Consequences of Responding: Punishment The Vocabulary of Punishment

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Consequences of Responding: Punishment The Vocabulary of Punishment Comparing Reinforcement and Punishment The Relativity of Punishment Side Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of Punishers Timeout as Punishment The Ethics of Punishment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

    Addendum 7A: Punishment as Primary, Not Derivative

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Just as we reinforce responses, not organisms, we also punish responses, not organismsOur usage is no longer tied to the idea that punishment is about retributionPunishment has ethical implications, but if it happens we must understand how it works

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

  • Teaching Reinforcement versus Teaching PunishmentThe effects of punishers show up more immediately than those of reinforcers, so punishment is usually easier to teach.That is probably why punishers are so pervasive in human cultures.But you cannot shape with it; it reduces rather than enhances variations.

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment

    The Vocabulary of PunishmentComparing Reinforcement and PunishmentThe Relativity of PunishmentSide Effects of Punishment Eliciting Effects of Punishers Discriminative Effects of PunishersTimeout as PunishmentThe Ethics of Punishment

    Addendum 7A: Punishment as Primary, Not Derivative

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

    Addendum 8A: SpeciesSpecific Defense Reactions

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • Procedural criteria for distinguishingbetween positive and negative reinforcement

    Responding increasesResponding decreasesResponse produces a stimulusPositive ReinforcementPositive PunishmentResponse removes or prevents a stimulusNegative ReinforcementNegative Punishment

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • Positive versus NegativeWe could appeal to physics, but we would still have to deal with the ambiguitiesInstead, we can appeal to a behavioral criterionWe will always speak of reinforcement when responding goes up and of punishment when it goes downBut if the contingencies create behavior that competes with the responding to be reinforced (e.g., shivering that competes with heat-producing lever pressing during cold), then that is a better reason to distinguish between this procedure and one that does not produce such competition (e.g., food-reinforced lever pressing)

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • One kind of avoidance procedure delays the aversive event (as when a coin in a parking meter sets back the time when you are at risk to be ticketed)A second kind prevents the aversive event (as when getting an immunization shot prevents you from contracting a disease)

  • When avoidance is successful, nothing happensThough avoidance is easy to maintain once it gets started, it is hard to get it startedThat is probably why it is difficult to teach preventive measures such as adhering to medical procedures or using seat belts

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • Getting rid of the aversive stimulus is essentially getting rid of the establishing operation that makes its absence a reinforcerThe proper extinction procedure, though rarely studied, is to continue to present the aversive stimulus, but to stop allowing the response to prevent or delay it

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

  • Consequences of Responding: Escape and Avoidance

    Escape Elicited Responding and Escape The Ambiguous Distinction between Positive from Negative Reinforcement Identifying Contingencies: Procedural and Behavioral Criteria Touching the Hot Stove: Natural Aversive ContingenciesAvoidance The Nature of the Reinforcer in Avoidance Extinction after Negative ReinforcementThe Language of Aversive Control

    Addendum 8A: SpeciesSpecific Defense Reactions

  • Consequences of Responding: Punishment