable training; and

– care in the selection of fellow employees.

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Costs of accidents – direct costs and indirect costs

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Direct costs

The direct costs are insurance. These include medical costs and others workers’ compensation insurance benefits as well as liability and property-damage insurance.

Indirect costs

Below are the lists of indirect costs:

Transportation costs – include the cost of emergency transportation, together with the cost of other personnel that were necessary to get to the injured worker to proper medical facilities

Wages paid to injured worker for time not worked – include all the

time in which the worker was not actually doing his or her job and for the wages paid.

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Cost incurred because of delays which resulted from accident – other crews affected or delayed; equipment idled; duration of project lengthened; plus all wages, rental fees and indirect supervision costs that occurred as a result of the accident.

Costs of overtime necessitated by accidents – overtime occurred

because of the accidents Loss of efficiency of crew – decrease of crew efficiency due to low

morale or reshuffling that might occur to replace an injured worker.

Cost to break in and/or teach replacement worker – hiring new

worker would include training and orientation Costs for clean-up, repair or replacement and stand-by costs –

normally accidents involves spillage, cave-ins vehicle damage, material wastage or site clean-up

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Extra wage costs, slower returned worker – normally when a

worker return to the job site and is partially and/or temporarily disabled, the worker is probably working at a different, less demanding job or less efficient at the former job.

Costs to reschedule work – include time spent to review and reschedule the project due to investigations or project being temporarily suspended by the authorities.

Costs of wages for supervision as a result of the accidents – include all time spent on the accident and its results: caring for the worker’s medical treatment, investigation, completing forms, disseminating information, visiting the worker, planning to

prevent recurrence, appearance in court

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Costs for safety and clerical personnel as a result of the accident – typing, investigating, forwarding forms, time with press, etc.

OSHA and civil fines – paying fines.

Cost of legal assistance – engaging a lawyer to settle the accident claims.

Other costs – any other cost that were incurred because of the accidents.

The average ratio of indirect costs to direct costs is 4:1.

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Impact of overall performance

• Time

• Budget

• Accident statistics

• Absentism

• Low morale

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Contractor’s performance

• Studies have proved that there is an adverse effect on a contractor’s reputation and unfavourable image for the client

when the project suffers high accident rates.

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Control of accident causes

• Safety performance measurement enables behaviours and conditions to be identified that have the greatest potential in contributing to an accident.

• It also forms a basis to predict future accident problems and enables management to control the causes of accidents on site and establish long-term accident control.

• These measurement techniques provide continuous information concerning changes in the safety state within an organisation in operation.

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How to improve health and safety on construction sites?

• Reactive measures – Accident recording & reporting

– Accident investigations

• Proactive measures – H & s safety policy

– H & s safety programme/plan

– H & s safety induction/training

– Tool-box talk

– Others

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Example of an accident analysis

Accident: Falling off a stepladder

The unsafe act: Climbing a defective ladder The unsafe condition: A defective ladder

The correction: Replace the ladder

Questions: – Why was the defective ladder not found during normal inspection?

– Why did the supervisor allow its use?

– Didn’t the injured employee know it should not be used?

– Was the employee properly trained?

– Was the employee reminded not to use the ladder?

– Did the supervisor examine the job first?

Answers: – An improved inspection procedure

– Improved training

– A better definition of responsibilities

– Pre-job planning by supervisors

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• Grifitth A & Howarth T. 2000. Construction health & safety management. Pearson Education Limited.

• Samuelson B & Lundholm L. 2006. Arbetsskador I byggverksamhet 2005. Byggindustrins

• Kunju Ahmad. 2000. Developing a safety performance measurement tool (SPMT) for construction sites. Loughborough University thesis. UK.

• Heberle D. 1998. Construction safety manual. McGraw Hill. USA. • Davies V.J. Tomasin K. 1990. Construction safety handbook. Thomas

Telford, London. • Brown. 1996. Total integration of safety professional into project

management. Proceedings. of the 1st International Conference of CIB, Libson, W99. pp 137-144.


MOB. +92-300-2893683

MBA in progress,


'BS OHSAS 18001, SAI 8000, Qualified .