Coastal & Inland Tourism

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    Coastal & Inland Water Tourism

    One of the most common types of tourism is coastal tourism. It is based

    on a unique resource combination at the interface of land and sea offeringamenities such as water, beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine

    biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage, healthy food and,

    usually,good infrastructure. It includes a diversity of activities that take place in

    both coastal zones and coastal waters, which involve the development of tourism

    capacities (hotels, resorts, second homes, restaurants, etc.) and support

    infrastructure (ports, marinas, fishing and diving shops, and other facilities).

    Besides physical conditions, the development of tourism in coastal areas is

    related to socio-economic features of the receiving environment such as localcommunity interests, health and security conditions, political factors including

    unpredictable crises, and traditional models of tourism.

    The growth of tourism in coastal areas has reached its peak in recent decades.The

    economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although there is no

    analysis forecasting what would be the direct share of coastal tourism in the

    tourism sector, or its likely contribution to the economy as a whole.

    Main conceptual issues

    The main conceptual issue of coastal tourism which needs to be solved is

    the conflict between the benefits tourism provides for the economy as a whole

    and for the social environment it is operating in, and its heavy impact on the

    coastal physical environment in terms of urban sprawl, linear urbanisation,

    pressure on sensitive areas, the production of waste and the fragmentation of

    habitats, and the social environment, in terms of the loss of social and cultural

    identity and values.

    Usually the development of tourism activities in coastal areas is based on a

    process where any planning or/and management decision is taken mainly

    on the basis of financial criteria, while the environment is taken into account

    only in a sense that can be described as trying to minimise effects given

    the available budget. This process leads to the unsustainable development

    of coastal areas which not only impacts negatively on the environment and

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    society but, in the long term, is also eroding the economic benefits of tourism

    since it destroys the basis of the tourism activity in coastal areas, namely the

    variety of the landscape, the biodiversity and the ecosystem services - in the

    sea and on land. The major challenge in this conflict remains how to develop

    coastal tourism patterns that will not minimise benefits to tourists and localpopulations, and the quality of the natural resource base for tourism.

    In order to minimise tourism-induced problems and secure both the

    sustainability of the tourism industry and coastal resources used by other

    sectors, increased attention must be paid to the integration of coastal tourism

    into strategic development planning. In planning tourism development, it is of

    the utmost importance to focus on the appropriate planning of tourism growth

    with regard to the capacity of local systems.

    Tourism in coastal areas

    Coastal tourism was generally related to the therapeutic properties ofsea and sun.Sun, sea and sand have continued to provide the main ingredients for

    coastal tourism until today

    Coastal tourism is based on a unique resource combination at the interface

    of land and sea offering amenities such as water, beaches, scenic beauty, rich

    terrestrial and marine biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage,

    healthy food and good infrastructure. It includes a diversity of activities

    that take place in both coastal zone and coastal waters, which involve the

    development of tourism capacities (hotels, resorts, second homes, restaurants,

    etc.) and support infrastructure (ports, marinas, fishing and diving shops, and

    other facilities).

    Coastal recreation activities, which have been increasing both in volume

    and in number during the last decade, occupy a unique place in coastal tourism.

    They take in two main types of recreational uses of coastal zones: consumptive

    and non-consumptive ones. Activities such as fishing, shell fishing and shell

    collection, etc. belong in the first category while activities in the second include

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    swimming, diving, boating, surfing, wind-surfing, jet skiing, bird watching,

    snorkelling, etc.

    The main impacts and challengesAll tourism forms and activities rely on the use of environmental resources.

    Even if it is considered as a soft industry, tourism has a major environmental

    impact in many coastal areas, which are particularly vulnerable to pressures

    associated with its growth. The relationship existing between tourism and

    environment is best qualified as a relation of mutual dependence: not only

    tourism is highly dependent on environmental quality but environmental quality

    is also highly vulnerable to tourism development.

    Global issues and coastal tourismTourism development is usually one of the most important factors of

    socioeconomic and environmental change. Even though such changes could lead

    to negative environmental impacts such as biodiversity loss, they do not

    necessarily have to be undesirable ones since they can help maintain the

    vitality of societies. In some coastal areas, tourism can be the most important

    activity, generating economic benefits and therefore contributing to poverty


    Tourism is a global activity, bringing different cultures and customs

    together, and also sharing the same global changes. Changes in climate are

    the most serious ones, affecting the entire globe. Tourism, being mainly a

    coastal venture, is particularly vulnerable to such change. Careful planning

    and decision-making in tourism development is therefore extremely importantfor preventing and mitigating the possible negative influence global climate

    change may pose to the local community.

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    The importance of coastal environment

    Sri Lanka's coastline is about 1700 km long. Along the coast is a varietyof eco-systems, which include sandy beaches, rocky shores, lagoons,

    estuaries, mangroves, salt marshes and sand dunes. In the shallowwaters of the coastline are found sea-grass beds and coral reefs.

    Coral reefs and their resources are important for the fisheries industry,tourism industries and coast protection. Fisheries and tourism industries

    also provide employment to many. Estuaries and lagoons support fishing

    activities and they are used as anchorages for fishing boats.

    There are 14 true mangroves and there are 12 associated species in SriLanka. Very beautiful coral reefs are located in places such as

    Hikkaduwa, Pasikudah, Trinco and Kalpitiya.

    Coastal resources like coral reefs, sand dunes and mangroves areimportant to prevent coastal erosion. Degradation of these resources

    severely affect the coastal areas. Mangrove habitats are located within

    the lagoons and estuaries. For example, Madutank, Puttalam lagoon etc.

    We should protect coastal resources for our next generation

    Lagoon Mangrove

    Sandy Beach Sand Dune

    Coastal and Environment Development

    Coastal Environments are under very high population pressure

    due to the rapid urbanization processes. More than half of todays world

    population live in coastal areas(within 60km from the sea) and this number is on


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    Additionally, among all different parts of the planet, coastal

    areas are those which are most visited by tourists and in many coastal areas

    tourism presents the most important economic activity. In the mediterannean

    region for example, tourism is the first economic activity for islands like

    cyprus,Malta,the Belearic Islands and sicily.

    Forecast studies carried out by WTO estimate that international

    tourist arrivals to the Mediterranean coast will amount to 270 millions in 2010

    and to 346 millons 2020(in 2000 around 200 million foreign visitors per year).

    Daglas Devananda, Minister of Traditional Industries and Small Enterprise

    Development, addressing the graduate trainees absorbed to the State service at

    the Coastal Environment Protection Programme held at Jaffna district secretariat

    recently said that the sea weed farming project covering the entire coastal area of

    Jaffna peninsula that was launched was of extreme significance towards the

    protection of sea resources as well as the expansion of fishing activities in the

    area.Speaking further, the Minister said that the project initially would cover 292

    km of the Northern coast and was a step in the right direction taken to protect

    and conserve the Northern coast which was under constant threat due to

    destruction of mangrove vegetation, coral reef and other natural resources

    preventing sea erosion. He also said had such a step not been taken

    consequences would prove to be disastrous to fishing; the main livelihood of the

    inhabitants in these areas as well as to the beauty and splendour of the vast

    stretches of golden sea beaches in the North. The Minister requested the

    trainees to extend their full support to the Divisional Secretaries in implementing

    the coastal protection programme.

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    Coastal conservation department

    MissionConservation of the Coastal Zone and Management of Sustainable Coastal


    VisionSri Lanka to achieve prominency as a country with the sustainable management of

    coastal resources in the Asian Region.

    The combating Coastal Erosion dates back to many centuries and Coast Protection

    works were handled by various departments at various times prior to 1963. The

    realization of the government, that a comprehensive approach to coastal erosion

    control is required, led to establishment of a Coast Protection Unit in the

    Colombo Port Commission in 1963. In 1978, the Coast Protection Unit was

    transferred to Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MFAR) and was

    functioned as Coast Conservation Division.

    The Coast Conservation Act required having a survey of the Coastal Zone and

    preparation of a Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP). The CZMP, prepared by

    the CCD, was adopted by the Government and implemented as the Coastal Zone

    Management Plan 1990. A Resource Management strategy for Sri Lankas coastal

    region, Coastal 2000, which provided the direction for Coastal Resources

    Management of Sri Lanka, was prepared in1992. The second revised CZMP was

    implemented since 1997. The last revision of the CZMP was done in 2004 and is

    being implemented.

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    Coastal regions are home to a large and growing population in Sri Lanka.

    The high concentration of population have produced many economic benefits

    from the coastal resources, in particular from fishing, tourism, and maritime

    activities, while having improved transportation links, developed industrial and

    urban centers, and modified physical nature in the coastal zone. Eventually the

    increasing beneficiaries cause for degrading the Natural Coastal Environment.

    Hence Engineering and Management of Coastal Zone is vital for the sustainability

    of Coastal Resources.

    Specifically Coastal Conservation Departmentsobjectives are :-

    Improve the status of coastal environment Develop and manage the shoreline Improve the living standards of coastal communities Promote and facilitate economic development based upon coastal


    Marine Environment Protection Authority (MEPA)

    An act to provide for the prevention, control and reduction of pollution in

    the territorial waters of Sri Lanka or any other maritime zone, its fore-shore and

    the coastal zone of Sri Lanka and for matters connected therewith or incidental


    Marine Pollution Prevention Act, No.35 of 2008

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    Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR)

    An act to provide for the Management, Regulation, Conservation and

    development of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources in Sri Lanka; to repeal the

    Fisheries Ordinance (Chapter 212), the Chank Fisheries Act (Chapter 213), thePearl Fisheries Ordinance (Chapter 214) and the Whaling Ordinance (Chapter

    215); and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

    Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act, No. 2 of 1996 and Act, No. 4 of 2004


    National Aquaculture Development Authority of Sri Lanka (NAQDA)

    An act to provide for the establishment of the National Aquaculture Development Authority ofSri Lanka, to develop aquatic resources and the aquaculture industry: and to make provision for

    matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

    National Aquaculture Development Authority of Sri Lanka Act, No.53 of 1998 and Act, No.

    23 of 2006 (Amendment)

    Central Environmental Authority (CEA)

    The Central Environmental Authority (CEA) was established in August 1981

    under the provision of the National Environmental Act No:47 of 1980. TheMinistry of Environment and Natural Resources (ME&NR) which was established

    in December 2001 has the overall responsibility in the affairs of the CEA with the

    objective of integrating environmental considerations in the development process

    of the country. The CEA was given wider regulatory powers under the National

    Environment (Amendment) Acts No:56 of 1988 and No:53 of 2000.

    Vision :

    A clean and green environment through service excellence

    Mission :

    Flagship of the nation steering towards protecting & managing the quality of

    the environment by promoting public participation, enforcement, advanced

    technological interventions & environmental education.

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    Central Environmental Authoritys Services

    The Central Environmental Authority has a well equipped Laboratory which is

    capable of carrying out an extensive tests in water quality, air quality, noise

    and vibrations measurements. During last two decades, our services wererestricted only for official environmental regulatory purposes. But now we

    have extended our analytical testing facilities under commercial basis for those

    who need water, air, noise, soil and solid waste testing facilities. As a service

    oriented testing facilities provider, we offer you the competitive rates in

    environmental monitoring and analysis.

    Marine Fishing and Aquaculture Development

    40% of Sri Lankas coastline lies in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The

    province has immense potential for fisheries and marine aquaculture. Marine

    and lagoon-based fishery industry will have to be modernized and re-equipped

    to enable the population to benefit from the rich and underutilized marine

    resources. New aquaculture-based industries could be established to elevate

    productivity and offer more livelihood options to the people of the


    In order to develop marine fisheries and coastal zone on a sustainable basis,

    the fishery potential, looming threats and important conservation areas (such

    as sea grass beds and coral reefs) should be surveyed and mapped. It is

    imperative that exploitation of the resources is done within the limits of

    sustainability with adequate emphasis on conservation and protection for

    future useage.

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    In our training period we were visit some places to learnt

    about their functions and main activities.

    Such as :-

    Coastal conservation departmentNational Institute of Fisheries and Nautical Engineering (Ocean University


    Net factory Boat factory Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Ice factory Sea food factory.

    National Institute of Fisheries and Nautical Engineering(Ocean University Jaffna)

    The Ocean University is not just another University. Our aim is to develop it as a

    community-oriented University. The fishing community and people who earn

    their livelihood from the sea will be the direct beneficiaries. The development of

    the port sector is bound to create more job opportunities.

    The university has already commenced degree programs on Navigation,

    International Transport Management, Harbour Management, Coastal Zone

    Management and Diploma programs on Marine Engineering Technology,

    Fibreglass Technology, Computer Science, Certificate courses in Underwater

    Welding Technology, out board Motor Engine Repair and Maintenance, Marine

    Engine Technology, Swimming, Life Saving, Scuba Diving, and Fishing Gear

    Technology. The BSc degree programs are on Fisheries and Marine Science,

    Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture.

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    The Ocean University - the National Institute of Fisheries and Nautical

    Engineering was setup in 1999 by President Mahinda Rajapaksa the then Minister

    of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.

    Main Coastal Habitats in Sri Lanka Coral Reefs Sand Dunes Lagoon sand Estuaries Sea Grass Beds Salt Marshes Mangroves Barrier Beaches, Spit sand Dunes

    Coastal Problems in Sri Lanka

    Coastal Erosion Habitats Degradation Costal Pollution Lack of Beach Access Coral Mining and Sand Mining Improper Constructions

    Net factory

    North Sea Limited

    North Sea Ltd, located factory in Jaffna was established in June 2001

    under Companies Act No: 17 of 1982 and re-registered new Company

    Act No: 7 of 2007.

    This Institution was assigned to Ministry of Traditional Industries &

    Small Enterprise Development by the extra ordinary gazette notification

    No.1651/20 dated 30th April 2010.

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    Ice factoryClassification of ice plants

    The term ice plant is used in this note to mean a complete installation for

    the production and storage of ice, including the icemaker itself, that is the unit

    that converts water into ice together with the associated refrigeration

    machinery, harvesting and storage equipment, and the building.

    Ice plants are usually classified by the type of ice they produce; hence there

    are block ice plants, flake ice plants, tube, slice or plate ice plants and so on.

    Ice plants may be further subdivided into those that make dry or wet ice. Dry

    ice here means ice at a temperature low enough to prevent the particles

    becoming moist; the term does not refer in this note to solid carbon dioxide. In

    general, dry subcooled ice is made in plants that mechanically remove the ice

    from the cooling surface; most flake ice plants are of this type. When the

    cooling surface of an icemaker is warmed by a defrost mechanism to release

    the ice, the surface of the ice is wet and, unless the ice is then subcooled

    below 0C, remains wet in storage; tube ice and plate ice plants are of this


    Types of icemaker

    Block ice Rapid block ice Flake ice Tube ice

    Thank You

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