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  • Church Road, Arrochar, Argyll and Bute

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    CONTENTS PAGE Frontispiece: 19th century view of Inverioch House Figure 1. Site Location Plan 2 Introduction 3 Map Evidence Figure 2: Pont’s map of c. 1590 and Charles Ross’s map of 1777 4 Figure 3. First Edition OS Map of 1860 and Third Edition OS map of 1914 5 Discussion of Map Evidence 6 Background Information on the Parish of Arrochar and Clan MacFarlane 7 Arrochar House 9 The Field Evaluation 10 Introduction 10 Figure 4. Site Plan showing trench locations 12 Trench 1 13 Trench 2 13 Figure 5: Photograph of Trench 1 as excavated 16 Figure 6: Photograph of Trench 2 as excavated 16 Trench 3 17 Trench 4 17 Figure 7: Photograph of Trench 3 as excavated 19 Figure 8: Photograph of Trench 4 as excavated 19 Trench 5 20 Trench 6 21 Figure 9: Photograph of Trench 5 as excavated 23 Figure 10: Photograph of Trench 6 as excavated 23 Trench 7 24 Trench 8 25 Figure 11: Photograph of Trench 7 as excavated 26 Figure 12: Photograph of Trench 8 as excavated 26 Trench 9 27 Trench 10 27 Figure 13: Photograph of Trench 9 as excavated 28 Figure 14: Photograph of Trench 10 as excavated 28 Trench 11 29 Trench 12 30 Figure 15: Photograph of Trench 11 as excavated 31 Figure 16: Photograph of Trench 12 as excavated 31 Trench 13 32 Feature 1 33 Feature 2 33 The Burn 33 Figure 17: Photograph of Trench 13 as excavated 34 Figure 18: Photograph of inscription above the main door of the Cobbler Hotel 34 Summary and Conclusions 35 Recommendations 36 Acknowledgements 36 Report Distribution 36 Contents and Location of the Archive 36 Discovery and Excavation in Scotland entry 37 Bibliography 38 Archive Material 41

    - Drawings List 41 - Photograph Lists 41

    Contact Addresses 43

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    Introduction Luss Estates Company and JGA Paterson and Sons propose building eleven houses in a development to be known as The Orchard at an area of woodland located on Church Road Arrochar, Argyll and Bute at NGR NN 2974 0385 (centred). The site is within the Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park. The West of Scotland Archaeology Service (WoSAS) advised that an archaeological evaluation of the site be carried out in advance of the determination of the planning application and recommended that 5% of the site area was investigated by trial trenching. An archaeological issue was identified at the site due to its proximity to the Cobbler Hotel (formerly called Arrochar House), which was the seat of the Chief of Clan MacFarlane. Arrochar House was built in c. 1869 when it is known that the MacFarlane’s former residence, Inverioch House, was dismantled. Inverioch House was the principal MacFarlane residence and home of the clan chief in the 17th century and Inverioch House is believed to have been built in 1697 on the site of an earlier house or castle. The exact location of the earlier houses is uncertain. However, it is recorded that Inverioch House was systematically dismantled and the new house, Arrochar House, was built in 1869. It may be that Inverioch House lies under the site of the Cobbler Hotel and it is unlikely that the building stone of the earlier house was transported any great distance for reuse in the new mansion. This report provides some background information on the MacFarlanes and their residences and reports on the results of the archaeological evaluation of the Church Road site.

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    Figure 2.

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    Figure 3.

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    Discussion of Map Evidence The map evidence for the development site indicates that it has been open ground until the late 19th or early 20th century. The earliest map available is Pont’s map of c. 1590. Pont’s map shows a house identified as Innerriach at the Pt of Errawharr (Arrochar) and confirms that the seat of the MacFarlanes at Inverioch was in existence by the late 16th century. This map is not detailed enough to plot exactly where Inverioch House was but the shape of the shoreline indicates that Innerriach is in the approximate location of the Cobbler Hotel The next available map is Charles Ross’s Map of the County of Dunbartonshire dated 1777. This map is quite detailed and shows the military road built by Caufield from Dumbarton to Inverary and shows a large house named as New Tarbart at the site of the Cobbler Hotel. Again the map is not as detailed as the modern OS maps but the line of the shore and the position of the road indicates that the big house is in the same location as shown on Pont's map of 1590. There is no indication of any outbuildings or gardens other than woodland, which appears to be formally planted in the vicinity of the house. The First Edition Ordnance Survey map of 1860 is much more detailed and clearly shows Arrochar House identified as an hotel. The line of the burn and the driveway down to Arrochar House on the N side of the burn is clearly shown with the gateway from Church Road. The area of the proposed development is shown as blank and undeveloped suggesting it was open pasture. Only a row of trees along the NW side of the plot at the rear of the hotel is shown and this map clearly shows that there were no buildings or gardens or ruins on the plot. The identification of Arrochar House strongly suggests that it is the site of Inverioch House. The next available map is the 1914 Ordnance Survey. The Second Edition Ordnance Survey map of the 1890s was not available for consultation. The 1914 map shows the burn and driveway to Arrochar House as shown on the 1860 OS map and shows a walled enclosure on the development site. This rectangular enclosure is shown as enclosed by a wall with an L shaped structure located in the E corner with two additional rooms shown on the outside (E) side of the enclosure wall. A fence is shown running NW-SE across the walled enclosure dividing it into two and the W half is shown as planted with trees strongly suggesting an orchard. The E half of the enclosure is shown as empty space suggesting grass or perhaps a garden. However, we know from a local source that the L shaped buildings n the corner were pigsties and it is therefore most likely that this was the field for the pigs. At the SW corner of the enclosure wall a curved wall is shown linking to the rear of Arrochar House suggesting that the driveway for Arrochar House may have continued along the S side of the enclosure although no driveway is actually shown on the map but a footpath is shown as extending for part of the length of the S side of the enclosure. The archaeological assessment of the site suggests that a track or path did run along the S side of the walled enclosure linking the back of Arrochar House to Church Road. In summary the map evidence suggests that the area of the proposed development was not enclosed until the late 19th – early 20th century. The maps also indicate that the Cobbler Hotel is probably built on the site of Inverioch House and that it did not extend into the proposed development area.

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    Background Information on Arrochar and the MacFarlanes

    First Statistical Account of Arrochar Parish 1791 by Reverend John Gillespie In 1791 the population was 379 people and the main occupations after subsistence farming were repairing the military roads with the soldiers, building dykes, manufacturing timber and barks or herring fishing. Peat was the main fuel with those living on Loch Long using coal brought from Glasgow. At Loch Lomond there was a large oak wood which was coppiced every 20 to 24 years so that only a few standards remained. Both English and Gaelic were spoken with Gaelic prevalent. The MacFarlanes whose “ferocity was a prominent feature of their character” had resisted the breakdown of the clan system but by 1791 were described as “civil, well bred, honest and industrious”, perhaps with some exaggeration. Second Statistical Account of Arrochar Parish, 1839 by Reverend Peter Proudfoot There was 14 miles of coast along Loch Lomond and Tarbet Isle, Inveruglas Isle and Ellan Vhow were considered part of the parish. White hares and ptarmigan lived on Ben Vorlich and Loch Lomond provided a variety of fish. Several sheep farms raised excellent quality stock. Several years ago a plague of caterpillars had destroyed the foliage of the oak woods. The parish belonged almost entirely to Luss Estate and the population had increased to 560 largely as a result of smaller farms having been established. John McMurrich owned the small estate of Stukgoun (Stuckgowan) and he paid the private schoolmaster's annual salary. English and Gaelic were both spoken though many people could no longer speak Gaelic and it would soon die out. The extensive oak woods were regularly thinned, in good order and generated around £300 a year. Steam boats plied Loch Lomond from May to October. A new inn had been built at Arrochar to accommodate the tourist trade.

    Clan MacFarlane Descended from Parlan whose great grandfather was a younger son of Alwyn the second Earl of Lennox. Malduin, Earl of Lennox granted Parlan lands at Arrochar in c. 1230 AD.

    Noted cattle thieves and practisers of blackmail, an ancient Scottish extortion racket for the protection of cattle herds, they occupied the land around the north west of Loch Lomond over to Arrochar from the 13th century. The clan’s motto is “This I’ll Defend” and the battle cry is “Loch Sloy”. The tune played on the bagpipes when the clan gathered is called “Lifting the Cattle” and the moon was known as MacFarlane’s Lantern.

    Duncan MacFarlane, son of Duncan MacFarlane was granted the islands of Elanvow, Elanvanow, Elandouglas and Elaig sometime before 1425 by Duncan Earl of Lennox. The identification of Elanvanow and Elaig is uncertain.

    An example of the MacFarlane’s raiding lifestyle is the record of what they pillaged during a raid to Faslane and Little Balernock on Garelochside in 1543 - 280 cattle, 80 sheep, 24 goats, 20 horses, 80 stones of cheese, 40 bolls of barley, anybody who tried to stop them was killed. The following year they harried the Colquhouns and killed nine Colquhoun tenants in their beds. The MacFarlanes were assisted on some of these raids by the Dennistouns of Colgrain.

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    In 1592 Sir Humphrey Colquhoun was killed by the MacFarlanes at Bannachra Castle in Glen Fruin after he had been caught in flagrante delicto with the Chief of MacFarlane’s wife.

    However, the MacFarlanes’ cattle lifting and raiding resulted in the clan being proscribed under James VI and I and their lands were forfeited. In 1624 many MacFarlanes were forcibly transported to Aberdeenshire and Banffshire to stop them causing trouble. However, James VI is recorded as having visited Ellan Vhow in gratitude for services rendered by Andrew MacFarlane the 14th Chief (1547-1612) who had fought at the Battle of Langside in 1568 against Mary Queen of Scots with 300 of his clansmen. The Queen’s assassinated husband, Darnley, had been heir to the Lennox and the Darnleys and MacFarlanes were related by marriage. The MacFarlanes were also granted their Coat of Arms for their role in the Battle of Langside.

    It was not unusual for clan chiefs to change their allegiances as suited them and while one year they may have been fighting for the crown the next they may have been raiding their neighbours cattle and be outlawed.

    The 15th chief of MacFarlane, John, built an almshouse at Croit a phuirt or Bruitford on the mainland near Ellan Vhow during the reign of King James VI, (1567 - 1625). Financial provision was made for any traveller who wished to seek shelter there. He also restored the family burial vault at Luss.

    The MacFarlanes, under the leadership of Walter MacFarlane, fought under Montrose for Charles I and apart from being fined 3000 marks by the victorious Covenanters his island castle on Inveruglas Isle was twice besieged and eventually destroyed in the mid 17th century by Cromwell’s troops. The chief relocated to the other MacFarlane castle on Ellan Vhow which was built in 1577 by Andrew MacFarlane.

    The MacFarlanes also had a castle at Tarbet called Clattochmore which is recorded in 1592 when the Chief of MacFarlane took refuge here after the slaying of Sir Humphrey Colquhoun. The site of this castle is now thought to be occupied by the Old Manse and legend holds that Robert the Bruce built a castle here. Ruins and foundations of his castle were recorded by Fraser in 1869 but there is now no trace of it to be seen.

    In 1658 the new parish of Arrochar was formed and in 1659 Sir John Colquhoun “denuded himself of the tithes” of Arrochar and Chief John MacFarlane, who later distinguished himself at the Battle of Bothwell Brig in 1679, took over the whole responsibility with the duties of providing a church, manse and glebe land. Public worship took place at Pulpit Rock on the shore of Loch Lomond south of Ardlui and continued here regularly until the first parish church of Arrochar was built in 1733. Occasional services continued to be held at the rock until the later 19th century. The rock’s name is Craig an tairibh in Gaelic which means The Bull’s Rock and legend holds that it was dislodged from the hillside by a battle between two rival bulls.

    In 1697 Chief John MacFarlane built a new house at Arrochar or New Tarbet and it was here that the famous antiquary Walter MacFarlane, one of the last MacFarlane chiefs, lived in the early 18th century and died in 1767. (see below).

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    The clan’s fall from fortune was predicted by a seer called McPharick who said that when a black goose settled amongst the laird’s poultry the chiefs would lose all their lands. The black swan came and stayed for three months after which all the MacFarlane lands had to be sold for debts in 1784-85 and the last MacFarlane chief emigrated to America. The direct line of descent died out in 1866 and the estates were inherited by the Colquhouns of Luss in 1836. Arrochar House The house at Arrochar was originally known as Inverioch House or Innerriach as it is spelled on Pont’s map of c.1590. The house was also known as New Tarbet which has led to confusion as to its location over the years as one might expect it to be located at Tarbet on Loch Lomond. In later years the house became known as Arrochar House and most recently it has been renamed as the Cobbler Hotel. There is no trace of the earliest 16th century building and we know that the long serving chief of the Clan MacFarlane, John, had a new house built in 1697. The 1697 house was called New Tarbet to differentiate it from the castle at Tarbet and it is believed the new house of 1697 incorporated the SW portion of the old castle. The 1697 house was replaced in 1785 and this house was dismantled in 1869 and a new house, now the Cobbler Hotel, built by Sir James Colquhoun. While this information is recorded in written sources there is no change in the ground plan between the 1860 OS map and the 1914 OS map. The modern 1980s 1:10,000 OS map does show a different plan for the house and it seems most likely that the 1914 OS survey simply did not update the details of the house plan from the earlier editions. A date stone over the entrance to the present building records the date of 1697 and records in Gaelic ‘this stone was taken from the main entrance to the house built by John, Chief of the MacFarlanes and Laird of Arrochar, in the year inscribed upon it’. It appears that there have been four houses on the site of the Cobbler Hotel including the present mansion dated to 1869. The documentary sources indicate that all of the houses have stood on the same site. The archaeological evaluation of the walled garden / enclosure to the rear (east) of the Cobbler Hotel found no evidence of earlier buildings and this also strongly suggests that the earlier castles or mansion houses are under or incorporated in to the 1869 building. The Cobbler Hotel is a B Listed building and its description in the Historic Scotland Statutory List describes the 1869 house as added to an existing c. 1780 rectangular plan house of painted stucco with ashlar margins and dressings, eaves and quoin strips at the rear of the 1869 mansion. The gatepiers of the East Gate are described as rendered rubble with ashlar pyramidal caps with the left one missing and these are also included in the listing. Two images showing Inverioch House were located in Helensburgh Library. One of the images, published in the 1902 edition of the Celtic Magazine, shows an 1824 view of the house and the other image, reproduced as the frontispiece to the report, dates to slightly later in the 19th century. Both of these images show the same plan and orientation to the house and both suggest a tree lined avenue at the SW of the site and

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    this is perhaps represented by the faint remains of a track located during the archaeological evaluation and shown on the site plan. It is also of note that both of these views, which show the approximate area of the development site in the foreground, show the land as level and open ground. The tree lined avenue and open grass around the S side of the house, which was entered form the S, are typical late 17th – early 18th century features of a designed / picturesque landscape. Michael Davies, architectural historian and archivist at Helensburgh Library noted that the view of Inverioch House is similar in general style to the 17th century wing of Kelburne House by Largs. The Field Evaluation Introduction The proposed development site is located at NGR NN 2974 0385 on the N side of Church Road opposite the Fire Station and Mountain Rescue buildings and Inverioch steadings. It is of note that the steadings bear the name of the earlier residence of the MacFarlane chiefs prior to the construction of Arrochar House (Cobbler Hotel) in 1869. These steadings contain a number of fine architectural details indicating they were attached to a high status residence. The development plot extends over approximately 9000 square metres and is bounded on the SE by Church Road, on the SW by gardens and on the NW by the grounds of the Cobbler Hotel. The plot is divided along its NE side by a burn. The proposed housing development will be restricted to the S side of this burn and the E side of the burn will be preserved and managed as woodland and public open space. The old gate piers for Arrochar House, which are 19th century in date and C Listed structures, stand at the Church Road end of the burn where a track leads down to the Hotel. The track is no longer in use and does not belong to the hotel any longer but to Luss Estates. It is proposed to resurface and upgrade this track as an access into the woodland area but no other development is proposed for the E side of the burn. The development plot is roughly square in plan and measures approximately 75m NW-SE x 68m NE-SW or 5100 square metres. A collapsed enclosure wall 0.40m thick built of angular schist rubble partially bonded with lime mortar and with a rubble core bounds the proposed building site on all sides. At the SE end of the site the wall line is partially obscured by make-up deposits associated with the resurfacing and upgrading of Church Road. On the SW and NW sides the wall is only up to 0.25m high and is completely deflated and we know from a local source that this wall was systematically dismantled. The wall is best preserved along the NE side, particularly at the NE corner of the site where there is evidence of rebuilding and remodelling in brick. At the SE corner of the site there are the remains of low brick walls constructed of late 19th – early 20th century bricks bonded in lime mortar. The same bricks are present at the N corner of the site. It is likely that these walls represent the remains of a piggery, which is known to have stood on the site.

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    The plot itself is quite heavily wooded with several mature trees but the vast majority of the trees are saplings. A number of the mature trees are ornamental pines and it is apparent that this was once a planned and designed garden area. Amongst the trees on the plot it was possible to trace the lines of paths edged with angular freestone and these were investigated during the excavations. A small rockery comprised of large white quartz boulders was also located during the site walk-over prior to the excavations. Some apple trees are present in approximately the centre of the plot confirming local knowledge and the map evidence that the site was used as an orchard in the earlier 20th century. The walled enclosure is generally level ground with a slight and gentle slope from SE to NW and, considering the drop in ground surface form Church Road along the SE side of the site it seemed likely that the area of the walled enclosure had been artificially levelled. The woodland is a bluebell wood. The trial trenching of approximately 317 square metres of the proposed development site was undertaken by a machine operated by Alan Paterson and fitted with a toothless ditching bucket under direct archaeological supervision and the trenches were then hand cleaned as necessary and natural and anthropogenic deposits recorded. A total of thirteen trenches were excavated. 5% of the walled enclosure area is c. 255 square metres and the actual excavation of 317 square metres represents an evaluation of just over 6% of the actual area proposed for development. The field work was carried out by Fiona Baker of Firat Archaeological Services between 22 March and 25 March 2004. The weather was generally dry and sunny with occasional showers. A local man, Ronnie MacDonald, informed us that the enclosure wall had originally been 10 feet high and it had been systematically dismantled and recycled locally. Mr MacDonald also remembered the site in use as an orchard in about 1950 but that it was not very productive. He was also able to recall the use of the site for pigs and confirmed that the brick structures in the SE corner of the site where the remains of the pig sties. The Orchard Kennels, which we thought might have also stood on the site, had in fact been located outside the proposed development area and had been destroyed by the upgrading of Church Road. It was also noted that there is a water pipe located to the S of the S side enclosure wall and that this pipe is now partially buried under the bank of earth along the N side of Church Road. Mr MacDonald was also aware of buried peat being present at the SW corner of Inverioch Court suggesting the buried peat located in Trench 6 may not be an unusual occurrence in this part of the village.

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    Figure 4. Site Plan showing trench locations

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    Trench 1 Trench 1 was located at the N corner of the enclosure and measured 10m NW-SE by 2m SW-NE and was oriented at 316°. The total depth of excavation was 0.60m. The topsoil F101 was a dark brown, slightly sandy and very humic homogeneous loam 0.30m deep. Less than 10 sherds of very late 19th century- early 20th century white glazed earthenware pottery sherds and one early 20th century spirit bottle were recovered from the topsoil. Underlying the topsoil was a layer of subsoil F102 which was a homogeneous orange to mid brown slightly sandy clay (clay 50%, silt 30%, sand 20%). This subsoil layer was 0.25m deep and contained very rare inclusions of coal fragments and occasional cinders, which may have been sorted down into the subsoil from the overlying topsoil. Given the evidence from elsewhere on site it is possible that F102 was redeposited but there was nothing obvious to suggest this was the case. Underlying the subsoil F103 was the natural subsoil F104, which was a pale yellow - grey coarse gritty sand and clayey sand with moderate inclusions of angular schist stones between 0.05m and 0.12m in size. Cutting through the topsoil was a stone filled drain F103, which had been capped with gravel to form a path. The drain measured up to 1m wide and ran NW-SE along the SW side of the trench. The fill of the drain, which is a filter and soak-away design, was beach shingle gravel with 60% cobbles and some small boulders. The stones were schist, sandstone and quartz and were a mixture of water rounded glacial moraine derived stones and angular schist fragments, no architectural fragments were present. The stones measured 0.20m x 0.112m x 0.10m on average with occasional larger stones up to 0.30m x 0.25m x 0.20m The stone filled drain had been sealed under a compacted layer of gravel and beach shingle, which formed a path and also acted as a filter for water to percolate down into the main drain. A small extension to the W side of the trench, as the trench had just clipped F103, confirmed that the path and drain had a well defined W edge and that it cut the topsoil F101. It appears that the stone filled drain and path that seals the top of it are part of the use of the site as a walled garden / orchard / piggery and is of 19th – 20th century date. Trench 2 Trench 2 was located adjacent to the NE enclosure wall and to the S of Trench 1. Trench 2 measured 7.20m NW-SE by 12m SW-NE and 0.60m deep with excavation up to 1.20m deep in the sondage and was oriented at 220°. This trench was very heavily rooted with tree roots. This trench was the largest trench we were able to open on the site due to the woodland, which was under protection at the time of the evaluation. A sondage was opened in the SE corner of the trench in order to examine three NE-SW aligned drains in section. A dark brown humic and homogenous topsoil of dark brown heavily rooted sandy loam 0.30m deep, F201, was present throughout the trench and this overlay F202 a very pale slightly greyish brown subsoil of silt 50%, sand 45% and clay 5%. Both

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    F201 and F202 were homogeneous deposits with rare inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded schist pebbles and small cobbles. The subsoil F202 overlay two quite distinct deposits of pale creamy yellow silt and sandy silt, F203, which was interpreted as undisturbed natural subsoil and, at the E end of the trench only, a grey gleyed micaceous clayey sand, F207, interpreted as redeposited natural. Iron panning and rare patches of fractured schist and water rounded cobbles up to 0.20m in size and some angular schist rocks up to 0.20m in size along with some smaller angular and rounded schist and quartz stones were present throughout the in situ natural and redeposited silts, sands and clays. The grey gleyed micaceous clay, F207, seemed very high in the sequence of deposits as one would expect to find this glacial till deposit under the sands and gravels, as seen in Trench 4. The grey clay is cut by the drains and if the grey clay represents a levelling and make-up deposit, perhaps as a barrier against flooding from the burn, it was deposited before the drains were built. It would be logical to have prepared the area by levelling works before installing the drainage system. At the W side of the pebble filled drain F204 was a roughly circular patch of pale brown silt 75%, clay 15% and sand 10%. A sondage measuring 3.20m E-W x 2.10m N-S and 0.60m deep was excavated across this patch of pale brown silt and its interface with the natural silts and silty sands to determine if it was a natural or man made feature. It was considered that the pale brown silt might represent geological polygonal patterning and it is unknown how much landscaping work or levelling might have taken place on the site when it was developed as a walled ‘garden’ or prior to this documented use of the area. It is however of note that the site does lie somewhat lower than Church Road and the Inverioch Steadings although this is in some part due to the natural hill slope. The sondage revealed that the pale brown silt underlay the pale cream and grey silt. Iron panning and lenses of gritty red silty sand were also present within the pale brown silt, which appears entirely natural in its composition. At the NW corner of the trench a red clayey sand (sand 50%, clay 35%, sand 15%) was present under the subsoil F202 and this was interspersed with pockets of grey gleyed silt. In short the natural deposits are all glacial till deposits in origin. This trench showed quite a variation between the composition of the natural subsoils within a small area. This may be a result of levelling of the site, and we do not know what the natural topography was, but there is also the possibility that some of these glacial till deposits have been redeposited, perhaps when the site was levelled and drain installed when it was prepared for use as a garden / orchard / pigsty. It is also possible that the grey silt at the E side of the trench may represent the line of an old watercourse. However, all of the natural deposits and natural derived and possibly redeposited subsoils were devoid of artefacts or signs of turbation or exposure and weathering. The natural subsoils were all numbered as F203. Three drains were located in this trench, F204 a drain filled with small pebbles and gravel and F205 a cobble and small boulder filled drain with a gravel capping and a ceramic pipe drain F206. Drain F205 is the same drain as F103 located in Trench 1 and shows exactly the same construction method as well as being on the same alignment.

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    Drain F204 was a U shaped cut 0.26m wide and 0.22m deep with a fill of water rounded pebbles and small cobbles of 0.11m x 0.05m x0.04m on average and was aligned NW-SE. Drain F205 was a shallow U shaped profile measuring 1.00m wide and was 0.40m deep. The stone fill of this drain is as described for F103 in Trench 1, which is the same drain. The stone fill was about 75% of the deposit and the gravel and beach shingle upper fill or capping made up 25% of the overall fill of the drain. It is apparent that the drain also acted as a path with more emphasis on drainage, There was no defined kerb or edge to the path in Trench 2 but parallel lines of stones elsewhere on the site suggest that the gravel paths present on the site were edged in places. The drains, F204, F205 and F206 were located in the E side of the trench and all ran parallel to the NE side enclosure wall. This may suggest that ground water was more of a problem in this area or that the main drains were located at the edge of the enclosure and the drains in the interior fed into these main drains. This may also be suggested by the evidence of drainage measures seen in Trench 5. The drains in Trench 2 all ran on the same alignment and consisted of Drain F204 at 1.5m W of the E baulk, drain F206 located 0.50m further W and drain F205, the main stone filled drain with gravel path capping located 1.20m further W than F206. Drain F206 was a terracotta drain of late 19th – early 20th century date made up of square sections of pipe with an oval centrally placed hole, which measured 0.35m in length x 0.08m x 0.08m. This drain was still operational and was located at c. 1m below the ground surface. The cut was not clearly visible in plan indicating good natural drainage at the surface of the site. The cut was a steep sided V shaped cut and cut into the subsoil F202. The cut through the heavily rooted homogenous topsoil F201 was not visible. The sondage excavated in Trench 2 filled with water once the ceramic drain was removed. The drains are all of late 19th early 20th century date and were probably installed when the site was developed as a walled garden / pigsty / orchard. The natural F203 and redeposited natural soils (F207) are rather confusing in this trench but it is clear that the redeposition of clean homogenous soils was done quickly due to the complete absence of contamination in the deposits and it is most likely the site was levelled prior to its development as a walled horticultural enclosure. There is nothing to suggest the alteration to the natural ground surface and topography predates the creation of the walled garden enclosure and no evidence at all to suggest this landscaping is associated with the medieval and post-medieval occupation of Inverioch House. However, no dating evidence at all was recovered from the redeposited natural soil F207.

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    Figure 5: Photograph showing Trench 1 as excavated, view to SE Figure 6: Photograph of Trench 2 as excavated, with sondage, view to SW

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    Trench 3 Trench 3 was located in the centre of the NW part of the site and cut across one of the visible gravel paths. The trench measured 10.20m NE-SW x 1.40m NW-SE and was oriented at 244°. The total depth of excavation was 0.70m. A few bricks of late 19th – early 20th century date were lying on the surface beside Trench 3. The bricks measured 0.22m x 0.10m and were 0.09m thick. They were stamped on one side PATENT WILSON & SON GLASGOW The topsoil F300 was dark brown humic sandy loam and was 0.30m deep. Underlying the topsoil was a subsoil 0.40m deep of orange-brown sandy clay, (clay 60%, silt 20%, sand 20%). Three terracotta drain pipes, made up of sections as described in Trench 2, F206, were located spaced at intervals of 3.15m and all aligned NW-SE. The cuts for these drains were clear cutting through the subsoil F301 but were invisible in the topsoil F300, if indeed they did cut through the topsoil. At the W end of the trench a garden path composed of gravel 0.15m deep and 1.20m wide was located. The path runs NW-SE. The gravel composition consisted of smaller beach shingle gravel laid on an irregularly laid bedding of small water rounded pebbles and small cobbles up to a maximum of 0.10m in size. The path was visible of the surface and the actual surface of the path was covered with a 0.05m deep layer of humic topsoil, which has accumulated since the garden / orchard went out of use and became overgrown with trees. Trench 4 Trench 4 was located in the W quadrant of the N end of the site and is a long strip trench of one bucket width, slightly L shaped, aligned NW-SE at 313º over the northernmost 14.50m and at 330º over the southernmost 13.20m. The trench was 25.70m long overall and 1.20m wide, the depth of excavation was 0.70m. The topsoil F400 was heavily rooted with tree roots and was a dark brown sandy loam up to 0.35m deep. The topsoil F400 overlay subsoil F401 which was pale greyish brown silty sand (silt 20%, sand 80%) up to 0.25m deep. Underlying the subsoil was the natural soil horizon F402, which was orange to dark reddish brown gritty sandy gravel. 70% of F402 was water rounded and sub-angular pebbles up to 0.04m in size and some sub-angular schist cobbles up to 0.15m x 0.09m x 0.08m in size. Towards the S part of the trench, where the ground surface is slightly higher and better drained the orange sand and gravel was more homogenous and contained fewer cobbles. Iron panning and manganese staining was present in the natural sand and gravel. Some standing water was present at the N end of the trench. Drains were also present in this trench including a stone filled drain F403 aligned E-W located at 8.40m from the S end of the trench. The stone filled drain F403 was 1.10m wide and 0.50m deep with a shallow U shaped profile. The cut was not visible

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    in the densely rooted topsoil but was clear in the subsoil F401. Standing water was present on the line of the drain after a few hours indicating that it was still functioning. This stone filled drain was of the same construction as seen elsewhere and it had a fill of water rounded cobbles and small boulders up to 0.24m x 0.18m x 0.20m maximum in size. Drain F403 was aligned ENE-WSW at 54º. Three terracotta drains, two of the same type and construction as F206 described above, were present in this trench. One aligned NNE-SSW at the NW end of the trench and a NW-SE drain in the southern part of the trench. This NW-SE drain in the southern part of the trench fed into a round ceramic drain running ENE-WSW that crosses the trench at the bend in the trench line. The ENE-WSW drain was composed of circular sections of ceramic pipe 0.15m in diameter. It is apparent that this circular pipe drain is a main drain and that the square ceramic drains feed into the circular drain indicating that the circular pipe was a main drain and the rectangular pipes were feeders into the main drain. This drain was in a cut 0.30m wide and was located at 0.66m below the ground surface. The smaller square ceramic drains were in cuts 0.22m wide and were 0.65m below the ground surface. The backfill of the drain trenches was dark grey sandy silt (silt 60%, sand 25%, clay 15%). The natural subsoil in this area was quite different to that seen in Trenches 1, 2 and 3 and it consisted of fractured and iron panned and manganese stained schist, red – brown gravels and small boulders and water rounded cobbles. This stony layer overlay sand and gravel. Alan Paterson observed that this was the kind of natural sub-soil most commonly found in Arrochar and what he had thought would be present across the site.

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    Figure 7: Photograph of Trench 3 as excavated, view to SSW Figure 8: Photograph of Trench 4 as excavated, view to the NW

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    Trench 5 Trench 5 was located at the NE corner of the walled enclosure and measures 10.5m x 1.80m and was oriented NW-SE at 320º. The trench revealed a stone filled filter drain leading to a cobble filled soak-away pit at the NE end of the trench. The topsoil F500 was 0.30m deep and a dark brown sandy loam with rare inclusions of small pebbles and it was well rooted. One fragment of burnt flint was recovered from the topsoil and indicates lime spreading on the site. The subsoil F501 was a mid brown sandy silt with moderate inclusions of angular and water rounded schist and quartz pebbles up to 0.05m in size. The subsoil layer was 0.25m deep and overlay natural subsoil F502. F502 was a very dark brown with a slight purple manganese tinge and was composed of gritty sand and pea grit matrix with frequent inclusions of small angular gravel and pebbles of 0.02m on average in size. Water rounded cobbles were also present but this deposit was not fully excavated. At the S end of the trench the subsoil F501 was a pale grey sand layer 0.20m deep, quite distinct in colour from F501 elsewhere in the trench where it was much browner in colour, however, the grey sand lay directly under the topsoil F500 and above the natural subsoil F502. No cut or artificial edge could be discerned between the browner sand F501 and the greyer sand part of the subsoil horizon. F501 produced the only pre 19th – 20th century artefact from the site in the form of one sherd of Post Medieval Reduced Ware (PMRW) green glazed pottery. The pottery sherd was cracked and broke into two pieces on excavation and in fact only consists of the outer glazed skin of the pot rather than a full thickness body sherd. One piece of burnt flint and two pieces of burnt lime were also recovered from F501. All of the artefacts were from the S end of the trench. It is possible that the greyer sand of F501 was redeposited to level up the ground surface. However, the PMRW pottery sherd is residual and indicative of 17th – 18th century occupation in the vicinity. A stone filled drain F503, 0.92m wide and 0.70m deep aligned NW-SE at 120º was located at the E side of the trench. A sondage measuring 1.00m NW-SE and 1.80m wide was excavated to a depth of 0.80m at the S end of the trench to expose the profile of the drain and determine its relationship to the natural depsoits. The fill of the drain was water rounded cobbles of schist and quartz of up to 0.20m x 0.15m x 0.12m on average with some larger stones up to 0.25m in size. A capping of beach shingle gravel had been laid over the top of the stone filled drain and this gravel capping may have acted as a path as seen in Trenches 1 and 2. This drain had been dug in through the topsoil although there is still some slight topsoil build up overlying the gravel capping. The soakaway pit F504 at the NW end of the trench was filled with water rounded pebbles and cobbles that got larger as the depth of the pit increased with small water rounded boulders up to 0.40m x 0.35m x 0.30m in size in the lowest fill. The increase in size of stones with increased depth indicates water sorting of the stones indicating that the soak away had been present for some time and had worked efficiently. It is fed by the stone filled drain, F503. The soak away extended beyond the limits of the trench but measures at least 2m N-S x 1.8m E-W and 1.70m deep. The soak away was cut into and bottomed onto the natural subsoil of fractured schist stone and gravels. The soak away filled with water once we had removed the stone fill of the pit and the drain F503 that feeds it, indicating it was still a functioning feature.

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    Trench 6 This trench was located about half way down the SW side of the enclosure under the trees. The trench measured 8.50m N-S x 2.10m E-W and was oriented at 354º. Three drains were present in this trench. F609 was a stone filled drain located 2.50m N of the S end of the trench. This stone filled drain, which was capped with breach shingle gravel, which may have formed a path, was on the same alignment as the stone filled drain seen in Trench 5 (F503). Although the stone filled drain was not as substantial in Trench 6 it was also cut in through the topsoil (F600) and it is probably the same drain. Two terracotta pipe section drains, F607 and F608 were also present located to the N of the stone drain. The ceramic pipe and construction technique of these drains was the same as has been described for Trench 2. The sequence of deposits in Trench 6 were interesting and indicate that this part of the site has bee infilled and made up to level it. It has already been noted that the site is very level and even before excavation commenced it was noted that it was unlikely for the level nature of the walled enclosure to be natural and that the area had been landscaped and altered to provide a level area of ground. Trench 6 and Trench 2 provided the clearest evidence of this. The entire trench was covered with a dark brown sandy silt humic topsoil F600, which was only 0.10m deep. The topsoil overlay F601, a 0.40m thick layer of pale brown sandy silt (sand 45%, silt 55%), which contained a few fragments of plastic and is therefore of later 20th century date. F601 was generally clean and homogeneous with rare inclusions of water rounded pebbles and it tipped from N to S as did the underlying deposits. Underlying F601 was layer F602 a layer of redeposited grey clayey sand (sand 85%), which is interpreted as redeposited glacial till. This layer also tipped from N to S and was up to 0.45m deep maximum at the S end of the deposit where it then continued to the S as a continuous layer and further S it was found to lie directly on the natural brown sandy gravel F604. This suggests that F602 was a redeposited sand layer spread throughout the area as a levelling and make-up deposit. However, at the N end of the trench the further infill deposits F605 and F606 were present indicating that there had been a natural depression at the N end of the trench or that the natural peat was deeper towards the N and more infill deposits were required to level up the ground before the free draining sand had been laid. It is apparent from the more recent late 20th century material in the sandy silt F601 that the infilling of this area probably occurred in at least two episodes and perhaps slumping due to the waterlogged peat deposits occasioned the need for further infilling at a later date. The northernmost ceramic drainpipe, F608, had been cut in through F601 and the other ceramic drain, F607 lay at the interface of the layers F601 and F602. This indicates that the infill deposit F602 and the lower infill deposits F605 and F606 had already been deposited before the drains were installed. This suggests a planned preparation of the site with levelling and infilling as necessary to create a level area before the drains were installed and this suggests a planned programme of works to prepare the site for its use as an orchard and walled garden.

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    The grey clayey sand F602 overlay a layer of silty peat F605, which was 0.10m thick and also tipped from N to S. This layer of redeposited peat overlay F606 a 0.05m thick layer of pale yellow-grey sand as per F602, which also tipped from N to S. Both of these layers represent redeposited soils. At a depth of 1.10m the natural soil F603 was located. F603 was dark reddish brown waterlogged peat and the peat layer was 0.40m thick. This peat deposit overlay the dark chocolate brown gritty gravel in a sand and pea grit matrix, F604, which was revealed as the natural horizon in Trenches 4 and 5. It is possible that this peat deposit F603 had been truncated when the overlying infill deposits had been deposited to infill and level up the site. It is possible that this part of the site was naturally an area of bog or at least a peat filled natural depression and the infill deposits, F601, F602, F605 and F606 had been deposited to build up the site level and to improve drainage in this area. It was noted that standing water was present in the bottom of the trench within one hour of excavation. These infill deposits, F605, F606 and the peat F603 were only represent in the northernmost 2.50m of the trench. To the S of these infill deposits the yellow-grey sand layer of infill F602 extended to the S and overlay the natural brown sand and gravel F604. Again this suggests a natural or manmade depression was present at the N end of the trench. On completion of the excavation the trench had a stepped appearance as the undisturbed natural gravel F604 was located at different depths. The southernmost 2.50m was excavated to a depth of 0.50m and the yellow-grey sand F602 was removed to reveal the natural F604; at 2.50m from the S end of the trench the stone filled drain F609 was present and the excavation depth in the central part of the trench was 0.90m. At 6m from the S end of the trench the final excavation depth was 1.50m and the infill deposits under the yellow-grey sand F602 are as described above. In summary, Trench 6 provided clear evidence of quite major infilling and levelling up of the site. This is the only trench in which a buried deposit of peat was located and it is unknown how much buried peat might be present elsewhere on the site. As the whole site has been truncated and levelled and the natural topography is unknown it may be possible that further deposits of peat and infill deposits may be present elsewhere on the site.

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    Figure 9: Photograph of Trench 5 as excavated, view to SE, note stone filled drain and soakaway. Figure 10: Photograph showing Trench 6 as excavated, view to S.

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    Trench 7 Trench 7 was located in the N part of the SW quadrant of the site in approximately the middle of the walled enclosure at the site of three large white quartz boulders. The trench measured 8.20m x 1.70m and was oriented N-S at 360º. The trench was excavated to a depth of 0.35m at the N end on the track and 0.90m to the S of the track. The three large white quartz boulders were found to be loosely arranged and had bricks in amongst them. They are interpreted as an entirely ornamental feature. The remains of an iron gate was also located at the N end of the trench and the beach shingle track, F702, running E-W, apparently led to this gate. The gate is interpreted as the gate into the orchard shown on the 1914 OS map and recalled by local man Ronnie MacDonald. The topsoil F700 was dark brown humic sandy loam as seen elsewhere on site. The topsoil was only 0.05m deep where it overlay the shingle and pebble track F702 but it was up to 0.25m deep in the southern part of the trench. The topsoil F700 overlay F701 a layer of pale yellow - grey clayey sand with a slight orange mottling and inclusions of small angular pebbles (sand 80%, clay 20%). This layer of sand varied between 0.26m to 0.35m deep. It was apparently laid as a make-up and levelling deposit. The sand is the same composition and colour as the sand seen as natural in Trenches 8 and 9 and as a redeposited layer in Trench 6. It would seem that this yellow-grey sand occurs naturally on the site and it was redeposited where necessary to create a level area for the walled enclosure, which presumably was used as a garden as well as an orchard and piggery. In Trench 7 it is probable that F701 is redeposited and possible the sand was laid specifically as a preparation layer for the track F702. A shingle gravel track, F702, 3.00m wide and between 0.20m and 0.30m deep was present at the N end of the trench. The track extended beyond the edges of the trench on the N, W and E sides and it appears to run E-W. The remains of an iron gate were lying on the surface overgrown by vegetation and becoming covered by the topsoil build up. Presumably the track led to the gate, which separated the orchard from the piggery. The track, which was well rooted throughout, was made up of randomly laid cobbles with an average size of 0.15m x 0.10m x 0.08m with some larger stones and small boulders up to 0.30m x 0.35m x 0.15m laid at the base layer of the track. The schist cobbles were not metalled or bonded together in any way and were probably quite loosely laid in order to provide drainage. The surface of the track was composed of shingle and beach gravel and pea grit, the gravel pebbles were up to a maximum of 0.03m in size. The gravel was also in amongst the uppermost cobbles. The method of construction of the track was the same as the paths seen elsewhere on the site with a dual purpose of a stone filled drain with a compacted shingle gravel capping forming a useable surface. A terracotta section pipe drain, F706, (as described in Trench 2) was present at the S side of the gravel track. The cut, F706 for this drain cuts the redeposited sand make up layer F701 but it is likely that the ground make-up works and installation of the drains across the site was done as one programme of work. The cut has a diffuse uppermost cut and fill and is ditch shaped in the uppermost 0.20m before vertical sides 0.45m deep give way to a flat bottom in which the terracotta pipe was laid. The

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    uppermost, ditch shaped part of the cut is filled with F704, cobbles and angular schist stones measuring 0.15m x 0.10m x 0.06m maximum. Although a diffuse cut is present at the N side cutting the track F702 the uppermost fill F704 is of the same material as the track although in a looser matrix. It appears that the drain was cut thorough the track and the stones from the track redeposited in the uppermost backfill of the drain cut F704. The lower fill, F703, which is 0.45m deep, was pale brownish grey silty sand (sand 65%, silt 30%, clay 5%) with occasional inclusions of small water rounded pebbles c. 0.05m in size, which were most frequent above the actual ceramic pipe, F705. Underlying the yellow-grey sand layer F701, which may be redeposited in Trench 7, was the natural soil horizon F707. F707 was gritty orange-brown sand and pea grit gravels with schist fragments and pebbles of c. 0.03m on average with some larger cobbles up to 0.10m in size. 0.10m depth of the natural F707 was excavated. Trench 8 Trench 8 was located at the SW corner of the walled enclosure and measured 15m x 1.30m and was aligned N-S oriented at 14º. Trench 8 was excavated to a depth of 0.60m. Fly tipping was present at the S end of the trench and the made up road embankment of Church Road was present along the E side of the trench. The topsoil F800 was dark brown sandy loam 0.30m deep, which was humic and well rooted with tree roots. Underlying the topsoil was subsoil F801, which was a pale to mid brown silty sand (sand 75%, silt 25%) 0.12m deep. The subsoil F801 overlay natural pale orange mottled yellowish grey clayey sand, which is F802. F802 contained rare inclusions of water rounded schist pebbles and small cobbles up to 0.15m maximum in size and moderate inclusions of small gravel up to 0.02m in size. F802 was compact and homogenous and the natural soil horizon. Trench 8 was crossed by five ceramic drains and by a small ditch F804. The drains are ceramic pipe drains composed of square sections of pipe as described for Trench 2. The ceramic pipe drains had stone cappings over the pipes, the stones were generally schist cobbles up to 0.12m x 0.08m x 0.07m in size. All of the ceramic drains were laid in straight sided cuts 0.20m wide and c. 0.50m deep at the top of the stone capping. These ceramic drains were left in situ. The backfill of the ceramic drainpipe trenches was dark grey silty sand (sand 60%, silt 40%). The ceramic drains were spaced at 1.70m from the S end of the trench; 2.60m from the S end; 5.60m from the S and 9.50m and 14m from the S end. A ditch aligned E-W crossed the trench at between 8.10m and 8.90m from the S end of the trench. The ditch cut was allocated F804 and the fill was F803. The ditch cut, F804, cuts the subsoil F801 but the cut was not visible in the heavily rooted humic topsoil. The ditch was 0.80m wide and 0.30m deep and the fill, F803, was a medium brown silty sand with occasional small angular and rounded pebble inclusions. A single sherd of white earthenware, a foot rim from a bowl or plate, was recovered from the fill and the pottery is of c. 1900 date. The function of this ditch is unknown and it may have been a horticultural feature or even a drain although the fill did not suggest it was a drainage feature.

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    Figure11: Photograph of Trench 7 as excavated, view to the S

    Figure 12: Photograph of Trench 8 as excavated, view to the N.

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    Trench 9 Trench 9 was located in the SW quadrant of the area at a right angle to Trench 8. Trench 9 measured 9m x 1.20m and was oriented E-W at 98º. It was excavated to a depth of 0.80m Three terracotta drain pipes were located in this trench. The topsoil F900 was a dark brown sandy humic loam, very heavily rooted by trees and 0.35m deep. Three sherds of glazed white earthenware pottery of late 19th century date were recovered from the topsoil. The topsoil F900 overlay subsoil F901. F901 was a mid grey brown silty sand (sand 40%, silt 409%, clay 20%) and was 0.20m deep. Subsoil F902 overlay natural F903. F903 was a pale grey silty sand with occasional inclusions of water rounded schist pebbles. The natural was 60% sand, 30% silt and 10% clay. At the E end of the trench a round ceramic drainpipe 0.07m in diameter was located. This drain runs N-S and has a stone capping. This drain directly overlies another ceramic drain composed of the square pipe sections as described in Trench 2. This indicates that the round pipes are a later drainage system than the square drain pipes. The drains were all located in 0.20m wide cuts with vertical edges that were clearly visible cutting the subsoil F901. As in all of the trenches on this site the topsoil was so heavily rooted that it was not possible to determine if the drains had been cut through the topsoil or not. The drains were located at a depth of 0.80m below the ground surface and all were left in situ. Trench 10 Trench 10 was located in the SE quadrant of the site and measured 9.40m x 1.20m. It was aligned WNW-ESE at 304º and was excavated to a depth of 0.60m. The topsoil F1000 was a dark brown sandy loam 0.35m deep, which was heavily rooted by trees. Two sherds of transfer printed white earthenware pottery of c. 1890-1910 date were recovered from the topsoil. F1000 overlay subsoil F1001. The subsoil was a 0.15m deep deposit of pale greyish brown silty sand (sand 75%, silt 20%, clay 5%). The subsoil F1001 overlay the natural F1002. F1002 was pale grey brown slightly clayey sand with rare inclusions of angular and sub rounded schist pebbles. A stone filled ditch F1003 ran N-S across the trench at 4.70m E of the W end of the trench. The fill of this feature was rounded pebbles and cobles up to 0.20m x 0.10m x 0.07m maximum in size. This ditch was 0.80m wide and c.0.60m deep. The ditch cuts the subsoil F1001 and this feature is interpreted as a stone filled drain. A second stone filled drain was also located at the NE corner of the trench and only a short section of this drain was seen. This drain, F1004 was not revealed in its entirety and most of it was under the baulk and it is unknown if it contained a ceramic drain pipe. This drain was cut through the subsoil F1001 and had an upper fill of grey sandy clay above the cobble and pebble fill.

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    Figure 13: Photograph of Trench 9 as excavated, view to the E Figure 14: Photograph of Trench 10 as excavated, view to ESE.

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    Trench 11 Trench 11 was located in the SE quadrant of the walled enclosure and was trapezoidal in shape. The trench was aligned ENE-WSW at 62º and measured 8.30m x 5.00m at the W end and 3.30m at the E end. The depth of excavation varied from 0.50m deep at the S end to 0.80m deep at the N end of the trench. A sondage measuring 2.50m NW-SE x 2.30m located at the S baulk was excavated to a depth of 1.20m. The sondage was excavated to investigate the mixed soil deposits revealed in the central area of the trench and it was determined that these were all redeposited natural soils associated with drains. This trench again confirmed that the ground had been landscaped and made-up and levelled. The topsoil F1100 was dark brown sandy loam 0.30m deep and two sherds of plain white earthenware pottery and two fragments of burnt lime were recovered from the topsoil. The topsoil overlay a layer of subsoil F1101 which was mid brown silty sand (sand 60%, silt 40%), which was 0.23m deep. The subsoil overlay F1102, a deposit of redeposited pale grey brown silty sand with moderate inclusions of water rounded pebbles and cobbles and gravels less than 0.02m in size. The F1102 material also appears to be exactly the same soil matrix as in situ natural, F1104, which made the trench rather confusing. At the NW corner of the trench a shallow curvilinear ditch, F1103, was present. This feature was 1.50m long and 0.60m wide, the edges were clear in plan but were actually quite diffuse and undulating on excavation. The cut of F1103 was clear cutting the subsoil F1101 in the W baulk but in the N baulk the cut was sealed under the pale grey brown silty sand F1102 indicating that the F1102 material was not in situ natural but was a redeposited layer, at least in this part of the trench. In the sondage excavation in this trench it appeared that F1104 was the in situ natural subsoil and in general this trench did not contain straightforward layers of deposition and it was apparent that considerable redeposition of natural clean homogenous subsoils had taken place in this area. It is possible that water percolation and tree root activity had obliterated and obscured the cut of F1103 in this area. F1103 had a fill of mid greyish brown silty sand (sand 80%, silt 20%). The fill was mottled throughout with red iron pan and it was rooted. Occasional inclusion of water rounded quartz and schist pebbles less than 0.05m in size were present throughout the fill which was 0.52m deep overall and the feature was 0.53m wide overall. On excavation of this feature in section it was not very convincing as a good archaeological feature and it may be the result of tree roots or water percolation damaging and distorting the original cut. This feature, F1103, was interpreted as a drain. It was very clear in Trench 11 that the water percolation on the site has generally obscured the cuts for the drains that criss-cross the site. No clear cuts were visible in the central part of the trench but the discoloured red tinged grey silty sand with frequent inclusions of water rounded cobbles, pebbles and small boulders indicated that the central part of the trench was not undisturbed natural. The sondage was excavated by machine in the middle of the area of discoloured soils. No cuts were visible during the excavation of the sondage until a total excavation depth of 1.20m had been reached. The spoil removed from the sondage was grey to buff coloured sand F1102. A ceramic pipe drain running W-E across the trench was located under the F1102 material, as was a stone filled drain also running E-W and another stone filled drain running N-S, all at a depth of 1.20m.

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    The sondage excavation confirmed that the F1102 material was redeposited subsoil, which had been deposited on the natural pale grey brown sand F1104. It seems likely that the natural ground level had been truncated in the past. It seems most likely that the redeposited sand layer F1102, which is clearly redeposited natural, was laid to improve the drainage on the site. The number of drains present in the sondage, none of which were visible at the surface of F1102 presumably due to the good drainage qualities of the sand, suggests this part of the site may have particularly wet. Despite the difficult soil conditions in this trench it is apparent that all of the drainage works and the truncation and subsequent levelling and infilling of the site to create the gently sloping SE to NW levelled area of the walled enclosure was not of any great antiquity. While it is possible that the levelling of this area was undertaken in the late 18th century when Inverioch House was built it could also have been undertaken at the end of the 19th century to prepare the area for use as a garden. The latter date of the late 19th century seems most likely on the basis of the drains seen all across the site. Trench 12 This trench was located at the S end of the site across an obvious path. The trench was trapezoidal in shape and measured 5m E-W x 4.30m at the E end and 2.25m at the W end. The trench was oriented E-W at 52º. The maximum depth of excavation was 0.40m. The trench was trapezoidal in plan as we wished to expose the path in plan and a sondage to a deeper depth of 0.40m was excavated at the W end of the trench to see the path construction details in section. The topsoil F1200 in this trench was dark brown sandy loam, well rooted and humic in nature up to 0.20m deep. The topsoil lay directly on undisturbed natural buff grey silty sand (sand 90%, silt 10%) F1201. The natural had moderate inclusions of water rounded pebbles up to 0.05m in size and smaller gravels. The natural sand in Trench 12 was the same as seen in situ in Trench 8 and as redeposited make-up material in Trenches 11 and 6. The path, F1202 was 0.83m wide and 0.30m deep. The path was composed of small water rounded cobbles and pebbles up to 0.10m x 0.08m x 0.05m maximum in a matrix of shingle gravel. The ratio of pebbles and small cobbles to shingle gravel was 50 - 50. All of the stones used in the path probably originated on the beach on the shore of Loch Long. The path was edged with the small cobbles but they were not very formally laid and the path did not have a proper kerb or edging. To the E of the path the trees have grown straight through the path and this indicates the path has not been maintained for several decades.

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    Figure 15: Photograph of Trench 11 as excavated, including sondage, view to WSW. Figure 16: Photograph of Trench 12 as excavated, view to E, note path.

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    Trench 13 This trench was located in the SE corner of the site just outside the brick pig sties. It measured 6.70m x 1.60m and was oriented NW-SE at 316º. A sondage 2.00m NW-SE was excavated at the S end of the trench to a depth of 0.55m while the remainder of the trench was excavated to a depth of 0.30m The topsoil F1300 was a dark brown well rooted humic sandy loam up to 0.25m deep. A single pottery sherd of terracotta flower pot was recovered from the topsoil. The topsoil overlay a drain F1302 and a rectangular trench or ditch F1303 as well as the natural subsoil F1301. F1301 was mottled pale grey and buff greyish brown silty sand (sand 85%, silt 10% and clay 5%) with occasional inclusions of quartz and schist pebbles less than 0.05m in size. There was some reddish brown mottling throughout and discoloured patches from tree roots. Occasional larger cobbles up to 0.20m x 0.12m x 0.08m in size were also present. Drain F1302 was present in the NW corner of the trench where it ran N-S diagonally across the trench. The drain was 0.20m wide and had an upper fill of orange brown sand, it was not excavated to determine its depth. The cut for the drain was sealed under the topsoil, although the heavy rooting has obscured all cuts at this level across the entire site, but clearly cuts the natural sand subsoil F1301. F1303 was a very regular rectangular slot trench located at the E baulk and extending beyond the S and E edges of the trench. This very regular and well defined feature has a very clear cut, F1304 and the NW end of the feature was exposed indicating that it was at least 3.90m long NW-SE and at least 0.66m wide and where excavated to the bottom of the cut it was 0.47m deep. The cut was not visible in the humic topsoil F1300 but clearly cuts the subsoil F1301. Four distinct fills were present within the straight sided and flat bottomed rectangular cut. The uppermost fill was F1303 dark brown silty sand (sand 70%, silt 30%) with moderate gravel (less than 0.02m in size) inclusions. Underlying F1303 was a lense of orange gritty gravely sand F1302. Underlying the gritty sandy gravel lense was F1306 dark brown silty sand (sand 70%, silt 30%) with frequent inclusions of water rounded quartz gravel less than 0.02m in size. F1306 and F1303 were practically identical in composition. The bottom fill of the cut was F1305 which was a thin layer of mixed and mottled F1306 dark brown silty sand and pale grey silty sand as per the natural F1301. This lowermost fill and its mixed nature suggests the feature may have stood open for a while and silted up slightly in the bottom before it was backfilled. The feature appears to have been deliberately backfilled quite rapidly. The function of this feature is unclear and it may have been associated with the adjacent brick built pig sties or it may have had an horticultural use such as an asparagus trench. In addition to the excavation trenches and the remains of the stone enclosure wall and brick built pig sties two other archaeological features were identified on the site and these have been identified as Feature 1 and Feature 2.

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    Feature 1 Located on the W interior side of the enclosure wall two rectangular depressions were visible. The feature was not excavated but clearance of some of the vegetation revealed the remains of a brick built structure. The structure comprises two small rectangular cells measuring 2.75m x 1.10m at least 0.30m deep. Separated by a 0.40m wide wall. These two small rooms may have been pig sties or kennels or perhaps small storage sheds. The rectangular structure measures 5.890mn x 1.10m and was aligned NW-SE and located 2.00m W of the E enclosure wall. Feature 2 An L shaped section of drystone walling located to the NE of the brick built pig sties on the E side of the enclosure wall. The structure is overgrown and it was difficult to determine the exact construction method, i.e. whether the lower courses were mortared without actually clearing the remains of the building It is apparent that this building is built against the site enclosure wall and is therefore later in date. It is shown on the 1914 OS map as a two roomed structure. The structure measured approximately 5m NW-SE x 3.80m over a 1.60m wide wall. The W end wall was 2m wide but it is likely the vegetation has also overgrown tumbled collapse. The structure is overgrown in the interior but appears to be filled with brick and stone rubble, presumably collapse. No sign of a wall closing off the E end was visible although it may have been obscured under the vegetation and tumbled stones. It is possible this small structure was open in the E end and it may have been a coal store. The Burn To the east of the walled enclosure a brief walk over survey was undertaken to determine if any other archaeological features might be present on the site. The area to the east of the walled enclosure is to be maintained as community woodland and no major site works are planned for this area except for the upgrading of the existing track. No obvious archaeological features except for those associated with the track were observed on land but there was evidence of alterations to the course of the burn. At the ‘south’ end of the burn, where it crosses under Church Road there is a boulder revetment along the side of the burn on its east bank. This revetment is probably a retaining measure to stop erosion of the bank and ensure a controlled flow of water. Just to the south of the area of revetted bank an area of stone walling composed of substantial boulders could be seen on the east bank. This section of walling looks as though it may have been the support for a bridge. Due to the vegetation, weather conditions and general difficulty of access this area was not investigated in detail. Although no plans for the alteration of the burn or this area are current should any clearance or work be done in this area the revetment wall and possible bridge support walls should be recorded.

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    Figure 17: Photograph of Trench 13 as excavated, view to SE Figure 18: Photograph of the inscription above the main door to the Cobbler Hotel.

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    Summary and Conclusions The topsoil of the site, on average 0.30m deep, is a rich sandy loam and it is heavily rooted with tree roots throughout. The heavy rooting of the topsoil has obscured the cuts for drains and paths in most areas. The general underfoot conditions indicates that the site is generally quite free-draining. The homogenous and sorted nature of the underlying natural subsoils also indicates this is the case. The natural subsoils are glacial tills of silty clays and sand and gravel and quite considerable variation in the natural was observed across the site. The site has been levelled in the past and it is of note that the drop from Church Road down to the site is approximately 2m. The topography of the site prior to its development as a walled garden / orchard / piggery is unknown but the varied nature of the natural soils exposed during the evaluation indicate that the site has been quite severely landscaped. It appears that the natural subsoils survive undisturbed in some, probably most, of the area but in some areas, there is buried peat (Trench 6) and redeposited silty sands and clays (Trench 2 and Trench 11). This indicates that the site has been quite deliberately levelled and landscaped but, without an overall exposure, determining natural undisturbed in situ soils from redeposited clean and homogenous soils was not always easy. The absence of artefacts in the redeposited soils and their homogeneous nature indicates that the levelling and make-up of ground levels where necessary was probably done very quickly without any time for contamination to be introduced into the redeposited soils. However, it is clear that the site has been altered to a degree to facilitate its use as a horticultural / small scale agricultural enclosure. It is also possible that the area was levelled in an earlier period, perhaps to provide the sweeping grass vista of the late 17th century Inverioch House. Only one pottery sherd of late medieval date, a single small body sherd of Post Medieval Reduced Ware, was recovered from Trench 9. This single pottery sherd is residual in nature and it cannot be considered as evidence, in the absence of any other evidence, that there was late or post medieval occupation on the proposed development site. Considering the level land surface between the Cobbler Hotel and Church Road, and the pictorial evidence of the late 17th century Inverioch House set in level grounds, as well as the map evidence it seems unlikely that the area of the proposed development was ever developed or built on. Even if the area was levelled and landscaped in the late 17th century prior to the construction of the new Inverioch house one would expect at least some vestiges of earlier structures and cultural material to be present. The archaeological evaluation has confirmed that this area was not the site of the earlier Inverioch House or MacFarlane castle at New Tarbet and indeed the documentary evidence strongly suggests the Cobbler Hotel is built on the site of the earlier castle / mansion.

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    Recommendations There is no further requirement for archaeological work on the site and no archaeological issue is present. The gatepiers at the Church Road entrance to the Cobbler Hotel, which are included in the development plot, are B Listed structures and any repair or alteration to them will require Listed Building consent. Acknowledgements The desk based research, archaeological watching brief and reporting has been carried out by Fiona Baker of Firat Archaeological Services. The scope of the works was specified and the work monitored by the West of Scotland Archaeology Service represented by Martin O’ Hare on behalf of the Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park and Argyll and Bute Council. The project was funded by Luss Estates. We are grateful to Mike Davies at Helensburgh Library for assistance with documentary research and to Alan Paterson for his careful machine excavation of the trenches. Report Distribution Seven copies of this report have been produced and distributed to:

    • Luss Estates Company • JGA Paterson and Sons • West of Scotland Archaeology Service (2 copies and disk copy) • National Monuments Record of Scotland (and disk copy and archive) • Helensburgh Library • Firat Archaeological Services

    Contents and Location of the Archive The archive contains:

    • One bound copy of this report • One field notebook • All drawings as listed • All photographs as listed

    The archive is currently held by FAS and will be deposited in the National Monuments Record of Scotland in due course.

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    Discovery and Excavation in Scotland

    LOCAL AUTHORITY: Argyll and Bute PROJECT TITLE: Church Road, Arrochar PARISH: Arrochar (combined parish of Luss and Arrochar) NAME OF CONTRIBUTOR: Fiona Baker NAME OF ORGANISATION: Firat Archaeological Services TYPE OF PROJECT: Field evaluation in advance of planning application NMRS NOs: NN20SE1, NN20SE20, NN20SE21 SITE / MONUMENT TYPE: Walled garden SIGNIFICANT FINDS: Made up ground and 1 sherd of PMRW NGR: NN 2974 0385 (centred) START DATE: 22 March 2004 END DATE: 25 March 2004 PREVIOUS WORK: none PROPOSED FUTURE WORK: none MAIN DESCRIPTION: An archaeological evaluation was undertaken in the walled garden to the rear (East) of the Cobbler Hotel which is built on the site of the 16th – 19th century seat of Clan MacFarlane known as Inverioch or New Tarbet or Arrochar House before becoming the Cobbler Hotel. The location of the earlier houses was unknown and the objective of the evaluation was to determine if any building remains were present within the walled garden area prior to development. No traces of any structures was found in a 5% evaluation of the area and the map evidence indicates that the walled garden was only developed in the late 19th – early 20th century and it has been used as an orchard and piggery. The site of the late medieval castle / mansion of Clan MacFarlane is probably located under the Cobbler Hotel which dates to 1869. PROJECT CODE: CRA04 SPONSOR: Luss Estates Company ADDRESS OF MAIN CONTRIBUTOR: Hillcroft, Station Road, Rhu, G84 8LW, Argyll ARCHIVE LOCATION: With Firat Archaeological Services and to be deposited in the NMRS. Report lodged with WoSAS.

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    Bibliography

    Alexander of Duchray 1724 Descriptions of Inchcailloch or Buchanan Parish, Kilmaronock, Bonhill, Luss and Tarbat parishes. in Mitchell A Sir ed. 1906-8, (see below).

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    Celtic Monthly Magazine 1902 1824 picture of Inverioch House (Helensburgh Library)

    Currie W N/D An Historical Description of Tarbet, Loch Lomond and District. Craig Jeffrey, Helensburgh.

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    Groome FH (ed) 1884 Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland Vol 1, p77. TC Jack, Grange Publishers, Glasgow and Edinburgh Haldane A R B 1952 The Drove Roads of Scotland. Thomas Nelson Edinburgh.

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    Irving J 1879 The Book of Dumbartonshire 2 vols. Edinburgh and London.

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    Laing R M 1974 Local History. in A Natural History of Loch Lomond.

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    MacDonald M 1991 The Clans of Scotland. Brian Trodd, London.

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    MacFarlane A 2001 Clan MacFarlane A History.

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    MacFarlane J 1922 History of Clan MacFarlane. D J Clark Ltd., Glasgow.

    Macfarlane J 1980s-1990s Manuscript and MacFarlane historical research papers held at Helensburgh Library. 2 volumes of draft manuscript ‘History of Clan MacFarlane’. Copyright RLO MacFarlane.

    MacLeod D 1891 Historic Families, Notable People and Memorabilia of the Lennox. Dumbarton.

    MacPhail I M M 1974 Families of the Lennox: A Survey. in The Scottish Genealogist, Vol. XXII No 2.

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    Mitchell A Sir Ed. 1906-8 Geographical Collections Relating to Scotland by Walter MacFarlane.

    Vol. II, 1907, 601-4. 3 vols. (Written in 18th century / c. 1720s).

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    Moncrieffe of that Ilk 1967 The Highland Clans. Barnie and Jenkins, London.

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    Richardson T 1799 Guide to Loch Lomond, Loch Fine and Inverary. 2nd edition, John Murdoch, Glasgow.

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    Maps Pont 1590 Charles Ross 1777 Map of the County of Dunbartonshire First Edition Ordnance Survey 1860, 1:2500, Dunbartonshire Sheet VI.13 Second Edition Ordnance Survey c.1890s (not seen) Third Edition Ordnance Survey map 1914, 1:2500, Dumbartonshire Sheet NV10 1:10,000 Ordnance Survey map 1980s .

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    Archive Material Drawings List

    • Existing Site Layout showing cross sections at 1:250 (topographic survey). IKM Consulting Drawing No. A1-997-050 Rev.1

    • General Arrangement of Access Road Layout (and houses). IKM Consulting Drawing No. A1-997-100 Rev.0

    • Annotated A3 site topographic plan at 1:500 (IKM drawing No. A1-997-050Rev1 annotated with archaeological information)

    Photograph Lists Colour Print Roll No. 1 Frame No. Direction (to) Description 26 N General site view 27 N Gate piers and track 28+29 SE Date stone at Cobbler Hotel doorway 30 SE E front façade of Cobbler Hotel 31 S General site view from NE corner of hotel 32 NE N end of E enclosure wall, interior face, note dooks and

    brick additions 33 SE General site view of E area 34 SW General site view of N area 35 NE Brick founds at SE corner of site (pig sties) 36 SE Brick founds at SE corner of site (pig sties) Colour Print Roll No. 2 Frame No. Direction (to) Description 7 SW General view of S area of site 8 NW General view of site 9 NW General view of W side of site 10 NW General view of site, W side 11 E General site view form NW corner 12 S White Quartz boulders in situ (decorative feature) 13 SE Trench 1 under excavation, note drain 14 W Trench 2 under excavation 15 W Trench 2, drain being removed 16+17 SE Trench 1 as excavated 18+19 NW Trench 1 as excavated 20+21 SSW Trench 1, drain F103 in section in W baulk 22+23 SE Trench 2, stone drain F204 24+25 SE Trench 2 stone drain F204 and ceramic drain F206 in

    section 26 SE Trench 2, F205 drain in section 27+28 SE Trench 3 path with vegetation stripped off 29 NE Trench 2 as excavated 30 SW Trench 2 as excavated

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    31 SSE Trench 4 under excavation 32 SE Trench 5 under excavation, cobble filled soak-away and

    feeder drain 33 NW Trench 5 as excavated, note drain 34 SE Trench5 as excavated, note drain 35+36 NW Trench 5 drain F503 in section 37+38 S Trench 6 as excavated 39+40 N Trench 6 as excavated Colour Print Roll No. 3 Frame No. Direction (to) Description 1 SSW Trench3 as excavated 2+3 NNE Trench 3 as excavated 4+5 NW Trench 4, S end of trench as excavated 6+7 NNW Trench 4, N end of trench as excavated 8 NW Trench 4, detail of ceramic drain 9+10 E Trench 8, ditch F804 in section in E baulk 11 S Trench 8 as excavated 12 N Trench 8 as excavated 13+14 W Trench 7 drain F703 in section 15 W Trench 7, track F702 in section 16 S Trench 7 as excavated 17 N Trench 7 as excavated 18+19 E Trench 9 as excavated 20 W Trench 9 as excavated 21 W/vert Trench 9, E end, detail of drains 22 ESE Trench 10 as excavated 23 WNW Trench 10 as excavated 24 NNW Trench 11 section 25 NNW Trench 11 sondage as machine excav (not hand cleaned) 26 WSW Trench 11, F1103 27 WSW Trench 11, F1103 as excavated 28 ESE Trench 11 as excavated 29 WSW Trench 11 as excavated 30+31 E Trench 12 as excavated 32 W Trench 12 as excavated 33 E Trench 12 detail of path F1202 34 NW Trench 13 as excavated 35 SE Trench 13 as excavated 36 spoiled 37 SE Trench 13, F1303 in section 38 NW Feature 2 39 NW Feature 1 40 E Feature 1

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    Contact Addresses Firat Archaeological Services Hillcroft Station Road Rhu G84 8LW Contact: Fiona Baker Telephone: 01436 820 334 Fax: 01436 820 051 Email: [email protected] Luss Estates Company Arnburn Arden By Alexandr