Ch.8 - Axial & Appendicular Skeleton

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1-1Human AnatomyChapter 8Axial & Appendicular Skeleton

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7-2Skeletal SystemBones of skeleton form internal framework to support soft tissues, protect vital organs, bear bodys weight, & help us moveTypically, 206 bones in adult skeletonLarger number of bones present at birth; total number decreases with growth & maturity as some separate bones fuse

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Bone Markings Fig. 8.1Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

DescriptionAnatomic TermGeneralStructureLarge, smooth, rounded articulating oval structureSmall, flat, shallow articulating surfaceProminent, rounded epiphysisSmooth, grooved, pulley-like articular processDeep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandibleFlattened or shallow depressionNarrow grooveNarrow, prominent, ridgelike projectionProjection adjacent to a condyleLow ridgeAny marked bony prominenceAngular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structurePointed, slender processMassive, rough projection found only on the femurSmall, round projectionLarge, rough projectionPassageway through a boneNarrow, slitlike opening through a boneRounded passageway through a bonePassageway through a boneCavity or hollow space in a boneArticulatingsurfacesCondyleFacetHeadTrochleaAlveolus(pl., alveoli)Fossa(pl., fossae)SulcusDepressionsProjections fortendonand ligamentattachmentSinusMeatusFissureCanalTuberosityTubercleTrochanterSpineProcessLineEpicondyleCrestHeadTubercleSulcusPelvisFacetCrestFossaSpineLineForamenRamusHeadTrochanterOpeningsand spacesRamus (pl., rami)Foramen(pl., foramina)AlveolusSkull, anterior viewSkull, sagittal viewRamusForamenRamusCanalMeatusForamenProcessSinusFissureTuberosityFossaEpicondyleTrochleaHumerusFemurEpicondyleCondyleComponents of the Skeleton: Bone MarkingsSurface features that characterize each bone Projections where muscles, tendons, and ligaments attachSmooth areas sites of articulation between bonesDepressions, grooves, and openings where blood vessels and nerves travel

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Skull4

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12345, 67, 88 cranial bonesEach Friday Our Son Plays Poker Till Tuesday8 Cranial bones form cranial cavityEnclose & protect brain

Skull

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*= facial bones: nasal (2), maxillae (2), zygomatic (2), mandible, lacrimal (2) palatine (2), inferior nasal conchae (2) vomer (palatine not seen here)******Facial bones (14 bones) form bones of faceProtect & provide support for entrances to digestive and respiratory systems Skull

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7-7Skeletal SystemAxial skeleton: Skull, hyoidVertebral columnThoracic cage

Appendicular skeleton: Upper & lower limbs Bones that hold limbs to trunk of body

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Coronal: Sagittal: Sutures of SkullImmovable fibrous joints

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***Zygomatic process of temporal bone;Temporal process of zygomatic bone

LambdoidalSquamosal

Sutures of Skull

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7-10Cranial BonesFrontalParietals: (paries = wall)

Temporals:

Zygomatic process articulates with temporal process of zygomatic boneZygomatic arch: zygomatic process of temporal bone & temporal process of zygomatic bonePetrous portion of temporal houses internal & middle ear

10Process=prominence or projection

7-11Cranial BonesOccipital

Foramen magnum (large hole)Sphenoid:

Sphenoid bone

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Crista galli

Sella turcica

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**

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14Insert Fig. 7.9 superior view of skull

*Looking downward from top of skull**

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maxilla supports upper teethMaxillae articulate with every bone of face except mandible; form floor of orbits

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Mandible only movable skull bone (except auditory ossicles)

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Zygomatic: cheekbones

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Palatine:

Cleft palate: failure of palatine process of maxillary bones to unite weeks 10-12 of development

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Vomer

Deviated septum (from midline of nose) at junction of bone with cartilage

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7-20Facial BonesNasal bones

Lacrimal: smallest bones of face

Lacrimal duct = tear duct (lacrima = teardrop)Inferior nasal conchae: scroll-like

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FIG. 7.3Cranial largestCavities of SkullSmaller cavities: orbits (eye sockets),oral cavity (mouth),nasal cavity, & paranasal sinuses

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Mucous membrane lining humidifies & warms inhaled airContinuous with nasal cavity

Paranasal Sinuses

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Formed by 7 bonesFrontalLacrimalZygomaticMaxillaPalatineEthmoidSphenoidOrbital complex

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*

Auditory OssiclesThree tiny ear bones found within petrous region of each temporal bone: Malleus , Incus, Stapes

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FontanellesFibrous dense CT membranes

Soft spots on a babys headClose by 15 months of age

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FontanelsAllow fetal skull to modify

Permits rapid growth of brain

Newborns frequently have cone-shaped head due to this temporary deformation

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Hyoid BoneSlender, curved bone

Does not articulate with any other bone in skeletonSuspended from temporal bones by ligaments & musclesSupports tongue, serves as site of attachment for tongue and muscles of neck & pharynx

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7-28Vertebral ColumnFunctions: Supports headPoint of attachment Helps transfer axial skeletal weight

Provides vertical support

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C1 C7T1 T12L1 L5S1 S5 fusedCo1 Co4 fusedCervicalThoracicLumbarSacrumCoccyxVertebral Column26 (33 total) bones: 7 cervical12 thoracic5 lumbar5 sacral4 coccygeal

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7-30Normal curvesCervical & lumbar

Thoracic & sacral

ImportanceIncrease strengthHelp maintain balance Absorb shock Help protect column

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7-31Abnormal CurvesKyphosis: exaggerated thoracic curvature directed posteriorly, producing hunchbackOsteoporosis, osteomalacia, heavy weight lifting during adolescenceLordosis: exaggerated lumbar curvature, (swayback); protrusion of abdomen & buttocksObesity, pregnancy, poor posture, ricketsScoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature that sometimes results during development when both vertebral arch & body do not form, or form incompletely, on one side of vertebraeMost common spinal curvature deformity

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Articulates

Cervical vertebrae: atlas

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distinctive feature of axisCervicalvertebrae: axis

Spinous process

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articulation of atlas & axis rotation to shake head & say no

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***Collectively forms vertebral canal containing spinal cord along length of columnVertebral foramen: space between vertebral arch & bodyContains spinal cord, adipose & areolar CT, BVBodyThick, disc-shaped, weight-bearing partSuperior & inferior surfaces attach intervertebral discsVertebral (neural) archExtends posteriorly from bodySurrounds spinal cordProcesses: transverse & spinous

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Typical Vertebra

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Vertebrae

CervicalThoracicLumbar

7-38Thoracic & Lumbar vertebraeThoracicLarger, stronger than cervicalDistinguishing feature: LumbarLargest, strongest, support more body weight

**

*

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**Lumbar vertebrae

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7-40Intervertebral discsBetween adjacent vertebrae

Anulus fibrosusNucleus pulposus

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Herniated disc: inner nucleus pulposus protrudes into outer anulus fibrosus, may pinch nerve*

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Sacral canal: spinal cordSacral hiatus: spinal cord ends

Coccyx fused

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7-43Thoracic CageConsists of: thoracic vertebrae posteriorly, ribs laterally, & sternum anteriorlyEncloses & protects organs in thoracic cavity & upper abdominal cavityProvides support

Sternum (breastbone)BodyManubriumXiphoid processCartilagenous, ossifies after age 40

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7-44RibsBoth males & females 12 pairsRibs 1-7 Direct anterior attachment to sternum by strip of hyaline cartilage (costal cartilage)Ribs 812 Their costal cartilages do not attach directly to sternumCostal cartilages of ribs 810 fuse to the costal cartilage of rib immediately above it (articulates indirectly with sternum)Last two pairs of false ribs (ribs 11 and 12)

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

123456789L1T12Suprasternal notchManubriumClavicular notchCostal notchSternal angleSternumBodyCostal notchXiphoid processCostal cartilagesFloating ribs(1112)False ribs(812)True ribs(17)11101211

***

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

T8T9T10T6(b) Superior view(c) Lateral viewJunctionwith costalcartilageRib 6Costal facet for rib 6HeadCostaldemifacetfor rib 6CostalfacetAngleTubercleNeckHeadCrestArticular facetsfor vertebral bodiesArticular facetfor transverse processShaftCostal groove(a) RibAngleNeckSuperiorInferiorTubercleNeckTubercle ofrib articulatingwith vertebraltransverseprocessHeadShaft of rib 9(c): The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Christine Eckel, photographer

Ribs

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7-47Skeletal SystemAxial skeleton: Skull, hyoidVertebral columnThoracic cage

Appendicular skeleton: Upper & lower limbs Bones that hold limbs to trunk of body

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Pectoral girdle: clavicle (collarbone)

S-shaped bone with convex & concave curvesmanubrium of sternumacromion of scapula

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Pectoral girdle: scapula (shoulder blade)

humerus

bump at top of shoulder

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palpate spine at your back

Acromion

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Humerus:-medial, lateral epicondyles

-capitulum articulates with radius;

-trochlea articulates with ulna

head articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula

palpate both sides of your elbow; bumps are the medial and lateral epicondyles

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olecranon fossa articulates with olecranon of ulna

Anatomical neckGroove marking location of former epiphyseal plateSurgical neckNarrowing of bone Shaft

*

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Supination:movement of forearm so palm of hand is turned anteriorlyHold arm so that you see your forearmRadius is on lateral (thumb) side; ulna is on medial sidePronation:movement of forearm so palm of hand is turned posteriorlyPalpate near elbow: feel radius cross over ulnapollex

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styloid process of radius

radius: flat, disc-shaped headradial tuberosity

olecranon of ulna (bump at elbow)

trochlear notch of ulna

styloid process of ulna

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8-55CarpalsScaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiformtrapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamateSally Left The Party To Take Cathy Home.Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard.Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cant HandleSam Lowered.

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*

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8-57Os CoxaeHip bone or innominate boneEach formed from three separate bones:ilium, ischium, & pubisFuse by age 13-15Each articulates posteriorly Join

Ileum

Ischium

Pubis

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articulates with head of femur;fusion of 3 bonesPelvis***

Protects and supports viscera in inferior part of ventral body cavityAdult pelvis composed of four bones:sacrum, coccyx, and right & left os coxae***

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ischial tuberosity = sit bones

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to sacrum at sacroiliac joint

*

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notice difference in width

subpubic angle

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8-63Lower Limb30 bonesFemurPatellaTibia & fibula7 tarsal bones (ankle & proximal foot)5 metatarsal bones (foot arch)14 phalanges

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femoral head

greater & lesser trochanter

medial condyle & epicondyle

lateral condyle & epicondyle

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Patella: a sesamoid bone

Patella (kneecap)

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Tibia: lateral & medial condyle

medial malleolusanterior crest or margin

tibial tuberosity

medial malleolus

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Fibulalateral malleolus

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Tarsals7 tarsal bones: calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular and 3 cuniform bonesMetatarsals: form arch;Numbered Roman numerals I-V

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8-69Arches of the Foot Sole of foot does not rest flat on the ground

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Locationof laterallongitudinalarchFoot print of right footRight foot, distal row of tarsals and metatarsalsLocation of mediallongitudinal archCuboidLateral cuneiformIntermediatecuneiformMedialcuneiformTransverse archMetatarsal bonesThree Arches of the FootMedial longitudinal arch extends from heel to big toeFormed from calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiform bones, metatarsals I-IIILateral longitudinal arch is not as high as medial longitudinal archFormed from calcaneus, cuboid, metatarsals IV-VTransverse arch runs perpendicular to longitudinal arches

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Fifth metatarsalLateral longitudinal archCuboidCalcaneusRight foot, lateral view

Flat feet: height of medial longitudinal arch decreased

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8-72Aging of the Appendicular SkeletonSkeletal mass & density Erosion & porosity Bones become more brittle & susceptible to fractureArticulating surfaces deteriorate

Changes begin in childhood & continue throughout life

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