Chapter Four Building Competitive Advantage Through Functional- Level Strategy.
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Transcript of Chapter Four Building Competitive Advantage Through Functional- Level Strategy.
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- Chapter Four Building Competitive Advantage Through Functional- Level Strategy
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 2 Functional-Level Strategies Functional-level strategies are strategies aimed at improving the effectiveness of a companys operations. Improves companys ability to attain superior: 1.Efficiency 2. Quality 3.Innovation 4. Customer responsiveness Increases the utility that customers receive: Through differentiation Creating more value Lower cost structure than rivals This leads to a competitive advantage and superior profitability and profit growth.
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 3 Achieving Superior Efficiency Functional steps to increasing efficiency: Economies of Scale Learning Effects Experience Curve Flexible Manufacturing and Mass Customization Marketing Materials Management and Supply Chain R&D Strategy Human Resource Strategy Information Systems Infrastructure
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 4 Dangers of Complacency Derived from Experience Effects 1.The experience curve is likely to bottom out So further unit cost reductions may be hard to come by 2.New technologies can make experience effects obsolete From changes always taking place in the external environment 3.Flexible manufacturing technologies may allow small manufacturers to produce at low unit costs Achieving both low cost and differentiation through customization 4.Some technologies may not produce lower costs with higher volumes of output Managers should not become complacent about efficiency-based cost advantages derived from experience effects:
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 5 Flexible Manufacturing and Mass Customization Flexible Manufacturing Technology A range of manufacturing technologies that: Reduce setup times for complex equipment Improves scheduling to increase use of individual machines Improves quality control at all stages of the manufacturing process Increases efficiency and lowers unit costs Mass Customization Ability to use flexible manufacturing technology to reconcile two goals that were once thought incompatible : Low cost and Differentiation through product customization
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 6 Marketing Marketing Marketing strategy Refers to the position that a company takes regarding Pricing Promotion Advertising Distribution Product design Customer defection rates Percentage of customers who defect every year Defection rates are determined by customer loyalty Loyalty is a function of the ability to satisfy customers Reducing customer defection rates and building customer loyalty can be major sources of a lower cost structure.
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 7 Materials Management The activities necessary to get inputs and components to a production facility, through the production process, and through the distribution system to the end-user Many sources of cost in this process Significant opportunities for cost reduction through more efficient materials management Just-in-Time (JIT) Inventory System System designed to economize on inventory holding costs: Have components arrive to manufacturing just prior to need in production process Have finished goods arrive at retail just prior to stock out Supply Chain Management Task of managing the flow of inputs to a companys processes to minimize inventory holding and maximize inventory turnover Materials Management and Supply Chain
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 8 Research and Development (R&D) Roles of R&D in helping a company achieve greater efficiency and lower cost structure: 1.Boost efficiency by designing products that are easy to manufacture Reduce the number of parts that make up a product reduces assembly time Design for manufacturing requires close coordination with production and R&D 2.Help a company have a lower cost structure by pioneering process innovations Reduce process setup times Flexible manufacturing An important source of competitive advantage R&D Strategy
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 9 Human Resource Strategy Hiring strategy Assures that the people a company hires have the attributes that match the strategic objectives of the company Employee training Upgrades employee skills to perform tasks faster and more accurately Self-managing teams Members coordinate their own activities and make their own hiring, training, work, and reward decisions. Pay for performance Linking pay to individual and team performance can help to increase employee productivity The key challenge of the Human Resource function: improve employee productivity.
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 10 Information Systems Information systems impact on productivity is wide-ranging: Web-based information systems can automate many of the company activities Potentially affects all the activities of a company Automates interactions between Company and customers Company and suppliers
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 11 A Companys Infrastructure: The companys structure, culture, style of strategic leadership, and control system: Determines the context within which all other value creation activities take place Strategic leadership is especially important in building a companywide commitment to efficiency The leadership task is to articulate a vision for all functions and coordinate across functions Achieving superior performance requires an organization-wide commitment. Top management plays a major role in this process. Infrastructure
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 12 Achieving Superior Quality Quality as reliability They do the jobs they were designed for and do it well Quality as excellence Perceived by customers to have superior attributes 1.A strong reputation for quality allows a company to differentiate its products. 2.Eliminating defects or errors reduces waste, increases efficiency, and lowers the cost structure increasing profitability. Quality can be thought of in terms of two dimensions and gives a company two advantages:
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 13 Improving Quality as Reliability TQM is based on the following five-step chain reaction: 1.Improved quality means that costs decrease. 2.As a result, productivity also improves. 3.Better quality leads to higher market share and allows increased prices. 4.This increases a companys profitability. 5.Thus the company creates more jobs. Six Sigma methodology: the principal tool now used to increase reliability and is a direct descendant of Total Quality Management (TQM)
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 14 Demings Steps in a Quality Improvement Program 1.A company should have a clear business model. 2.Management should embrace philosophy that mistakes, defects, and poor quality are not acceptable. 3.Quality of supervision should be improved. 4.Management should create an environment in which employees will not be fearful of reporting problem or making suggestions. 5.Work standards should include some notion of quality to promote defect-free output. 6.Employees should be trained in new skills. 7.Better quality requires the commitment of everyone in the workplace.
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 15 Implementing Reliability Improvement Methodologies Build organizational commitment to quality Create quality leaders Focus on the customer Identify processes and the source of defects Find ways to measure quality Set goals and create incentives Solicit input from employees Build long-term relationships with suppliers Design for ease of manufacture Break down barriers among functions Imperatives that stand out among companies that have successfully adopted quality improvement methods:
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 16 Improving Quality as Excellence Developing Superior Attributes: Learn which attributes are most important to customers Design products and associate services to embody the important attributes Decide which attributes to promote and how best to position them in consumers minds Continual improvement in attributes and development of new-product attributes A product is a bundle of attributes and can be differentiated by attributes that collectively define product excellence.
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 17 Attributes Associated with a Product Offering Table 4.3
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 18 Achieving Superior Innovation Innovation can: Result in new products that satisfy customer needs better Improve the quality of existing products Reduce costs Innovation can be imitated - So it must be continuous Building distinctive competencies that result in innovation is the most important source of competitive advantage. Successful new product launches are major drivers of superior profitability.
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- Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All right