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  • CLIO AND THE POETS

  • MNEMOSYNE BIBLIOTHECA GLASSICA BATAVA

    COLLEGERUNT

    H. PINKSTER • H. W. PLEKET -C.J. RUIJGH

    D.M. SCHENKEVELD • PH. SCHRIJVERS

    S.R. SLINGS

    BIBLIOTHECAE FASCICULOS EDENDOS CURAVIT

    C.J. RUIJGH, KLASSIEK SEMINARIUM, OUDE TURFMARKT 129, AMSTERDAM

    SUPPLEMENTUM DUCENTESIMUM VICESIMUM QUARTUM

    D.S. LEVENE & D.P. NELIS (EDS.)

    CLIO AND THE POETS

  • CLIO AND THE POETS AUGUSTAN POETRY AND THE TRADITIONS

    OF ANCIENT HISTORIOGRAPHY

    EDITED BY

    D.S. LEVENE AND D.P. NELIS

    BRILL LEIDEN • BOSTON • KOLN

    2002

  • This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is also available.

    Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufiiahme

    Clio and the poets / ed. by D.S. Levene and DP. Nelis. - Leiden ;

    Boston ; Koln : Brill, 2002

    (Mnemosyne : Supplementum ; Vol. 224)

    ISBN 90-04-11782-2

    ISSN 0169-8958

    ISBN 9004117822

    © Copyright 2002 by Koninklijke Brill jVTf Leiden, The Netherlands

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written

    permission from the publisher.

    Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910

    DanversMA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change.

    PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

  • CONTENTS

    Abbreviations vii

    Introduction ix D. S. Levene & D. P. Mis

    1. Clio exclusa 1 C. J. Classen

    2. Propertius the Historian (3.3.1-12)? 25 Francis Cairns

    3. Actium and Teutoburg: Augustan Victory and Defeat in Vergil and Tacitus 45 V. E. Pagan

    4. Stepping Out of the Ring: Repetition and Sacrifice in the Boxing Match in Aeneid 5 61 Andrew Feldherr

    5. Archaism and Historicism in Horace's Odes 81 Ellen 0'Gorman

    6. Ab inferis: Historiography in Horace's Odes 103 Cynthia Damon

    7. Vergil's Italy: Ethnography and Politics in First-century Rome 123 Clifford Ando

    8. Roman Archaeology in Vergil's Arcadia (Vergil Eclogue 4; Aeneid 8; Livy 1.7) 143 Marko Marincic

    9. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Universal History 163 Stephen M. Wheeler

  • VI CONTENTS

    10. The Historian in Ovid. The Roman History of Metamorphoses 14-15 191 Philip Hardie

    11. The Alban Kings in the Metamorphoses: an Ovidian Catalogue and its Historiographical Models 211 Stratis Kyriakidis

    12. The Fall of Troy: Between Tradition and Genre 231 Andreola Rossi

    13. Epic Encounters? Ancient Historical Battle Narratives and the Epic Tradition 253 Rhiannon Ash

    14. The Structure of Livy's First Pentad and the Augustan Poetry Book 275 Ann Vasaly

    15. A Varronian Vatic Numa?: Ovid's Fasti and Plutarch's Life of Numa 291 Molly Pasco-Pranger

    16. The Extinction of the Potitii and the Sacred History of Augustan Rome 313 Hans-Friedrich Mueller

    17. History, Poetry, and Annales 331 T. P. Wiseman

    Bibliography 363

    Index of passages discussed 381

    General Index 388

    List of Contributors 395

  • ABBREVIATIONS

    ANRW Aufstieg und Niedergang der rdmischen Welt (1972-). CIL Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (1893-) EV F. Delia Corte, Enciclopedia Virgiliana (1984-1991). FGrH F. Jacoby, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (1923-). FLP E. Courtney, The Fragmentary Latin Poets (1993) HRR H. Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae, vol. 1, 2nd ed.

    (1914), vol. 2 (1906). IG Inscriptiones Graecae (1873-). ILLRP A. Degrassi, Inscriptiones Latinae Liberae Rei Republicae, vol. 1,

    2nd ed. (1965), 2 (1963). ILS H. Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (1892—1916) LJMC Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (1981—) MRR T. S. R. Broughton. The Magistrates of the Roman Republic

    (1951-2) OCD S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth, Oxford Classical Dictionary,

    3rd edition (1996). ORF H. Malcovati, Oratorum Romanorum Fragmenta, 2nd ed. (1955),

    4th ed. (1967). RE A. Pauly, G. Wissowa, W. Kroll, Real-Encydopcidie der klas-

    sischen Altertumswissenschaft (1893—). RG P. A. Brunt and J. M. Moore, Res Gestae Divi Augusti (1967) Roman Statutes ed. M. Crawford, Roman Statutes (1996) TLL Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (1900-)

    Otherwise, abbreviations generally follow the conventions established by Liddell and Scott, Greek-Engish Lexicon, The Oxford Latin Dictionary and L'Annee philologique.

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  • INTRODUCTION

    D. S. Levene & D. P. Nelis

    The original versions of the essays in this book were given at a con- ference with the title 'Augustan Poetry and the Traditions of Ancient Historiography', which took place at the University of Durham on 31 August-3 September 1999. The brief given to the participants was that papers should illustrate 'the ways in which Augustan poetry, in all its dense social and textual engagement, interacts with the tra- ditions of ancient historiography'. This interaction could take a variety of forms: not only direct influences on poets by historians, but also poetic influences on historiography, and wider examinations of themes and techniques that intersect the two genres in Augustan literature.

    This book covers the whole of that range. Of course, the interests of the individual scholars has led to greater emphasis being placed in some areas than in others. This is most obvious if one looks at the authors and texts concentrated on. Virgil (and especially the Aeneid] and Ovid (and especially the Metamorphoses) understandably form the most popular areas of discussion; there is much less (for example) on Tibullus. But the aim of the book overall is to present a wide-ranging general examination of authors, themes and approaches to the topic.

    Likewise, the perspectives that these essays bring to the question are very different from one another, and there are significant diver- gences of approach. Some of them are precise examinations of rel- atively short texts; others are much more broadly focused. Some are rooted closely in a strong historicism; others explicitly or implicitly challenge a purely historicist methodology. Some argue for direct causal links between poetry and historiography (in either direction); others look to broader parallelisms; still others directly argue against significant relationships between the genres. It follows from this that the book as a whole does not and cannot present clear and unequiv- ocal answers to the questions about the relationship between poetic and historical genres in the Augustan age. Rather it should be read as a complex and evolving contribution to a complex and evolving debate: as something that sets challenges and opens up arguments rather than decisively closing them down.

  • X D. S. LEVENE & D. P. NELIS

    Many of the readers of this book will doubtless be looking into it in order to read particular essays in their particular area of interest, ignoring all those essays which do not appear to touch directly on their current work. That choice is of course the reader's privilege, although one may regret the structures of scholarship and study that have increasingly pushed scholars into specialisation and students into a narrow focus on particular topics. But we have edited and arranged this book in the hope that some people at least will read it through as a whole, and so engage fully with the complexity of debate and argument that it represents. The order of the essays is therefore deliberate and designed to that end: to highlight connections and bring out the developing threads of discussion and debate between the different essays. The main purpose of this introduction is to set out explicitly something of the rationale for our decisions, and so indicate one way in which this discussion and debate might be read.

    C. J. Classen's essay stands first (Chapter One): it surveys the full range of Augustan poets, and so establishes the general field upon which the arguments will be fought out. The more important reason for its position is that Classen's conclusions present from the start a sceptical challenge that every other essay in the book has to meet. He argues for the actual influence of historiography on poetry being all but non-existent: that while the poets sometimes may treat his- torical topics., they do not do so in a distinctively historiographical way. This distinction between content and form, and its relationship to the question of genre, is in all its manifestations at the heart of the entire book, though the other essays often reach very different conclusions.

    What Classen argued across the entire genre, Francis Cairns then examines for a single poem (Chapter Two). His close reading of Propertius 3.3 looks at two aspects of Propertius' presentation of past events — his lack of chronological order and his apparently anachro- nistic account of Ennius' Annales — that have puzzled commentators and led them to propose emendation. Both alleged problems, he argues, stem from a tacit assumption that poetry will in its presen- tation of the past mirror the approach of historiography. This, he suggests, is not so. In poetry, unlike historiography, we should not expect chronology to lie at the centre of the presentation, nor should we demand clear identifi