Chapter 18 Positive Punishment. Two Types of Positive Punishment Punishment by application of...

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Punishment by Application of Aversive Activities Overcorrection Contingent exercise Guided compliance Physical restraint

Transcript of Chapter 18 Positive Punishment. Two Types of Positive Punishment Punishment by application of...

Chapter 18 Positive Punishment Two Types of Positive Punishment Punishment by application of aversive activities Punishment by application of aversive stimulation Punishment by Application of Aversive Activities Overcorrection Contingent exercise Guided compliance Physical restraint Overcorrection The individual has to engage in effortful behavior contingent on the problem behavior Restitution Restitution Contingent on the problem behavior, the individual is required to fix the environment disrupted by the problem behavior Positive Practice Contingent on the problem behavior the individual has to engage in correct forms of relevant behavior for a period of time Contingent Exercise Contingent on the problem behavior, the individual engages in some effortful behavior for a specified period of time. The effortful behavior is unrelated to the problem behavior. Guided Compliance Contingent on problem behavior that occurs following a request, the individual is physically guided to comply with the request. Involves positive punishment to decrease the problem behavior because physical guidance is contingent on the problem behavior. Involves negative reinforcement to increase compliance because removal of physical guidance is contingent on compliance. Physical Restraint Contingent on the problem behavior, the body part involved in the behavior is held immobile for a specified period of time Often used with response blocking or response interruption Cautions in the Use of Aversive Activities 1. Change agent must be physically capable of using the procedure 2. Client may actively resist the procedure 3. Must be certain the physical contact involved in the procedure is not reinforcing to the client 4. Must be certain that the procedure can be carried out without harm Punishment by Application of Aversive Stimulation Rarely if ever used in behavior modification Examples: lemon juice spray mist iceSIBIS aromatic ammonia reprimands auditory stimulation (noise) Considerations in the use of Punishment by the Application of Aversive Stimulation 1. Use functional/nonaversive procedures first. 2. Implement differential reinforcement with punishment. 3. Consider the function of the problem behavior. 4. Choose the aversive stimulus carefully. 5. Collect data to make treatment decisions. 6. Address ethical issues. Problems With Punishment Emotional reactions / aggressive behavior Escape and avoidance behaviors Modeling the use of punishment Negative reinforcement for the use of punishment Establishing the user as a conditioned punisher Before Using Punishment 1. Conduct a functional assessment 2. Identify the behavioral deficit as well as excess 3. First use functional/nonaversive treatments - Extinction - Differential reinforcement - Antecedent manipulations - Behavioral skills training procedures Ethical Issues and Acceptability The use of painful or uncomfortable stimulation Informed consent Alternative treatments Safety Problem severity Implementation guidelines Training and supervision Peer review and accountability - prevent misuse Chapter 17 Negative Punishment - Time Out and Response Cost Time Out 1. Following the problem behavior 2. The child is removed from the reinforcing environment for a brief period of time 3. The problem behavior decreases in the future Types of Time Out ExclusionaryNonexclusionary Using Time Out 1. Start with a functional assessment and implement functional/nonaversive treatments first 2. Make sure the time-in environment is reinforcing 3. Reinforce desirable behaviors 4. When the problem behavior occurs, take the child to the time-out area immediately 5. Provide no attention when taking the child to time-out 6. Time-out must be brief, practical, and safe 7. Provide no attention or other reinforcers during time-out 8. Prevent escape from time-out 9. Child must be calm before release from time out 10. Time-out must be acceptable to parents or other change agents before using the procedure Response Cost 1. Following the problem behavior 2. A specified amount of a reinforcer is removed or lost 3. The problem behavior decreases in the future Using Response Cost 1. Conduct a functional assessment and first implement functional/nonaversive treatments 2. Reinforce desirable behaviors 3. Identify the reinforcer to be lost 4. Decide if the loss if permanent or temporary 5. Contingent on the problem, implement response cost immediately if possible 6. Symbolize the reinforcer loss if it is not immediate 7. Consider ethical issues regarding the loss of some reinforcers 8. Response cost must be practical and acceptable Comparing Extinction, Time Out and Response Cost Extinction - The reinforcer for the problem behavior is no longer contingent on the behavior Time Out - The person is removed from all sources of reinforcement or from the reinforcing environment contingent on the problem behavior Response Cost - Contingent on the problem behavior a reinforcer is removed, but not the reinforcer for the problem behavior