Chapter 20 Stocks. Basic Ingredients: Stock is composed of three main ingredients: Nutritive...

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Chapter 20 Stocks

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Transcript of Chapter 20 Stocks. Basic Ingredients: Stock is composed of three main ingredients: Nutritive...

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  • Chapter 20 Stocks
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  • Basic Ingredients: Stock is composed of three main ingredients: Nutritive Ingredients Aromatic ingredients and Liquid Nutritive Aromatic
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  • Nutritive Ingredients Consist principally of bones, and are the key to stocks This is where stocks get their name, from the type of game bone that is used to produce the stock; Beef, chicken, veal. Fish stock is called fumet (foo-MAY) Bones provide gelatin (derived from collagen) and adds mouthfeel. This is critical to a flavorful stock Age of the bones impact collagen levels, the younger the animal the more collagen in the bones.
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  • Aromatic Ingredients Refer to: vegetables, Herbs, and Spices added to stock in order to improve its flavor. ONE INGREDIENT NEVER ADDED TO STOCK IS SALT Salt eliminates many of the diverse uses of stock and its ability to be reduced. Vegetable flavoring; the universal vegetable flavoring in stock is mirepoix. Two parts onion, one part celery, one part carrot. (leeks are sometimes substituted for carrots)
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  • Aromatics contd Herbs and Spices Most stocks are flavored with three herbs (thyme, bay leaf, and parsley) and one spice (whole black peppercorn). Herbs and spices are added to stock in the form of: - sachet- (sa- SHAY) a small cheese cloth bag containing herbs and spices, fresh herbs may be used but it is ideal for small dried herbs. - Bouquet garni- (boo KAY gar NEE) a bundle of fresh herbs tied to a piece of celery, leek, or carrot. A small sachet will also hold peppercorns.
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  • Liquids Most stocks are made by simmering the nutritive and aromatic ingredients in water. The rule of thumb is that bones should be covered in two inches of water.
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  • Attributes of a Well Made Stock Well made stocks share 4 main attributes: Color- transparent, golden, brown Clarity- a good stock should be clear Flavor- Flavors should be those of the nutritive ingredients Body- Refers to the amount of gelatin in a stock. Many well made stocks will partially solidify when cooled
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  • Stock preperation Categorized as either white or brown White is made from raw or slightly cooked bones and mirepoix Brown is made from roasted bones and roasted or sauteed mriwpoix
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  • White stocks Chicken and fish bones are both rinsed to remove impurities from the bones, like blood or gills. Large bones are cut up and may be blanched prior to use. Blanching refers to putting to bones in cold water and bringing to a boil then discarding water. It is done to produce a clearer stock.
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  • Brown Stock Can be made from all bones except fish Brown stocks are made from well roasted bones Roasting is what gives it its brown color Unlike white stocks, chefs never blanch bones for brown stocks. Blanching is not necessary since the proteins that could cloud a white stock are coagulated during the roasting process
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  • Storing for quality Always store your stock below 41 degrees and out of the temperature danger zone Stocks are a perfect environment for bacterial growth since they are neutral on the ph scale. Signs that a stock has spoiled are: Offensive smell Cloudy appearance Ropy or stringy texture Bubbles rising to the surface
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  • Bouillons and Broths Bouillon and Broth are stock-like preparations that are made with a larger proportion of meat than bone. The increase in the amount of meat causes two things, first less gelatin because of fewer bones, and second increased price, meat is more expensive than bone. Vegetable Stock- Technically it is not a true stock because of the absence of bones, therefore no gelatine Can be made into a white or brown stock depending on if the veggies are roasted.
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  • Bases Base- a concentrated instant powder or paste that dissolves in hot water to make a stock-like liquid. These are available in a variety of flavors. Disadvantages They do not have the same taste They contain salt Variations in ingredients are a tell tale sign of the quality of base. Advantages of bases; Saves stove space during preparation Much lower labor cost to prepare Bases are less expensive than stocks made from scratch