“CHOO CHOO CH’ BOOGIE”

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CHOO CHOO CHOO CHOO CH’ BOOGIE” CH’ BOOGIE” THE POSTWAR ERA, THE POSTWAR ERA, 1946–1954 1946–1954

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“CHOO CHOO CH’ BOOGIE”. THE POSTWAR ERA, 1946–1954. THE POSTWAR ERA, 1946–1954. The entertainment industry grew rapidly after the war. By 1947, record companies achieved retail sales of over $214 million . The previous peak for record sales occurred in 1921. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of “CHOO CHOO CH’ BOOGIE”

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““CHOO CHOO CHOO CHOO CH’ BOOGIE”CH’ BOOGIE”

THE POSTWAR ERA, THE POSTWAR ERA,

1946–19541946–1954

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THE POSTWAR ERA, THE POSTWAR ERA, 1946–19541946–1954

The entertainment industry The entertainment industry grew grew rapidly rapidly after the war.after the war.

By 1947, record companies achieved By 1947, record companies achieved retail sales of over retail sales of over $214 million$214 million. The . The previous peak for record sales previous peak for record sales occurred in 1921.occurred in 1921.

Independent record labels became an Independent record labels became an important force in the entertainment important force in the entertainment industry.industry.

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Independent LabelsIndependent Labels Chess Records Chess Records

– Most important blues “race” labelMost important blues “race” label– Signed the most popular blues recording artists in Signed the most popular blues recording artists in

ChicagoChicago, including , including Muddy Waters and Howlin’ WolfMuddy Waters and Howlin’ Wolf– Founded by Leonard and Phil Chess (Polish Jewish Founded by Leonard and Phil Chess (Polish Jewish

immigrants)immigrants) Atlantic Records Atlantic Records

– Founded in 1947 by Ahmet Ertegun, son of the former Founded in 1947 by Ahmet Ertegun, son of the former Turkish Ambassador to the United States, and Herb Turkish Ambassador to the United States, and Herb Abramson, former A&R man for National RecordsAbramson, former A&R man for National Records

– Based in Based in New York CityNew York City– Artist roster included Artist roster included Ruth Brown, Big Joe Turner, Ray Ruth Brown, Big Joe Turner, Ray

Charles, Ben E. King, and Otis ReddingCharles, Ben E. King, and Otis Redding

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Targeting Young PeopleTargeting Young People

Record companies began to Record companies began to target young target young peoplepeople for the first time. for the first time.

People under 21 made upPeople under 21 made up one-third of the one-third of the total record-buying population total record-buying population of the of the United States. United States.

Many hit records of the 1940s and 1950s Many hit records of the 1940s and 1950s were were romantic songs performed by romantic songs performed by crooners with an orchestral backup. crooners with an orchestral backup.

Larger record companies (Larger record companies (Columbia, Columbia, Decca, and RCADecca, and RCA) were focusing their ) were focusing their attention on attention on mainstream popmainstream pop..

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Popular Music and Technology Popular Music and Technology in the Postwar Erain the Postwar Era

Magnetic TapeMagnetic Tape– Better sound quality Better sound quality than previous methods of than previous methods of

recordingrecording– Recordings could be Recordings could be edited and overdubbededited and overdubbed. .

““Battle of the Speeds”Battle of the Speeds”– In 1948, Columbia Records introduced In 1948, Columbia Records introduced twelve-twelve-

inch, 33 1/3 rpminch, 33 1/3 rpm, long-playing discs (, long-playing discs (LPsLPs).).– In 1949, RCA Victor introduced seven-inch, In 1949, RCA Victor introduced seven-inch, 45 45

rpm discsrpm discs——the format for hit singles.the format for hit singles. RadioRadio

– Increased influence of Increased influence of disc jockeys disc jockeys (DJs) on (DJs) on popular musicpopular music

– The first commercial FM broadcast The first commercial FM broadcast took place took place in 1939.in 1939.

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Rise of the Big SingersRise of the Big Singers

By 1946, the focus of popular attention By 1946, the focus of popular attention had shifted away from had shifted away from celebrity celebrity instrumentalists and bandleaders instrumentalists and bandleaders toward a toward a new generation of vocalists. new generation of vocalists.

Many of the top vocalists started their Many of the top vocalists started their careers during the swing era. careers during the swing era.

The musicians’ union recording ban of The musicians’ union recording ban of 19421942––44 44 did not apply to vocalistsdid not apply to vocalists. . – Many of the Many of the vocalists sang under their own vocalists sang under their own

namesnames, many times with choral , many times with choral accompaniment.accompaniment.

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Frank Sinatra (1915–1998) Frank Sinatra (1915–1998)

Born in Born in Hoboken, New JerseyHoboken, New Jersey, into a , into a working-class Italian family working-class Italian family

Between 1937 and 1939, worked as a Between 1937 and 1939, worked as a singing waiter for the Rustic Cabinsinging waiter for the Rustic Cabin, a , a nightclub in New Jersey nightclub in New Jersey

Later worked for Later worked for Harry James and Tommy Harry James and Tommy DorseyDorsey

Sinatra was Sinatra was heavily promoted on radioheavily promoted on radio, at , at the the moviesmovies, and in the , and in the presspress, and his , and his popularity soared. popularity soared.

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Frank Sinatra (1915–1998)Frank Sinatra (1915–1998)

His singing style combined the His singing style combined the crooning style of Bing Crosby with crooning style of Bing Crosby with the bel canto technique of Italian the bel canto technique of Italian opera.opera.

He was influenced by female jazz He was influenced by female jazz and cabaret singers such as and cabaret singers such as Billie Billie Holiday and Mabel Mercer.Holiday and Mabel Mercer.

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Listening: Listening: ““

Nancy (With the Laughing Face)

”” Peaked Peaked at Number Ten at Number Ten on the on the

Billboard Billboard chartscharts String instruments String instruments dominate the dominate the

instrumental accompaniment.instrumental accompaniment. Conventional thirty-two-bar AABA Conventional thirty-two-bar AABA

formform– Cowritten by the Tin Pan Alley veteran Cowritten by the Tin Pan Alley veteran

Jimmy Van Heusen and television and Jimmy Van Heusen and television and film comedian Phil Silvers film comedian Phil Silvers in honor of in honor of the birth of Sinatra’s daughter Nancythe birth of Sinatra’s daughter Nancy

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Listening: “Nancy (With the Listening: “Nancy (With the Laughing Face)”Laughing Face)”

The brief orchestral introduction The brief orchestral introduction begins with four bars of waltz rhythm begins with four bars of waltz rhythm (three beats per bar), then shifts into (three beats per bar), then shifts into the four beat meter of the song.the four beat meter of the song.

Sinatra’s voice is relaxed and Sinatra’s voice is relaxed and unforced, with warmth and a slight unforced, with warmth and a slight vibrato.vibrato.

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Nat “King” Cole (1917–65)Nat “King” Cole (1917–65) The most successful black recording artist of the The most successful black recording artist of the

postwar periodpostwar period In both musical and commercial terms, In both musical and commercial terms, the the

greatest postwar croonergreatest postwar crooner Born Born Nathaniel Coles Nathaniel Coles in Montgomery, Alabamain Montgomery, Alabama His family moved to the His family moved to the South Side of Chicago South Side of Chicago

when he was four years old.when he was four years old. His father was the pastor of a Baptist church.His father was the pastor of a Baptist church.

– Nat was playing organ and singing in the choir by the age Nat was playing organ and singing in the choir by the age of twelveof twelve. .

He made his first recording in 1936, in He made his first recording in 1936, in the Solid the Solid SwingersSwingers, a jazz band led by his brother Eddie , a jazz band led by his brother Eddie Cole. Cole.

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Nat “King” Cole (1917–65)Nat “King” Cole (1917–65)

A brilliant piano improviserA brilliant piano improviser One of the first African American One of the first African American

musicians to cross over musicians to cross over regularly to regularly to the predominantly white pop charts. the predominantly white pop charts.

Cole’s biggest commercial successes Cole’s biggest commercial successes were were sentimental balladssentimental ballads accompanied by elaborate orchestral accompanied by elaborate orchestral arrangements.arrangements.

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Listening: “Listening: “Nature Boy” Written by Eden Ahbez (1908–95)Written by Eden Ahbez (1908–95) Performed by Nat “King” ColePerformed by Nat “King” Cole Accompanied by Frank DeVol’s OrchestraAccompanied by Frank DeVol’s Orchestra

– Recorded in 1948Recorded in 1948; held the ; held the Number One Number One position on the position on the Billboard pop charts for Billboard pop charts for eight weekseight weeks..

““Nature Boy” was the Nature Boy” was the first record to present Nat first record to present Nat “King” Cole’s voice with full orchestral “King” Cole’s voice with full orchestral accompaniment.accompaniment.

The song is in a The song is in a minor keyminor key. . – Infrequent in mainstream popular music Infrequent in mainstream popular music – Associated in the popular imagination withAssociated in the popular imagination with sadness, sadness,

longing, and exotic images of thelonging, and exotic images of the OrientOrient It is the orchestral arrangement along with Cole’s It is the orchestral arrangement along with Cole’s

honeyed baritone voice that makes this record honeyed baritone voice that makes this record work.work.

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Urban Folk MusicUrban Folk Music

Showed up on the Showed up on the pop charts in the early pop charts in the early 1950s1950s

Combined a number of seemingly Combined a number of seemingly contradictory tendenciescontradictory tendencies

Inspired by Inspired by rural folk music rural folk music yet performed yet performed by by urban intellectualsurban intellectuals

Drew inspiration from the Drew inspiration from the populist protest populist protest songs of Woody Guthriesongs of Woody Guthrie yet was used by yet was used by the record industry to generate millions of the record industry to generate millions of dollars in profits dollars in profits

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The WeaversThe Weavers The The first urban folk group first urban folk group to achieve commercial to achieve commercial

success success A quartet led by the singer, banjo player, and political A quartet led by the singer, banjo player, and political

activistactivist Pete Seeger Pete Seeger (b. 1919) (b. 1919) Formed in 1948, they grew out of an earlier group Formed in 1948, they grew out of an earlier group

called the called the Almanac SingersAlmanac Singers, which had included , which had included Seeger and Guthrie.Seeger and Guthrie.

With a repertoire based on American and international With a repertoire based on American and international folk songs, the Weavers performed at folk songs, the Weavers performed at union rallies, union rallies, college concerts, and urban coffeehouses. college concerts, and urban coffeehouses.

The group was “discovered” at a New York City The group was “discovered” at a New York City nightclub by nightclub by Gordon JenkinsGordon Jenkins, managing director of , managing director of Decca RecordsDecca Records..

Between 1950 and 1954, they placed Between 1950 and 1954, they placed eleven records eleven records in the Top 40. in the Top 40.

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The WeaversThe Weavers

Three members of the group, including Three members of the group, including Seeger, Seeger, were accused of being were accused of being Communists during the early 1950sCommunists during the early 1950s. . (Their main accuser later admitted that (Their main accuser later admitted that he had fabricated the charges and went he had fabricated the charges and went to prison for perjury.) to prison for perjury.)

Decca RecordsDecca Records, unwilling to withstand , unwilling to withstand the heatthe heat, dropped their contract, dropped their contract, and the , and the Weavers never again appeared on the Weavers never again appeared on the pop music charts. pop music charts.

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““Goodnight Irene”

Singalong version of a song composed by Singalong version of a song composed by Huddie Ledbetter (a.k.a. Leadbelly, Huddie Ledbetter (a.k.a. Leadbelly, 1889–1949)1889–1949)

The most successful of their recordingsThe most successful of their recordings– Number One on the pop charts in 1950 Number One on the pop charts in 1950

The strophic form of the song is clearly The strophic form of the song is clearly related to the folk ballad tradition, with a related to the folk ballad tradition, with a series of verses and a recurring chorus. series of verses and a recurring chorus.

Despite the folksy informality of much of Despite the folksy informality of much of the Weavers’ later work, the Weavers’ later work, this song is a this song is a pop recordpop record..

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The WeaversThe Weavers

Helped define a niche in the popular Helped define a niche in the popular market for folk-based popular market for folk-based popular music, including the later work of music, including the later work of the the Kingston Trio; Kingston Trio; Peter, Paul, and Mary; and Bob Dylan

The Weavers’ use of international The Weavers’ use of international materials, including Israeli, Cuban, materials, including Israeli, Cuban, and South African songs, make and South African songs, make them the them the first world beat artists.first world beat artists.

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Southern Music in the Southern Music in the Postwar EraPostwar Era

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Southern Music in the Postwar Southern Music in the Postwar EraEra

““Race music” and “hillbilly music” Race music” and “hillbilly music” underwent a series of name changes.underwent a series of name changes.

In 1949, In 1949, BillboardBillboard began using the began using the terms terms “rhythm & blues” “rhythm & blues” and and “country “country and western.”and western.”

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Southern Music in the Postwar Southern Music in the Postwar EraEra

During the late 1930s and the 1940s, During the late 1930s and the 1940s, millions of people had migrated from millions of people had migrated from the rural South in search of the rural South in search of employment in employment in defense-related defense-related industriesindustries. .

This migrant population greatly This migrant population greatly expanded the target audience expanded the target audience for for southern-derived music. southern-derived music.

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RadioRadio

Radio played a crucial role Radio played a crucial role in the in the popularization of this music. popularization of this music.

During the war, a number of white During the war, a number of white disc jockeys began to mix in black disc jockeys began to mix in black popular music with pop records.popular music with pop records.

In 1949, In 1949, WDIA in Memphis, WDIA in Memphis, TennesseeTennessee, became the , became the first radio first radio station dedicated to playing music for station dedicated to playing music for a black audience.a black audience.

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The AFM Recording Ban and The AFM Recording Ban and the Rise of BMI the Rise of BMI

The AFM recording ban of 1942–44, The AFM recording ban of 1942–44, along with the rise of BMI, provided along with the rise of BMI, provided many many southern-born musicians with southern-born musicians with new opportunities for recording.new opportunities for recording.

The success of country and western The success of country and western and rhythm & blues (R&B) music was and rhythm & blues (R&B) music was indebted to the indebted to the reemergence of reemergence of dozens of small, independent record dozens of small, independent record labels. labels.

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Rhythm & BluesRhythm & Blues

Described Described music performed almost music performed almost exclusively by black artists for sale to exclusively by black artists for sale to African American audiencesAfrican American audiences

A loose cluster of styles rooted in southern A loose cluster of styles rooted in southern folk traditions:folk traditions:– Swing-influenced “jump bands” Swing-influenced “jump bands” – Tin Pan Alley–style love songs performed by Tin Pan Alley–style love songs performed by

croonerscrooners– Various styles of urban bluesVarious styles of urban blues– Gospel-influenced vocal harmony groupsGospel-influenced vocal harmony groups

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Jump Blues Jump Blues

The first commercially successful The first commercially successful category of R&Bcategory of R&B

During the war, the leaders of some During the war, the leaders of some big bands were forced to downsize. big bands were forced to downsize.

Specialized in Specialized in hard-swinging, hard-swinging, boogie-woogie–based party musicboogie-woogie–based party music, , spiced with humorous lyrics and spiced with humorous lyrics and wild stage performanceswild stage performances

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Louis Jordan (1908–75)Louis Jordan (1908–75) Led the most famous jump band, Led the most famous jump band, The The

Tympany FiveTympany Five Arkansas-born saxophone player and Arkansas-born saxophone player and

singersinger Began making recordings for Began making recordings for Decca Decca

Records Records in 1939in 1939 The first jump band musician to appeal to The first jump band musician to appeal to

a mass audiencea mass audience Flamboyant style and humorous lyrics Flamboyant style and humorous lyrics His ensemble setup—His ensemble setup—two trumpets, two two trumpets, two

saxophones, bass, piano, and drumssaxophones, bass, piano, and drums——became the became the standard for R&Bstandard for R&B..

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Listening: Listening: “Choo Choo Ch’ Ch’ Boogie” (1946)Boogie” (1946)

Louis Jordan’s biggest hitLouis Jordan’s biggest hit Released in 1946 by Decca RecordsReleased in 1946 by Decca Records Topped the R&B charts for an amazing Topped the R&B charts for an amazing

eighteen weekseighteen weeks, reached , reached Number Seven on Number Seven on BillboardBillboard’’s pop hit list’’s pop hit list, and , and sold over two sold over two million copies million copies

Exemplifies key elements of the jump blues Exemplifies key elements of the jump blues style of R&Bstyle of R&B

Cowritten by Milt Gabler, Jordan’s producer, Cowritten by Milt Gabler, Jordan’s producer, and two country and western musicians who and two country and western musicians who worked at a radio station in New York Cityworked at a radio station in New York City

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Listening: “Choo Choo Ch’ Listening: “Choo Choo Ch’ Boogie” (1946)Boogie” (1946)

The title of the song draws The title of the song draws a parallel a parallel between the motion of a train and between the motion of a train and the rocking rhythm of boogie-woogie the rocking rhythm of boogie-woogie music. music.

Boogie woogie Boogie woogie provided an provided an important important link between R&B and country musiclink between R&B and country music during the postwar period.during the postwar period.

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Listening: “Choo Choo Ch’ Listening: “Choo Choo Ch’ Boogie” (1946)Boogie” (1946)

FormForm– Series of verses in twelve-bar blues Series of verses in twelve-bar blues

form, alternated with an eight-bar form, alternated with an eight-bar choruschorus

– Combines Combines elements of African American elements of African American music and Tin Pan Alley songmusic and Tin Pan Alley song

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Blues Crooner StyleBlues Crooner Style

– Dominated by a Dominated by a blend of blues and pop blend of blues and pop singingsinging

– The roots of this urbane approach to The roots of this urbane approach to the blues reach back to a series of race the blues reach back to a series of race recordings made in the late 1920s and recordings made in the late 1920s and 1930s by1930s by the pianist Leroy Carr (1905–35) and the pianist Leroy Carr (1905–35) and the guitarist Scrapper Blackwell (1903–62). the guitarist Scrapper Blackwell (1903–62).

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Cecil Gant (1913–51)Cecil Gant (1913–51)

A black G.I. from Nashville, Tennessee A black G.I. from Nashville, Tennessee The “G.I. Singsation”The “G.I. Singsation” Recorded a love song called “I Wonder”Recorded a love song called “I Wonder”

– Sung in a gentle, slightly nasal, bluesy styleSung in a gentle, slightly nasal, bluesy style– Accompanied only by his own piano playingAccompanied only by his own piano playing– Reached Reached Number One on Number One on BillboardBillboard’s “Harlem ’s “Harlem

Hit Parade” Hit Parade” and attracted attention from and attracted attention from some white listeners.some white listeners.

– Gant was never able to repeat the success of Gant was never able to repeat the success of his first hit. his first hit.

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Charles Brown (1922–99)Charles Brown (1922–99)

The most successful blues crooner of the The most successful blues crooner of the late 1940s and early 1950slate 1940s and early 1950s

– A soft-spoken Texas-born pianist and singerA soft-spoken Texas-born pianist and singer– Studied Studied classical piano as a childclassical piano as a child, graduated , graduated

from college in 1942 at the age of twenty from college in 1942 at the age of twenty – His smooth, sensitive, somewhat forlorn vocal His smooth, sensitive, somewhat forlorn vocal

style (style (sometimes called “cocktail blues”sometimes called “cocktail blues”) ) attracted attention.attracted attention.

– He began to develop a national reputation He began to develop a national reputation with the release of “Drifting Blues,” one of with the release of “Drifting Blues,” one of the top-selling R&B records of 1945 and the top-selling R&B records of 1945 and 1946. 1946.

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Listening: “Black Night” Listening: “Black Night”

Written by Jessie Robinson; performed by Written by Jessie Robinson; performed by Charles Brown and His Band; released in Charles Brown and His Band; released in 1951 1951

One of Brown’s most successful One of Brown’s most successful recordings, recordings, held the Number One position held the Number One position on the R&B charts for fourteen weeks in on the R&B charts for fourteen weeks in 1951 1951

““Black Night” did not show up on the pop Black Night” did not show up on the pop charts, because of its charts, because of its dark mood, slow dark mood, slow tempo, and somber lyrics.tempo, and somber lyrics.

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Listening: “Black Night”Listening: “Black Night”

Form Form – Twelve-bar bluesTwelve-bar blues

LyricsLyrics– Convey a Convey a deep anxiety about the future deep anxiety about the future

and a fear of lonelinessand a fear of loneliness, evoked by the , evoked by the coming of night coming of night

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Chicago Electric BluesChicago Electric Blues Urban blues tradition of the postwar eraUrban blues tradition of the postwar era

Derived more directly from the Mississippi Delta Derived more directly from the Mississippi Delta tradition of Charley Patton and Robert Johnsontradition of Charley Patton and Robert Johnson

Chicago was the terminus of the Illinois Chicago was the terminus of the Illinois Central railroad line, which ran up through Central railroad line, which ran up through the Midwest from the Mississippi Delta.the Midwest from the Mississippi Delta.

The rural blues tradition had almost The rural blues tradition had almost completely died out completely died out as a commercial as a commercial phenomenon by World War II. phenomenon by World War II.

The old Delta blues emerged in a The old Delta blues emerged in a reinvigorated, electronically amplified reinvigorated, electronically amplified form.form.

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Muddy Waters (McKinley Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield) (1915–83)Morganfield) (1915–83)

““Discovered” in the Mississippi Delta Discovered” in the Mississippi Delta by Allan Lomax in 1941by Allan Lomax in 1941

Moved to Chicago in 1943Moved to Chicago in 1943 Played both Played both acoustic and electric acoustic and electric

slide guitarslide guitar The The single greatest influence on the single greatest influence on the

British blues boomBritish blues boom in the 1960s in the 1960s

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Listening: “Hootchie Cootchie Listening: “Hootchie Cootchie Man”Man”

Muddy Waters, 1953Muddy Waters, 1953 Features Muddy’s lineup in the early Features Muddy’s lineup in the early

1950s:1950s:– Two electric guitarsTwo electric guitars– Bass, drumsBass, drums– Amplified harmonicaAmplified harmonica

Combines blues form with strophic Combines blues form with strophic verse-chorus structureverse-chorus structure

Typical Chicago electric/urban bluesTypical Chicago electric/urban blues

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Vocal Harmony Groups Vocal Harmony Groups

Although this tradition is today Although this tradition is today sometimes called sometimes called “doo-wop,” “doo-wop,” the the earliest performers did not use this earliest performers did not use this term.term.– During the postwar era, During the postwar era, variants of the variants of the

African American vocal harmony African American vocal harmony traditiontradition, both sacred and secular, , both sacred and secular, moved into the R&B market.moved into the R&B market.

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The Dominoes The Dominoes

The vocal harmony group most The vocal harmony group most responsible for moving away from the pop-responsible for moving away from the pop-oriented sound of the Mills Brothersoriented sound of the Mills Brothers– Created a harder-edged sound more closely Created a harder-edged sound more closely

linked to black gospel musiclinked to black gospel music Led by vocal coach Billy WardLed by vocal coach Billy Ward In 1950, Ward started rehearsing with a In 1950, Ward started rehearsing with a

number of his most promising students number of his most promising students and a seventeen-year-old tenor singer and a seventeen-year-old tenor singer named named Clyde McPhatter Clyde McPhatter (1932–72). (1932–72).

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““Have Mercy Baby”Have Mercy Baby”

The Dominoes pushed vocal-group R&B The Dominoes pushed vocal-group R&B firmly in the direction of a firmly in the direction of a harder-edged, harder-edged, explicitly emotional sound. explicitly emotional sound.

Recorded in Recorded in Cincinnati, OhioCincinnati, Ohio, and , and released by Federal Records in 1952released by Federal Records in 1952

It was the first record to combineIt was the first record to combine– the twelve-bar blues form,the twelve-bar blues form,– the driving beat of dance-oriented R&B, andthe driving beat of dance-oriented R&B, and– the intensely emotional flavor of black gospel the intensely emotional flavor of black gospel

singing. singing.

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Johnnie Ray (1927–90) Johnnie Ray (1927–90)

Partially deaf since childhoodPartially deaf since childhood Rose to become one of the biggest Rose to become one of the biggest

international pop stars of the early 1950sinternational pop stars of the early 1950s Crowned the Crowned the “Prince of Wails” “Prince of Wails” and and

parodied as the parodied as the “Guy with the Rubber “Guy with the Rubber Face and the Squirt Gun Eyes” Face and the Squirt Gun Eyes”

His hit “Cry” reached His hit “Cry” reached Number One on both Number One on both the pop and R&B hit parades.the pop and R&B hit parades.– He was the He was the only white performer only white performer to reach the to reach the

top of the black charts between 1946 and top of the black charts between 1946 and 1956.1956.

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Women in R&B: Ruth Brown Women in R&B: Ruth Brown (b. 1928)(b. 1928)

““Miss Rhythm” Miss Rhythm” Born inBorn in Virginia Virginia Began her professional career at the Began her professional career at the

age of sixteenage of sixteen In 1949, signed with the new In 1949, signed with the new

independent label independent label Atlantic RecordsAtlantic Records

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Listening: “Mama He Treats Listening: “Mama He Treats Your Daughter Mean” Your Daughter Mean”

Written by Johnny Wallace, Herbert J. Written by Johnny Wallace, Herbert J. Lance, and Charles SingletonLance, and Charles Singleton

Performed by Ruth BrownPerformed by Ruth Brown Released in Released in 19531953 Held the Number Held the Number One position on the One position on the

R&B charts for five weeksR&B charts for five weeks in 1953 in 1953 and reached and reached Number Twenty-three Number Twenty-three on the pop charts on the pop charts

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Listening: “Mama He Treats Listening: “Mama He Treats Your Daughter Mean” Your Daughter Mean”

The form is another example of the The form is another example of the blending of blues and Tin Pan Alley–derived blending of blues and Tin Pan Alley–derived forms. forms. – The twelve-bar form here is expanded by adding The twelve-bar form here is expanded by adding

four extra bars in the middle of the song.four extra bars in the middle of the song. Brown’s vocal style:Brown’s vocal style:

– Warm, somewhat husky tone Warm, somewhat husky tone – Strong rhythmic feelingStrong rhythmic feeling– Little upward squeals at the ends of words such Little upward squeals at the ends of words such

as “mama,” “man,” and “understand” as “mama,” “man,” and “understand”

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Big Mama Thornton (1926–Big Mama Thornton (1926–84)84)

Born in Born in Montgomery, AlabamaMontgomery, Alabama The daughter of a Baptist ministerThe daughter of a Baptist minister Began her career as a Began her career as a professional singer, professional singer,

drummer, harmonica player, and comic on drummer, harmonica player, and comic on the black vaudeville circuitthe black vaudeville circuit and later and later settled in Houston, where she sang in settled in Houston, where she sang in black nightclubs black nightclubs

In the early 1950s, arrived in Los Angeles In the early 1950s, arrived in Los Angeles and began working with Johnny Otis, a and began working with Johnny Otis, a Greek-American drummerGreek-American drummer

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Listening: “Hound Dog”Listening: “Hound Dog”

Written by Jerry Lieber and Mike Written by Jerry Lieber and Mike StollerStoller

Sung by Big Mama ThorntonSung by Big Mama Thornton One of the top-selling R&B records One of the top-selling R&B records

of 1953 of 1953 Number One for seven weeksNumber One for seven weeks

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Listening: “Hound Dog”Listening: “Hound Dog”

Thornton’s Thornton’s deep, raspy, commanding deep, raspy, commanding voice voice projects a stark image of female projects a stark image of female power rarely, if ever, expressed in popular power rarely, if ever, expressed in popular music of the 1950s. music of the 1950s.

The bluntness of the lyrics is reinforced by The bluntness of the lyrics is reinforced by the musical accompaniment.the musical accompaniment.

The tempo is relaxed, and the The tempo is relaxed, and the performance is energetic but loose. performance is energetic but loose.

The basic form of the song is twelve-bar The basic form of the song is twelve-bar blues.blues.

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The Postwar EraThe Postwar Era

Country and Western MusicCountry and Western Music

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Patti Page (b. 1927) Patti Page (b. 1927)

Sold more records than any other Sold more records than any other female singer of the early 1950sfemale singer of the early 1950s

Had success with love songs and novelties Had success with love songs and novelties like “The Doggie in the Window” (like “The Doggie in the Window” (Number Number One pop in 1953)One pop in 1953)

Her biggest hit was a recording of Her biggest hit was a recording of the “Tennessee Waltz.” the “Tennessee Waltz.” – Number One on the pop charts for Number One on the pop charts for

thirteen weeksthirteen weeks– Sold more than six million copiesSold more than six million copies

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Country CroonersCountry Crooners

Eddy Arnold (b. 1918) Eddy Arnold (b. 1918) – The most popular country croonerThe most popular country crooner

Dominated the country charts from 1947 to 1954 and Dominated the country charts from 1947 to 1954 and scored eleven Top 40 hits on the pop chartsscored eleven Top 40 hits on the pop charts

– Arnold began his career as a country singer on Arnold began his career as a country singer on local radio shows in his native Tennessee and local radio shows in his native Tennessee and joined the cast of the joined the cast of the Grand Ole Opry Grand Ole Opry in the in the mid-1940s.mid-1940s.

Key elements of his style are evident from Key elements of his style are evident from his early recordings:his early recordings:– Smooth, warm baritone voiceSmooth, warm baritone voice– Propensity for sentimental songsPropensity for sentimental songs

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BluegrassBluegrass Bluegrass music is a style rooted in the Bluegrass music is a style rooted in the

venerable venerable southern string band tradition. southern string band tradition. Bill Monroe (1911–97)Bill Monroe (1911–97)

– The pioneer of bluegrass music The pioneer of bluegrass music – Born in Born in KentuckyKentucky

Started playing music at a young ageStarted playing music at a young age Influenced by his uncle (a country fiddler) and Influenced by his uncle (a country fiddler) and

by a black musician and railroad workerby a black musician and railroad worker In 1935, formed a duet with his brother, Charlie In 1935, formed a duet with his brother, Charlie • In 1938, started his own group, In 1938, started his own group, the Blue Grass the Blue Grass

Boys, Boys, and the following year joined the cast of and the following year joined the cast of the the Grand Ole OpryGrand Ole Opry

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Listening: “It’s Mighty Dark to Listening: “It’s Mighty Dark to Travel” Travel”

Performed by Bill Monroe and the Blue Performed by Bill Monroe and the Blue Grass BoysGrass Boys

Recorded in Recorded in Nashville in 1947Nashville in 1947 Classic example of bluegrass:Classic example of bluegrass:

– A blend of Anglo-American string band musicA blend of Anglo-American string band music– Traditional singing of the Appalachian Traditional singing of the Appalachian

MountainsMountains– Influences from black music, especially the Influences from black music, especially the

bluesblues

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Listening: “It’s Mighty Dark to Listening: “It’s Mighty Dark to Travel”Travel”

Acoustic stringed instrumentation: Acoustic stringed instrumentation: fiddle, fiddle, guitar, mandolin, banjo, bassguitar, mandolin, banjo, bass

Bill Monroe’s Bill Monroe’s “chop-chord” mandolin style “chop-chord” mandolin style creates percussive sound occurring in creates percussive sound occurring in alternation with the bass.alternation with the bass.

Earl Scruggs’s highly syncopated, three-Earl Scruggs’s highly syncopated, three-finger technique on the banjo interlocks finger technique on the banjo interlocks with the rhythm of the other instruments.with the rhythm of the other instruments.

The string bass provides steady support, The string bass provides steady support, playing on the first and third beats of each playing on the first and third beats of each measure.measure.

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Honky-Tonk StyleHonky-Tonk Style

Born in Born in oil boomtowns of Texas and oil boomtowns of Texas and Oklahoma Oklahoma after World War II. after World War II.

Loud bars were called “honky-tonks.”Loud bars were called “honky-tonks.” Music had to be loud Music had to be loud to be heard.to be heard. Songs were about the pleasures and Songs were about the pleasures and

problems of the honky-tonk audience.problems of the honky-tonk audience. Sentimental or religious songs would Sentimental or religious songs would

not have worked. not have worked.

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Honky-Tonk StyleHonky-Tonk Style Country musicians adapted traditional Country musicians adapted traditional

instruments and playing techniques to the instruments and playing techniques to the rowdy atmosphere of the juke joint. rowdy atmosphere of the juke joint.

The typical instrumentation of a honky-The typical instrumentation of a honky-tonk band included tonk band included a fiddle, a steel guitar, a fiddle, a steel guitar, a “takeoff” (lead) guitar, a string bass, and a “takeoff” (lead) guitar, a string bass, and a piano. a piano.

The The guitars were electronically amplifiedguitars were electronically amplified.. Musicians played with a percussive, Musicians played with a percussive,

insistent beat well suited to dancing.insistent beat well suited to dancing. Honky-tonk vocal styles were often Honky-tonk vocal styles were often

directly emotional. directly emotional.

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Ernest Tubb (1914–84) Ernest Tubb (1914–84) Began his career in the 1930s as a disciple of Began his career in the 1930s as a disciple of

Jimmie Rodgers, the “Singing Brakeman” Jimmie Rodgers, the “Singing Brakeman” By the 1940s, he had developed into one of By the 1940s, he had developed into one of

the first honky-tonk performers, the first honky-tonk performers, singing in a singing in a deep baritone voicedeep baritone voice roughened by many roughened by many years of singing in juke joints.years of singing in juke joints.

His first big hit was “Walking the Floor over His first big hit was “Walking the Floor over You” (released by Decca Records in 1941).You” (released by Decca Records in 1941).

– Secured him a spot on the Secured him a spot on the Grand Ole Opry Grand Ole Opry – Helped him create a nationwide followingHelped him create a nationwide following

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Hank Thompson (b. 1925)Hank Thompson (b. 1925)

Created a Created a popular variation of honky-popular variation of honky-tonk music by combining it with tonk music by combining it with elements of Western Swingelements of Western Swing

His biggest hit was His biggest hit was “The Wild Side of “The Wild Side of Life,” Number One on the country Life,” Number One on the country charts for fifteen weeks in 1952.charts for fifteen weeks in 1952.

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Listening: “The Wild Side of Listening: “The Wild Side of Life”Life”

Recorded in Hollywood Recorded in Hollywood Written by William Warren and Arlie Written by William Warren and Arlie

CarterCarter Based on Warren’s personal Based on Warren’s personal

experiences with a experiences with a “honky-tonk “honky-tonk angel” angel”

Reflects major theme in honky-tonk Reflects major theme in honky-tonk music: music:

– Dislocations of urban working-class lifeDislocations of urban working-class life– Transience of male-female relationshipsTransience of male-female relationships

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Listening: “The Wild Side of Listening: “The Wild Side of Life”Life”

You wouldn’t read my letter if I wrote youYou wouldn’t read my letter if I wrote youYou asked me not to call you on the phoneYou asked me not to call you on the phoneBut there’s something I’m wanting to tell youBut there’s something I’m wanting to tell youSo I wrote it in the words of this songSo I wrote it in the words of this song

I didn’t know God made honky-tonk angelsI didn’t know God made honky-tonk angelsI might have known you’d never make a wifeI might have known you’d never make a wifeYou gave up the only one that ever loved youYou gave up the only one that ever loved youAnd went back to the wild side of lifeAnd went back to the wild side of life

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Kitty Wells (b. 1918) Kitty Wells (b. 1918)

The The first female superstar of country musicfirst female superstar of country music Born in Born in NashvilleNashville, married the popular , married the popular

country entertainer Johnny Wrightcountry entertainer Johnny Wright Began appearing with him on radio in Began appearing with him on radio in

1938 1938 Her reputation was spread by network Her reputation was spread by network

radio appearances.radio appearances. Kitty Wells Kitty Wells specialized in songs of love and specialized in songs of love and

betrayalbetrayal, with titles like “Paying for That , with titles like “Paying for That Back Street Affair” and “Whose Shoulder Back Street Affair” and “Whose Shoulder Will You Cry On.”Will You Cry On.”

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Listening: “It Wasn’t God Who Listening: “It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky-Tonk Angels” Made Honky-Tonk Angels”

(1952)(1952)

An answer record to Hank An answer record to Hank Thompson’s hit “The Wild Side of Thompson’s hit “The Wild Side of Life” Life”

The The first recording by a solo female first recording by a solo female performerperformer to top the country and to top the country and western chartswestern charts

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Listening: “It Wasn’t God Who Listening: “It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky-Tonk Angels” Made Honky-Tonk Angels”

(1952)(1952)As I sit here tonight, the jukebox playingAs I sit here tonight, the jukebox playingThe tune about the wild side of lifeThe tune about the wild side of lifeAs I listen to the words you are sayingAs I listen to the words you are sayingIt brings memories when I was a trustful wifeIt brings memories when I was a trustful wifeIt wasn’t God who made honky-tonk angelsIt wasn’t God who made honky-tonk angelsAs you said in the words of your songAs you said in the words of your songToo many times married men think they’re Too many times married men think they’re

still singlestill singleThat has caused many a good girl to go That has caused many a good girl to go

wrongwrong

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Hank Williams (1923–53)Hank Williams (1923–53)

Symbol of the honky-tonk styleSymbol of the honky-tonk style Most significant figure to emerge in Most significant figure to emerge in

country music country music during the immediate post–during the immediate post–World War II periodWorld War II period

Born into poverty, began singing at an Born into poverty, began singing at an extremely young age extremely young age

At sixteen, the At sixteen, the “Singing Kid” “Singing Kid” had his own had his own local radio show. local radio show.

His vocal style blended elements of His vocal style blended elements of blues blues gospel and traditional country singing. gospel and traditional country singing.

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Listening: “I’m So Lonesome I Listening: “I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry”Could Cry”

Evokes the flavor of “old-timey” Evokes the flavor of “old-timey” country music:country music:– Waltz-like triple meterWaltz-like triple meter– Straightforward strophic formStraightforward strophic form– The vocals have an intensity that brings The vocals have an intensity that brings

the pain behind the words to life. the pain behind the words to life. – The vocals The vocals have sustained vowel sounds have sustained vowel sounds

placed on the downbeats:placed on the downbeats: HHeaear that lr that loonesome whnesome whiippoorwill ppoorwill

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Listening: “Hey, Good Listening: “Hey, Good Lookin’” Lookin’”

Written and performed by Hank WilliamsWritten and performed by Hank Williams Recorded in 1951Recorded in 1951 ““Hey, Good Lookin’” was a Hey, Good Lookin’” was a minor crossover minor crossover

hithit– Number Twenty-Nine pop, but Number One on Number Twenty-Nine pop, but Number One on

the country chart for eight weeks in 1951the country chart for eight weeks in 1951 Danceable character and pop-friendly thirty-Danceable character and pop-friendly thirty-

two-bar AABA form borrowed from Tin Pan two-bar AABA form borrowed from Tin Pan Alley modelsAlley models

Teen-friendly lyrics that address cars, Teen-friendly lyrics that address cars, dancing, and young romance; terms like dancing, and young romance; terms like “hot-rod Ford,” “soda pop,” “go steady,” and “hot-rod Ford,” “soda pop,” “go steady,” and “date book”“date book”

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Hank Williams (1923–53)Hank Williams (1923–53)

The hard-living, hard-loving rambling The hard-living, hard-loving rambling life that Hank Williams led had its price: life that Hank Williams led had its price: – Divorced by 1952Divorced by 1952– Fired by the Fired by the Grand Ole OpryGrand Ole Opry for failing to for failing to

appearappear– Dependent on alcohol and painkillersDependent on alcohol and painkillers

Died on New Year’s Day 1953 after Died on New Year’s Day 1953 after suffering a heart attack in the back of suffering a heart attack in the back of his car on the way to a performance his car on the way to a performance