Comparative adjectives and adverbs fast, faster, the fastest… terrible, more terrible, the most...

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Transcript of Comparative adjectives and adverbs fast, faster, the fastest… terrible, more terrible, the most...

  • Slide 1
  • Comparative adjectives and adverbs fast, faster, the fastest terrible, more terrible, the most terrible big, bigger, the biggest quickly, more quickly, the quickest By AJ Brown
  • Slide 2
  • What do they look like? My sister is more educated than I am. AJ speaks faster when she is excited. Blueberries are as delicious as raspberries. San Francisco is farther away than Seattle. She is prettier when she smiles. AJ is older than her sister. He moves as slowly as a turtle. Level E is less difficult than level 2.
  • Slide 3
  • Why do we use them? We use comparative adjectives and adverbs to compare two nouns or two verbs. Sergios calculator is bigger than Kims pen. A flu is more dangerous than a cold. Antonio reads faster than I do. Her voice is as sweet as honey. He walks as slowly as a turtle (does). Language is less confusing than math to me.
  • Slide 4
  • How to make comparative (for differences) 1)(difference) One-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use er than) neat neater than slow slower than late later than sweet sweeter than young younger than dark darker than
  • Slide 5
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) Pay attention to one-syllable words: If it ends in C+V+C, double the final C fat fatter than wet wetter than dim dimmer than big bigger than thin thinner than red redder than
  • Slide 6
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) 2) (for difference) Three-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use more/lessthan) dangerous more dangerous than beautiful more beautiful than exciting less exciting than important more important than fascinating more fascinating than
  • Slide 7
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) 3) (for difference) Most two-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use more/lessthan) famous more famous than cunning more cunning than pleasant more pleasant than careful less careful than shallow more shallow than
  • Slide 8
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) 3a) (for difference) Two-syllable adjectives that end in y (use ier than) pretty prettier than busy busier than lazy lazier than happy happier than friendly friendlier than
  • Slide 9
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) 3b) (for difference) Two-syllable adverbs that end in ly* (use more/lessthan) slowly more slowly than quickly more quickly than carefully less carefully than pleasantly more pleasantly than reliably less reliably than * early is both an adjective and an adverb. Form = earlier
  • Slide 10
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) 3c) (for difference) Some two-syllable adjectives use either form (use more/lessthan or er than*) clever more clever than cleverer than gentle more gentle than gentler than friendly more friendly than friendlier than common more common than commoner than * The idea of less is not possible when using the er form
  • Slide 11
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) 4) (for difference) There are some irregular forms (adj.) good better than (adj.) bad worse than (adv.) well better than (adv.) badly worse than (adv.) far farther* than further* than * Both farther and further compare distance, but only further (not farther) can also mean additional. (I require further help.)
  • Slide 12
  • How to make a comparative (for differences) Modify adjectives and adverbs with much or a little hungry much hungrier than quiet a little quieter than Intriguing much more intriguing than extensive much less extensive than easy a little easier than
  • Slide 13
  • How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5) (for same) all adjectives and adverbs (use as as) strong as quietly as beautiful as difficult as big nearly as big as confusing just as confusing as happy almost as happy as
  • Slide 14
  • How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5a) (for same) all negative adjectives and adverbs (use not as as) strong not as strong as quietly not as quietly as beautiful not as beautiful as difficult not as difficult as big not nearly as big as low not quite as low as
  • Slide 15
  • How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5b) the opposite of er/more is expressed by less or not as as More than one syllable quietly not as quietly as less quietly than difficult not as difficult as less difficult than expensive not as expensive as less expensive than
  • Slide 16
  • How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5b) the opposite of er/more is expressed by less or not as as Only one syllable old not as old as Less old than big not as big as Less big than young not as young as less young than Wrong! Remember that one-syllable words dont have a lessthan form
  • Slide 17
  • Completing a comparative In formal academic English, a subject pronoun (he) follows than She is taller than he. In informal English, an object pronoun (him) is often used after than She is taller than him. Writing for your classes NEVER use this form in your writing
  • Slide 18
  • Completing a comparative In formal academic English, a comparative can be followed by three different constructions Stephanie is taller than I am. Stephanie is taller than I. Stephanie is taller than am I. This last construction (v+s) is often on the TOEFL exam
  • Slide 19
  • Unclear comparisons Unclear (repeat subject or object?) I like my dog better than my husband. Ive known Jamal longer than Frieda. Clear Two subject/verb pairs I like my dog better than my husband likes it. I like my dog better than I like my husband. Ive known Jamal longer than Ive known Frieda. Ive known Jamal longer than Frieda has (known him).
  • Slide 20
  • Other comparisons Repeating a comparative Because he was afraid, he walked faster and faster. Life in the modern world is becoming more and more complex. Double comparatives The harder you study, the more you will learn. The warmer the weather is, the happier I am. The sooner, the better. Shows a progressive increase Both parts begin with the + comparative
  • Slide 21
  • Using superlatives The est The funniest The saddest The wettest The largest The most/least The most generous The most beautiful The least expensive The most developed Superlatives compare one part of a group to all the other members of the group
  • Slide 22
  • Common completions of superlatives + (prepositional phrase) Tokyo is one of the largest cities in the world. This one is the best of all! He is the laziest student in the class. She walks the most slowly of all the children. It is the highest mountain on the island. + (adjective clause) She is the kindest person (that) I have ever met. That was the longest hike (that) I have ever taken. English is the craziest language (that) Ive ever heard. She writes the most carefully (that) Ive ever seen.