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  • Vol. Vol. Vol. Vol. 9999, No. 3, No. 3, No. 3, No. 3----4444 September September September September ---- DecemberDecemberDecemberDecember 2014201420142014

    CEU Political Science JournalCEU Political Science JournalCEU Political Science JournalCEU Political Science Journal

    Department of Political ScienceDepartment of Political ScienceDepartment of Political ScienceDepartment of Political Science Central European UniversityCentral European UniversityCentral European UniversityCentral European University

  • CEU Political Science JournalCEU Political Science JournalCEU Political Science JournalCEU Political Science Journal Department of Political ScienceDepartment of Political ScienceDepartment of Political ScienceDepartment of Political Science Central European UniversityCentral European UniversityCentral European UniversityCentral European University,,,, BudapBudapBudapBudapestestestest September September September September ---- DecemberDecemberDecemberDecember 2012012012014444 Advisory BoardAdvisory BoardAdvisory BoardAdvisory Board S.M. Amadae, Ohio State University Gabriela Borz, University of Aberdeen Andras Bozoki, CEU Budapest Anil Duman, CEU Budapest Carol Harrington, Victoria University of Wellington Karen Henderson, University of Leicester Herbert Kitschelt, Duke University Levente Littvay, CEU Budapest Cristian Pirvulescu, SNSPA Bucharest Phillippe C. Schmitter, EUI Florence Carsten Q. Schneider, CEU Budapest Jan Zielonka, University of Oxford EditorsEditorsEditorsEditors Sergiu Gherghina, Goethe University Frankfurt Arpad Todor, SNSPA Bucharest Book Reviews EditorBook Reviews EditorBook Reviews EditorBook Reviews Editor Theresa Gessler, CEU Budapest Editorial BoardEditorial BoardEditorial BoardEditorial Board Dorothee Bohle, CEU Budapest Mihail Chiru, CEU Budapest Zsolt Enyedi, CEU Budapest Rebecca J. Hannagan, Northern Illinois University Dylan Kissane, CEFAM Lyon Robert Sata, CEU Budapest Daniela Sirinic, University of Zagreb Jan Smolenski, New School for Social Research Maria Spirova, Leiden University Andreas Umland, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Editorial AssistantEditorial AssistantEditorial AssistantEditorial Assistant Ela Genc, CEU Budapest ISSN: 1818-7668

  • CONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTS ARTICLESARTICLESARTICLESARTICLES Marinko Banjac Governing youth: Configurations of EU Youth policy 139 Kirstyn Hevey Estonian transitional justice: predicated on a collective memory 159 Seda Yildirim-Babakiray and Emel Elif Tugdar Political determinants of minimum wage adjustment policies: a comparative analysis of 23 OECD states 185 Petr Kaniok EU Council Presidency as agenda shaper: the case of the Czech EU Presidency 209 Samuel Spac Judiciary development after the breakdown of communism in the Czech Republic and Slovakia 234 BOOK REVIEWSBOOK REVIEWSBOOK REVIEWSBOOK REVIEWS Robert Aldrich and Kirsten McKenzie (eds.), The Routledge History of Western Empires, (London: Routledge, 2014) Reviewed by: Alvin Camba 263 Jeffrey L. Dunoff and Mark A. Pollack (eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations. The State of the Art (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) Reviewed by: Liana Ionita 266

  • Mariam Irene Tazi-Preve, “Motherhood in Patriarchy: Animosity Towards Mothers in Politics and Feminist Theory – Proposals for Change” (Opladen, Berlin and Toronto: Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2013 Reviewed by: Leda Sutlović

    268

    Dorothee Bohle and Bela Greskovits, Capitalist Diversity on Europe's Periphery (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2012) Reviewed by: Akop Gabrielyan 271 Anders Åslund, How Capitalism Was Built The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Second Edition. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) Reviewed by: Akop Gabrielyan

    118

    Mark Pennington, Robust Political Economy: Classical Liberalism and the Future of Public Policy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011) Reviewed by: Kawu Bala

    276

    Confucian Perfectionism: A Political Philosophy for Modern Times. Joseph Chan. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014) Reviewed by: Emilian Kavalski 279 Mats Benner (ed.), Before and Beyond the Global Economic Crisis: Economics, Politics and Settlement (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2013) Reviewed by: Monika Kokstaite 281 Mark A. Menaldo, Leadership and Transformative Ambition in International Relations (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2013) Reviewed by: István Tarrósy 283 NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORSNOTES ON CONTRIBUTORSNOTES ON CONTRIBUTORSNOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS

    287

  • © 2014 CEU Political Science Journal 9(3-4): 139-158

    GOVERNING YOUTH: CONFIGURATIONS OF EU YOUTH POLICY GOVERNING YOUTH: CONFIGURATIONS OF EU YOUTH POLICY GOVERNING YOUTH: CONFIGURATIONS OF EU YOUTH POLICY GOVERNING YOUTH: CONFIGURATIONS OF EU YOUTH POLICY Marinko Banjac University of Ljubljana AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract The European Union has developed a range of measures to coordinate the actions of governments and other institutionalized actors in the field of youth as well as practical programs and actions directly addressing young individuals. Applying the Foucauldian analytics of government approach, this paper shows that EU Youth Policy is a particular field of government simultaneously regulating the actions of actors dealing with youth issues while also directing the ‘proper’ behavior and conduct of young individuals primarily as jobseekers. The Open Method of Coordination and the Structured Dialogue as modes of governance are used at the EU level to disperse political power across a range of institutions. Governing is accomplished through the notions of the involvement and equivalence of partners dealing with youth issues. Complementing this, by implementing the Youth in Action Program the EU is directly encouraging young Europeans to be self- responsible and to act as active economically valuable (prospective) workers. Keywords:Keywords:Keywords:Keywords: EU Youth policy, Structured Dialogue, government, governance 1. 1. 1. 1. IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction The European Union is often promoted in an idealized way, as a space where much is done to create favorable conditions in which young people can seek opportunities, develop their skills and actively participate in European society. Indeed, the European Union (EU) represents itself as a unique community in which young people are, through diverse programs and actions, stimulated and encouraged to enter the labor market and learn how to become more employable.1 On the other hand, the EU authorities, especially in the context of the economic crisis that hit the EU in 2008, are not entirely blind to the internal problems facing young people. In particular, unemployment is increasingly considered one of the most pressing issues. As the former Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, Androulla Vassiliou, noted, “one in five young people in Europe cannot find a job”.2 Therefore, what we are encountering is a somewhat ambiguous notion of European space; it is at once presented and considered as an auspicious economic zone and as a space affected by unpleasant (if not critical) economic circumstances.

    1 See European Commission, Focus On: Youth Employment. European Good Practice Projects (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012). 2 European Commission, Focus On: Youth Employment. European Good Practice Projects (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012), 3.

  • Marinko Banjac: Governing youth: Configurations of EU Youth policy

    140

    While there are practically no objections or counter-arguments to the notion that the issues confronting European youth need to be resolved, the solutions are far from straightforward. The EU has been at the forefront of the search for remedies to the challenges young people face. In this context, the Renewed Framework for European Cooperation in the Youth Field (2010–2018), more commonly known as the EU Youth Strategy, was adopted by the European Commission in 2009. The Strategy is an overarching document for EU Youth Policy with two overall objectives: first, to provide more and equal opportunities for young people in education and in the labor market and, second, to encourage young people to be active citizens and participate in society.3 Because EU Youth Policy can only complement and support national youth policies, the Strategy is implemented on the European level through relatively new modes of governance, namely the Open Method of Coordination which is a non-binding, intergovernmental framework for cooperation and policy exchange, and through the Structured Dialogue which serves as a forum for continuous joint reflection between young people and policymakers across the EU in the youth field. In addition, yet equally importantly, the EU considers youth as part of the solution; every young person is spoken of as an agent of change and a critical resource in society upon which the EU’s future depends. Within EU Youth Policy, young individual’s concrete activities and actions were stimulated through the Youth in Action program which ran from 2007 to 2013 and in 2014 was included in the new