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Computer Graphics Dr. S.M. Malaek Assistant: M. Younesi
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Transcript of Computer Graphics - Department of Aerospace …ae.sharif.edu/~aerocad/Computer...

  • Computer Graphics

    Dr. S.M. MalaekAssistant: M. Younesi

  • Computer Graphics

    Introduction to Computer Graphics, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, ArupChattopadhyay

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Donald Haern, M. Pauline Baker (Second Edition)

    Textbook:Sunday/Tuesday 13:30-15Time:

  • Modeling

    Computers have become a powerful tool for the rapid and economical production of pictures and models.

    There is no area in which graphics displays cannot be used to some advantage.

  • What is Computer Graphics?

    Computer graphics generally means creation, storage and manipulationof models and images.

  • What is Computer Graphics?

    Such models come from diverse and expanding set of fields including physical, mathematical, artistic, biological, economical, .

  • Model

    Model, models, or modeling: a pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or working of an object, system, or concept.

  • Physical Model

  • Physical Model

    A physical model is used to mean a physical representation of some things, for example a bolt or the solar system.

  • Physical Model

    A scale model of the Singapore City Centre.

    The geometry of the model and the object it represents are often similar in the sense that one is a rescaling of the other.

  • Physical Model

    Model of a war scene.

  • Physical Model

    Model of molecule.

  • Physical Model

    Cuddly toy

  • Mathematical Model

  • Mathematical ModelA mathematical mode: it uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system.

    Mathematical models are used in the science, engineering, economics and

  • Mathematical Model

    Examples:Population Growth

    Model of a particle in a potential field.

  • Mathematical Model

    A mathematical model describes a system by a set of variables and a set of equations that establish relationship between the variables.

  • Economics Model

  • Economic Model

    In economics, a model is a theoretical construct that represents economic processes by a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them.

  • Economic Model

    Economic models have two function:

    Simplification

    Selection

  • What is Computer Graphics?William Fetter coined term computer graphics in 1960 to describe new design methods he was pursuing at Boeing.

    Created a series of widely reproduced images on pen plotter exploring cockpitdesign, using 3D model of human body.

  • What is Computer Graphics?Perhaps the best way to define computer graphics is to find out what it is not. It is not a machine. It is not a computer, nor a group of computer programs. It is not the know-how of a graphic designer, a programmer, a writer, a motion picture specialist, or a reproduction specialist.

    Computer graphics is all these a consciously managed and documented technology directed toward communicating information accurately and descriptively.

  • What is Interactive Computer Graphics?

    User controls contents, structure, and appearance of objects and their displayed images via rapid visual feedback.

  • Interactive Computer GraphicsBasic components of an interactive graphics system:

    input (e.g., mouse, tablet and stylus, scanner)processing (and storage)display/output (e.g., screen, paper-based printer, video recorder )

  • First truly interactive graphics system, Sketchpad, pioneered at MIT by Ivan Sutherland for his 1963 Ph.D. thesis.

    Sketchpad in 1963. Note use of a CRT monitor, light pen and function-key panel.

    Interactive Computer Graphics

  • Before Sketchpad, output via plotters/printers, input via keypunch.

    Card punching. IBM 704 . took up a whole room and was capable of about 4,000 arithmetic operations/second.

    Interactive Computer Graphics

  • The Sketchpad system uses drawing as a novel communication medium for a computer. The system contains input, output, and computation programs which enable it to interpret information drawn directly on a computer display.

    Interactive Computer Graphics

  • Sketchpad has shown the most usefulness as an aid to the understanding of processes, such as the motion of linkages, which can be described with pictures. Sketchpad also makes it easy to draw highly repetitive or highly accurate drawings and to change drawings previously drawn with it

    Interactive Computer Graphics

  • Three factors be considered:

    Time

    Cost

    Quality

    Interactive Computer Graphics

  • Interactive Computer GraphicsCost/Time ($/hr): Whirlwind, built in early 50s at MIT, cost $4.5 million and could perform 40,000 additions/second. Mac 512K, list price $3,195 in 1984, could do 500,000. Today, commodity PCs perform approximately two or three billion operations/second.

  • Quality: Eliminates error propagation by using data bases and transfer of data.

    Interactive Computer Graphics

  • Applications

    Computer Aided DesignPresentation GraphicsComputer ArtEntertainmentEducation and trainingVisualizationImage ProcessingGraphics User Interfaces

  • Applications Computer Aided Design

    (CAD)

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    A major use of computer graphics in design processes, particularly for engineering and architectural system. But almost all product are now computer designed.

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    For some design applications, objects are first displayed in a wireframeoutline form.

    Wireframe (outline) form shows the overall shape and internal features of objects.

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    CAD methods are now used in the design of:

    Buildings

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Automobiles

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Aircraft

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Watercraft

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    SpacecraftTextiles

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Software package for CAD applications typically provide the designer with a multi-window environment.

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Circuits designed by successively placing components into the layout, with the graphics package automatically providing the connections between components.

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Animation are often used in CAD applications.

    Animation in virtual reality environment are used to determine how system operators are affected by certain motion.

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Virtual Reality (VR)Fishtank VR

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    The manufacturing process is also tied in to the computer description of designed objects to automate the construction of the product.

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Architectural Designs

  • ApplicationsComputer Aided Design (CAD)

    Rug Pattern

  • Applications

    Presentation Graphics

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Presentation graphics used to product illustrations for reports or to generate 35-mm slides or transparencies for use with projectors.

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Presentation graphics is used to:StatisticalMathematicalScientificEconomic dataManagerial reportConsumer information bulletins

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Typical examples of presentation graphics are:

    Bar GraphsLine GraphsSurface GraphsPie Charts

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Typical examples of presentation graphics are:

    HistogramTask Schedule ChartInventory ChartProduction Chart

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Bar Charts

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Line Graphs

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    1 2 3 4

    Series1Series2Series3

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Surface Graphs

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Pie Charts

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Histogram: A histogram is the graphical version of a able which shows what property of cases fall into each of several or many specified categories.

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Task Scheduling chart: In project management, a schedule consists of a list of a projects terminal elements with intended start and finish dates.

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Production Chart

  • ApplicationsPresentation Graphics

    Export Chart

  • Applications

    Computer Art

  • ApplicationsComputer Art

    Computer graphics are widely used in both fine art and commercial artapplications.

  • ApplicationsComputer Art

    Fine ArtPaintbrush Program:It allows artists to paint pictures on the screen of a video monitor.

  • ApplicationsComputer Art

    Example of Paintbrush Methods:

  • ApplicationsComputer Art

    Commercial ArtLogosPage layout (Combining text and graphics)

    TV Advertising Spots

  • ApplicationsComputer Art

    Commercial ArtAdvertising

  • ApplicationsComputer Art

    Commercial ArtMorphing: Where one object is transformed (metamorphosed) into another.

  • ApplicationsComputer Art

    Commercial ArtMorphing

  • Applications

    Entertainment

  • ApplicationsEntertainment

    Computer graphics are now commonly used in making motion pictures, music video, and television shows.

  • ApplicationsEntertainment

    TV Shows

  • ApplicationsEntertainment

    Games

  • ApplicationsEntertainment

    Games

  • Applications

    Education and Training

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    Models of physical systems, physiological systems, population trends can help trainees to understand the operation of the system.

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    For some training applications, special systems are designed.

    Color-coded diagram used to explain the operation of a nuclear reactor.

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    Special systems are the simulators for practice session or training of ship captains, aircraft pilots, and air traffic control personnel.

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    Flight Simulator

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    Flight Simulator

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    Flight Simulator

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    Naval Simulator

  • ApplicationsEducation and Training

    Naval Simulator

  • Applications

    Visualization

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Producing graphical representation for scientific, engineering, and medical data sets and processes is generally referred to as scientific visualization.The term business visualization is used in connection with data sets related to commerce, industry, and other nonscientific areas.

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    A Color-coded with 16 million density points of relative brightness.

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Visualisation Techniques for Architecture

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Distribution of galaxies

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Visualisation of confocal microscope data

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Mathematical data.

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Medical data.

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Medical Data

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Mars renderings

  • ApplicationsVisualization

    Mars renderings

  • Applications

    Image Processing

  • ApplicationsImage Processing

    Image processing applies techniques to modify or interpret existing pictures, such as photographs and TV scans.

    Medicine uses these techniques to model and study physic functions, to artificial limbs, and to plan and practice surgery.

  • ApplicationsImage Processing

    Medical Visualization

  • ApplicationsGraphics User Interfaces

  • ApplicationsGraphics User Interfaces

    A major component of a graphical interface is a window manager that allows a user to display multi-window areas.

  • ApplicationsGraphics User Interfaces

    Interfaces also display menus and icons for fast selection of processing options or parameter values.

    An icon is a graphical symbol that is designed to look like the processing option it represent.