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Comparatives Comparatives are used to show the difference between two objects. Which one of them is new and fast ? OLD and SLOW NEW and FAST The black car is newer and faster than the red car. The red car is older and slower than the black car.

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ComparativesComparatives are used to show the difference

between two objects.

Which one of them is new and fast ?

OLD and SLOW NEW and FAST

The black car is newer and faster than the red car.

The red car is older and slower than the black car.

• Rule 1. If an adjective has 1 syllable we add the ending –er to the adjective.

– i.e. small + er = smaller than – i.e. hard + er = harder than – Short +er = Shorter The ant is smaller

than the hippo.The ant works harder than the hippo

Five basic rules for comparative :

• Rule 2. If a one syllable adjective ends with a consonant + a vowel + a consonant you must double the last consonant and then ad –er.

•i.e. big + er = bigger than

i.e. fat + er = fatter than

The elephant is bigger than the giraffe.The giraffe is taller than the elephant.

• Rule 3. If an adjective ends with a “y”, remove the “y” and add –ier.

i.e. happy –y + ier = happier than

•i.e. funny –y + ier = funnier than

The girl is happier than the duck.

• Rule 4. If an adjective has two syllables then add the word “more” before the word.

• i.e. beautiful + more = more beautiful than

i.e. expensive + more = more expensive than

i.e. satisfactory + more = more satisfactory than

The butterfly is more beautiful than the frog.

•Rule 5. There are a few exceptions.

good = better thanbad = worse thanfar = farther than

•The UTP is better than La Nariño•Brazil team was worse than Colombia•The Galpon is farther than the cafeteria.

•Remember, when using a comparative you must always follow it with the word “than”.

The ant is smaller than the hippo.The elephant is fatter than the giraffe.The girl is happier than the duck.The butterfly is more beautiful than the frog.

Superlatives

If we are compare more than two objects, places, people we use superlative forms.

Four cars and their delivery dates. 1985 2013 1995

1945

The oldest car is ________.

The black car is the most _________of all four cars.

Which one of the basketball player is the shortest? which one of them is the tallest ?

Number _ is the shortest player of all.

Number _ is the tallest player of all

Kızılırmak is the longest river in

Turkey.

• Rule 1. If an adjective has 1 syllable we add the ending –est to the adjective.

i.e. small + est = the smallest

• i.e. hard + est = the hardest

Basic rules for superlatives

The Atatürk Airport is one of the biggest airport in Turkey.

• Rule 2. If a one syllable adjective ends with a consonant + a vowel + a consonant you must double the last consonant and ad –est.

i.e. big + est = the biggest i.e. fat + est = the fattest

The African elephant is the heaviest animal

all over the world.

• Rule 3. If an adjective ends with a “y”, remove the “y” and add –iest.

i.e. happy + iest = the happiest

• i.e. funny + iest = the funniest

The diamond is the most precious stone

in the world.

• Rule 4. If an adjective has three syllables or more then add the word “most” before the word.

• i.e. beautiful + most = the most beautifuli.e. expensive + most = the most expensivei.e. satisfactory + most = the most satisfactory

• Rule 5. There are a few exceptions.

good = the bestbad = the worstfar = the farthest

• Colombia is the best country in the world• Marcelo is the worst player of Brazil• La Patagonia is the farthest part of Argentina.

• Remember, when using a superlative you must always precede it with the word “the”.

The Toyota has the smallest cars. The Ford has the biggest trucks. Brad Pitt was the most handsome actor of the movie. Airplanes tickets are the most expensive means of transport.Jim Carrey is the funniest comedian.

SOME RULES ABOUT FORMING COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

• One syllable adjectives generally form the comparative by adding -er and the superlative by adding -est, e.g.:

Comparative

Superlative

Soft Softer The softestCheap Cheaper The cheapestSweet Sweeter The sweetestThin Thinner The thinnest

• two syllable adjectives which end in -y usually form the comparative by adding -er and the superlative by adding -est

superlative

Lucky luckier The luckiestPretty Prettier The prettiest Tidy Tidier The tidiest

• two syllable adjectives ending in -ed, -ing, -ful,always form the comparative with more and the superlative with the most, e.g.:

superlative

Worried More worried The most worried

Boring More boring The most boringCareful More careful The most

careful

THREE SYLLABLE ADJECTIVES• Adjectives which have three or more syllables always form the comparative

and superlative with MORE and THE MOST, e.g.:

Dangerous More dangerous The most dangerous

Difficult More difficult The most difficult

Adjective Comparative Superlative Good Better The bestBad Worse The worstFar Farther/further The

farthest/furthest

Opposite less < more

This sofa is less comfortable.I’ve always been less patient than my sister.the least < the most. It’s the least expensive way to travel.She was the least intelligent of the three sisters.

• My house is…….  (big)  than yours.• This flower is ……. (beautiful) than that one.• This is the ……….. (interesting)   book I have

ever read.• Non-smokers usually live  ……… (long)  than

smokers.• Which is the  ……….  (dangerous) animal in the

world?• A holiday by the sea is ……… (good)   than a

holiday in the mountains.• Who is the  ……....... (rich)  woman on earth?• The weather this summer is  ……… (bad) than

last summer.• He was   ………. (clever) thief of all.