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  • CCNA Voice Exam CramCopyright 2009 by Que PublishingAll rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys-tem, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orotherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability isassumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although everyprecaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authorassume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for dam-ages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3799-1ISBN-10: 0-7897-3799-xLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:Bateman, David, 1964-

    CCNA voice exam cram / David Bateman and William Burton.p. cm.

    Includes index.ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3799-1 (pbk. w/cd)ISBN-10: 0-7897-3799-X (pbk. w/cd)

    1. Internet telephonyExaminationsStudy guides. I. Burton, William, 1948- II.Title.

    TK5105.8865.B373 2009004.695dc22

    2008051503Printed in the United States of AmericaFirst Printing: January 2009

    TrademarksAll terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service markshave been appropriately capitalized. Que Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy ofthis information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting thevalidity of any trademark or service mark.

    Warning and DisclaimerEvery effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possi-ble, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an as isbasis. The authors and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to anyperson or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information con-tained in this book or from the use of the CD or programs accompanying it.

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  • Introduction

    Welcome to CCNA Voice Exam Cram. Whether this book is your first or yourfifteenth Exam Cram series book, youll find information here that will helpensure your success as you pursue knowledge, experience, and certification. Thisbook aims to help you get ready to take and pass the Cisco CCNA Voice examnumber 640-460.

    This introduction explains the Cisco certification programs in general and talksabout how the Exam Cram series can help you prepare for the Cisco CCNAVoice exam. Chapters 1 through 15 are designed to remind you of everythingyoull need to know to pass the 640-460 certification exam. The two practiceexams at the end of the book should give you a reasonably accurate assessmentof your knowledge, and weve provided the answers and their explanations forthese practice exams. Read the book and understand the material, and youllstand a very good chance of passing the real test.

    Exam Cram books help you understand and appreciate the subjects and materi-als you need to know to pass Cisco certification exams. Exam Cram books areaimed strictly at test preparation and review. They do not teach you everythingyou need to know about a subject. Instead, the authors streamline and highlightthe pertinent information by presenting and dissecting the questions and prob-lems theyve discovered that youre likely to encounter on a Cisco test.

    Nevertheless, to completely prepare yourself for any Cisco test, we recommendthat you begin by taking the Self Assessment that immediately follows thisintroduction. The self-assessment tool will help you evaluate your knowledgebase against the requirements for the Cisco CCVA exam under both ideal andreal circumstances. This can also be the first step in earning more advancedvoice certifications.

    Based on what you learn from the self-assessment, you might decide to beginyour studies with classroom training or some background reading. On the otherhand, you might decide to pick up and read one of the many study guides avail-able from Que or a third-party vendor.

    We also strongly recommend that you spend some time installing, configuring,and working with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express, CiscoUnity Express, and the UC500 Smart Business Communications System,because the CCNA Voice exam is focused on these products and the knowledgeand skills they can provide for you. Nothing beats hands-on experience andfamiliarity when it comes to understanding the questions youre likely toencounter on a certification test. Book learning is essential, but without a doubt,hands-on experience is the best teacher of all!

  • 2

    CCNA Voice Exam Cram

    Cisco Certifications OverviewThe first step in general Cisco career certifications begins either with CCENTas an interim step to Associate level or directly with CCNA for network opera-tions or CCDA for network design. A variety of specialist-focused certificationsare also available to show knowledge in specific technologies, solutions, or jobroles. The following sections describe the general certification levels and paths.

    General Certifications: Three Levels ofCertificationThe three levels of certification for general certifications are

    . Associate: The first step in Cisco networking begins at the Associatelevel, which also includes CCENT, an interim step to Associates forthose with little job experience. Think of the Associate level as theapprentice or foundation level of networking certification.

    . Professional: This is the advanced or journeyman level of certification.

    . Expert: This is CCIE, the highest level of achievement for network pro-fessionals, certifying an individual as an expert or master.

    General Certifications: Six Different PathsThe widely respected IT certification programs available through Cisco CareerCertifications bring valuable, measurable rewards to networking professionals,their managers, and the organizations that employ them. The following is thelist of these six certification technologies:

    . Routing and Switching: This path is for professionals who install andsupport Cisco technologybased networks in which LAN and WANrouters and switches reside.

    . Design: This path is aimed at professionals who design Cisco technologybased networks in which LAN and WAN routers and switches reside.

    . Network Security: This path is directed toward network professionalswho design and implement Cisco Secure networks.

    . Service Provider: This path is aimed at professionals working withinfrastructure or access solutions in a Cisco end-to-end environment pri-marily within the telecommunications arena.

  • Introduction3

    . Storage Networking: This path is for professionals who implementstorage solutions over extended network infrastructure using multipletransport options.

    . Voice: This path is directed toward network professionals who installand maintain voice solutions over IP networks.

    Taking a Certification ExamAfter you prepare for your exam, you need to register with a Pearson VUE test-ing center. At the time of this writing, the cost to take the CCNA Voice exam is$250 for individuals. If you dont pass, you can take the exam again for the samecost as the first attempt, for each attempt until you pass. In the United Statesand Canada, tests are administered by Pearson VUE. Heres how you can con-tact them:

    . Prometric: You can sign up for a test through the companys website,http://www.2test.com or http://www.prometric.com. Within the UnitedStates and Canada, you can register by phone at 800-755-3926. If youlive outside this region, you should check the Prometric website for theappropriate phone number.

    . Pearson VUE: You can contact Virtual University Enterprises (VUE) tolocate a nearby center that administers the test and to make an appoint-ment. The sign-up web page address for the exam is http://www.vue.com/cisco. You can also use this web page (click the Contact button, click theView Telephone Directory by Sponsor link, and then click Cisco) to obtaina telephone number for the company, if you cant or dont want to sign upfor the exam on the web page.

    To sign up for a test, you must provide payment as approved by Pearson VUE.

    To schedule an exam, call the appropriate phone number or visit the PearsonVue website at least one day in advance. To cancel or reschedule an exam in theUnited States or Canada, you must call before 3 p.m. Eastern time the daybefore the scheduled test time (or you might be charged, even if you dont showup to take the test). To schedule a test, have the following information ready:

    . Your name, organization, and mailing address.

    . Your Cisco test ID. (In the United States, this could be your SocialSecurity number; citizens of other countries should call ahead to find outwhat type of identification is required to register for a test.)

    http://www.2test.comhttp://www.prometric.comhttp://www.vue.com/ciscohttp://www.vue.com/cisco

  • 4

    CCNA Voice Exam Cram

    . The name and number of the exam you want to take.

    . A method of payment. (A credit card is the most convenient method, butalternate means can be arranged in advance, if necessary.)

    After you sign up for a test, you are told when and where the test is scheduled.You should arrive at least 15 minutes early. You must supply two forms of iden-tification, one of which must be a photo ID, to be admitted into the testingroom. Be prepared for a biometric fingerprint scan and the taking of a digitalpicture each time you take an exam.

    Tracking Certification StatusAfter you pass the exam, you are certified. Official certification is normallygranted after six to eight weeks, so you shouldnt expect to get your credentialsovernight. The package for official certification that arrives includes a WelcomeKit that contains a number of elements (see the Cisco website for other benefitsof specific certifications):

    . A certificate that is suitable for framing, along with a wallet card.

    . A license to use the related certification logo. This means you can usethe logo in advertisements, promotions, and documents and on letter-head, business cards, and so on. Along with the license comes a logosheet, which includes camera-ready artwork. (Note that before you useany of the artwork, you must sign and return a licensing agreement thatindicates youll abide by its terms and conditions.)

    Many people believe that the benefits of certification go well beyond the perksthat Cisco certifications provide to newly anointed members of this elite group.Were starting to see more job listings that request or require applicants to haveCisco and other related certifications, and many individuals who complete Ciscocertification programs can qualify for increases in pay and responsibility. As anofficial recognition of hard work and broad knowledge, a certification credentialis a badge of honor in many IT organizations.

    About This BookWeve structured the topics in this book to build on one another. Therefore,some topics in later chapters make the most sense after youve read earlier chap-ters. Thats why we suggest that you read this book from front to back for your

  • Introduction5

    initial test preparation. If you need to brush up on a topic or if you have to boneup for a second try, you can use the index or table of contents to go straight tothe topics and questions that you need to study. Beyond helping you prepare forthe test, we think youll find this book useful as a tightly focused reference tosome of the most important aspects of the Cisco CCVA certification.

    Chapter Format and ConventionsEach topical Exam Cram chapter follows a regular structure and contains graph-ical cues about important or useful information. Heres the structure of a typicalchapter:

    . Opening hot lists: Each chapter begins with a list of the terms, tools,and techniques that you must learn and understand before you can befully conversant with that chapters subject matter. The hot lists are fol-lowed with one or two introductory paragraphs to set the stage for therest of the chapter.

    . Topical coverage: After the opening hot lists and introductory text,each chapter covers a series of topics related to the chapters subject.Throughout that section, we highlight topics or concepts that are likelyto appear on a test, using a special element called an Exam Alert:

    EXAM ALERTThis is what an Exam Alert looks like. Normally, an alert stresses concepts, terms,software, or activities that are likely to relate to one or more certification-test ques-tions. For that reason, we think any information in an alert is worthy of unusual atten-tiveness on your part.

    You should pay close attention to material flagged in Exam Alerts;although all the information in this book pertains to what you need toknow to pass the exam, Exam Alerts contain information that is reallyimportant. Youll find what appears in the meat of each chapter to beworth knowing, too, when preparing for the test. Because this booksmaterial is condensed, we recommend that you use this book along withother resources to achieve the maximum benefit.

    In addition to the alerts, we provide tips and notes that will help youbuild a better foundation for security knowledge. Although the tip infor-mation might not be on the exam, it is certainly related, and it will helpyou become a better-informed test taker.

  • 6

    CCNA Voice Exam Cram

    . Exam prep questions: Although we talk about test questions and topicsthroughout the book, the section at the end of each chapter presents aseries of mock test questions and explanations of both correct and incor-rect answers.

    . Details and resources: Most chapters end with a section titledSuggested Reading and Resources that provides direct pointers tothird-party resources that offer more details on the chapters subject. Inaddition, that section tries to rank, or at least rate, the quality and thor-oughness of the topics coverage by each resource. If you find a resourceyou like in that collection, you should use it, but you shouldnt feel com-pelled to use all the resources. On the other hand, we recommend onlyresources that we use on a regular basis, so none of our recommenda-tions will be a waste of your time or money (but purchasing them all atonce probably represents an expense that many network administratorsand certification candidates might find hard to justify).

    The bulk of the book follows this chapter structure, but wed like to point out afew other elements:

    . Practice Exam 1 and Practice Exam 2 and the answer explanationsprovide good reviews of the material presented throughout the book toensure that youre ready for the exam.

    . The Glossary defines important terms used in this book.

    . The tear-out Cram Sheet attached next to the inside front cover of thisbook represents a condensed and compiled collection of facts and tips thatwe think are essential for you to memorize before taking the test. Becauseyou can dump this information out of your head onto a sheet of paperbefore taking the exam, you can master this information by brute force;you need to remember it only long enough to write it down when youwalk into the testing room. You might even want to look at it in the car orin the lobby of the testing center just before you walk in to take the exam.

    This is how tips are formatted. Keep your eyes open for these, and youll become a CiscoCertfied Network Associate - Voice guru in no time!

    TIP

    NOTEThis is how notes are formatted. Notes direct your attention to important pieces of infor-mation that relate to the Cisco Certified Network Associate - Voice certification.

  • Introduction7

    . The MeasureUp Practice Tests CD-ROM that comes with each ExamCram and Exam Prep title features a powerful, state-of-the-art test enginethat prepares you for the actual exam. MeasureUp Practice Tests are devel-oped by certified IT professionals and are trusted by certification studentsaround the world. For more information, visit http://www.measureup.com.

    Exam TopicsTable I-1 lists the skills measured by the CCNA Voice 640-460 exam and the chap-ter in which the topic is discussed. Some topics are covered in multiple chapters.

    TABLE I-1 Cisco 640-460 Exam TopicsExam Topic Chapter

    Describe PSTN Components and Technologies

    Describe the services provided by the PSTN 1, 2, 3

    Describe time-division and statistical multiplexing 1, 2, 3

    Describe supervisory, informational, and address signaling 1, 2, 3

    Describe numbering plans 1, 2, 3

    Describe analog circuits 1, 2, 3

    Describe digital voice circuits 1, 2, 3

    Describe PBX, trunk lines, key systems, and tie lines 1, 2, 3

    Describe VoIP Components and Technologies

    Describe the process of voice packetization 4

    Describe RTP and RTCP 4

    Describe the function of and differences between codecs 4

    Describe H.323, MGCP, SIP, and SCCP signaling protocols 4, 5

    Describe and Configure Gateways, Voice Ports, and Dial Peers to Connect to the PSTN and Service Provider Networks

    Describe the function and application of a dial plan 6

    Describe the function and application of voice gateways 6

    Describe the function and application of voice ports in a gateway 6

    Describe the function and operation of call legs 6

    Describe and configure voice dial peers 6

    Describe the differences between PSTN and Internet 6telephony service provider circuits

    http://www.measureup.com

  • 8

    CCNA Voice Exam Cram

    Describe and Configure a Cisco Network to Support VoIP

    Describe the purpose of VLANs in a VoIP environment 7

    Describe the environmental considerations to support VoIP 7

    Configure switched infrastructure to support voice and data VLANs 7

    Describe the purpose and operation of PoE 7

    Identify the factors that impact voice quality 8

    Describe how QoS addresses voice quality issues 8

    Identify where QoS is deployed in the UC infrastructure 8

    Implement UC500 Using Cisco Configuration Assistant

    Describe the function and operation of Cisco Configuration Assistant 14, 15

    Configure UC500 device parameters 14, 15

    Configure UC500 network parameters 14, 15

    Configure UC500 dial plan and voicemail parameters 14, 15

    Configure UC500 SIP trunk parameters 14, 15

    Configure UC500 voice system features 14, 15

    Configure UC500 user parameters 14, 15

    Implement Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express to Support Endpoints Using CLI

    Describe the appropriate software components needed to support endpoints 9, 10, 12

    Describe the requirements and correct settings for DHCP, NTP, and TFTP 10, 12

    Configure DHCP, NTP, and TFTP 10, 12

    Describe the differences between key system and PBX mode 10, 12

    Describe the differences between the different types of ephones and ephone-dns 10, 12

    Configure Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express endpoints 10, 12, 13

    Configure call transfer per design specifications 10, 12

    Configure voice productivity features, including hunt groups, 10, 12, 13call park, call pickup, paging groups, and paging/intercom

    Configure Music on Hold 10, 12

    Implement Voicemail Features Using Cisco Unity Express

    Describe the Cisco Unity Express hardware platforms 11

    Configure the foundational elements required for Cisco Unified 11Communications Manager Express to support Cisco Unity Express

    Describe the features available in Cisco Unity Express 11

    Configure Auto Attendant services using Cisco Unity Express 11

    Configure basic voicemail features using Cisco Unity Express 11

    TABLE I-1 continuedExam Topic Chapter

  • Introduction9

    Describe the Components of the Cisco Unified Communications Architecture

    Describe the function of the infrastructure in a UC environment A

    Describe the function of endpoints in a UC environment A

    Describe the function of the call processing agent in a UC environment A

    Describe the function of messaging in a UC environment A

    Describe the function of Auto Attendants and IVRs in a UC environment A

    Describe the function of a contact center in a UC environment A

    Describe the applications available in the UC environment, Aincluding Mobility, Presence, and Telepresence

    Describe how the Unified Communications components work Atogether to create the Cisco Unified Communications Architecture

    TABLE I-1 continuedExam Topic Chapter

  • 7C H A P T E R S E V E NConfiguring the Network

    to Support VoIP

    Terms you need to understand: Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)

    DHCP relay

    Domain Name System (DNS)

    Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

    Network Time Protocol (NTP)

    IEEE 802.1af

    Power over Ethernet (PoE)

    IEEE 802.1Q

    IEEE 802.1p

    Virtual LAN (VLAN)

    Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

    Extensible Markup Language (XML)

    Techniques you need to master: Configure and understand VLANs

    Understand how CDP is used in Cisco VoIP solutions

    Create DHCP scopes on the Cisco IOS router platform

    Configure DHCP relay on the Cisco IOS router platform

    Understand the importance of NTP

    Configure NTP

    Understand the Cisco IP phone bootup process

    Identify the XML configuration files and understand their use

  • 124

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    To deploy Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express, network servicesneed to be established and properly configured on all routers and switches forCisco IP phones to function. This chapter describes the typical boot process forCisco IP phones and indicates the best practices related to configuring the net-work to support Voice over IP (VoIP).

    Understanding the Theory of VoiceVLANsA Cisco IP phone can act as a three-port switch. Just like a switch, the phone cansupport 802.1Q frames between itself and another switch, and more than oneVLAN can be supported between the Cisco Unified IP phone and an accessswitch. Figure 7.1 illustrates how the Cisco IP phone acts as a three-port switch.

    NOTENot all Cisco IP phones provide a switch port for PC access, and switch port maximumspeed is model dependent.

    FIGURE 7.1 Cisco IP phones include a three-port switch.

    The following are the three ports of the Cisco IP phone:

    . The external port that connects to a 10/100/1000 Ethernet switch

    . The external 10/100/1000 Ethernet port for PC connections

    . An internal 10/100/1000 Ethernet port for VoIP traffic

    ToSwitch

    ToPC

    InternalSwitch

    EXAM ALERTCisco IP phone switch ports do not support Inter-Switch Link (ISL) encapsulation, only802.1Q.

  • Configuring Voice VLANs125

    The benefits of this type of configuration include the following:

    . Cisco IP phones can be deployed on the network without IP addressscalability problems. IP subnets usually have more than 50 percentandoften more than 80 percentof their IP addresses allocated. A separateVLAN and its separate IP subnet to carry the voice traffic allow a largenumber of new devices, such as IP phones, to be introduced into the net-work without extensive modifications to the existing IP address scheme.

    . Voice and data VLANs allow the logical separation of data and voice traf-fic due to different characteristics. This separation allows you to handleeach traffic type individually, applying different quality of service (QoS)policies to each VLAN for monitoring and managing them separately.

    The following are IP addressing recommendations when adding Cisco IPphones to an existing data network:

    . Continue to use existing addressing for data devices (PCs, workstations,and so on).

    . Add Cisco IP phones and use DHCP to provision IP addresses and oper-ating parameters.

    . Use new subnets for Cisco IP phones if they are available in the existingaddress space, or use private addressing such as the 10.0.0.0 network (seeRFC 1918 for details) if subnets are not available in the existing addressspace.

    With IP phones residing in a separate VLANa voice VLANit is easier foryou to automate the process of deploying IP phones. The IP phone communi-cates with the switch, using the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), to request thevoice VLAN if present. The switch CDP response provides the phone with theappropriate 802.1Q VLAN ID, known as the voice VLAN ID (VVID). The PCtraffic travels across the same connection without the 802.1Q tag inserted.

    Configuring Voice VLANsThis and the following sections define how VoIP and data traffic can use thesame physical link while operating on separate Layer 2 VLANs. Figure 7.2shows the PC communicating using untagged frames on VLAN 12 and the IPphone communicating on VLAN 112 with 802.1Q frames. The VLANs areconfigured on the infrastructure switch, as shown in Figure 7.1.

  • 126

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    FIGURE 7.2 Voice and data VLANs coexist on a single physical connection.

    Listing 7.1 shows a sample switch port configuration.

    Listing 7.1 Switch Port ConfigurationSwitch(config)# interface FastEthernet0/1Switch(config-if)# switchport access vlan 12Switch(config-if)# switchport mode accessSwitch(config-if)# switchport voice vlan 112Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast

    The switchport access vlan command statically configures the access VLANfor the PC traffic.

    The switchport mode access command statically configures the port in accessmode.

    The switchport voice vlan vlan-id command identifies the VLAN provid-ed by the switch to the Cisco IP phone using CDP so that the Cisco IP phonecan insert the voice VLAN ID and the 802.1P class of service (CoS) values forthe VoIP control and media frames. By default, the IP phone sets the CoS set-ting in the 802.1Q header to a priority of 5 for voice streaming traffic and a pri-ority of 3 for the call control traffic.

    The spanning-tree portfast command eliminates the normal 30- to 50-sec-ond spanning tree delay before traffic is forwarded on a switch port.

    You can verify your voice VLAN configuration on the Cisco Catalyst switchusing the show interface mod/port switchport command, as shown inListing 7.2.

    Listing 7.2 Using the show interface mod/port switchport CommandSwitch# show interface fa0/17 switchport

    Name: Fa0/17Switchport: EnabledAdministrative mode: static access Operational Mode: static accessAdministrative Trunking Encapsulation: negotiate

    802.1Q

    VLAN 112

    VLAN 12

    Untagged Ethernet Frame

  • Configuring Voice VLANs127

    Operational Trunking Encapsulation: nativeNegotiation of Trunking: OffAccess Mode VLAN: 12 (VLAN0012)Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default)Voice VLAN: 112 (VLAN0112)Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALLPruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001Appliance trust: none

    Listing 7.2 Continued

    EXAM ALERTThere are only two VLANs allowed on a switch port configured for IP phones: theaccess VLAN with standard untagged Ethernet frames and the voice VLAN with 802.1Q-tagged Ethernet frames.

    For IP communications to access the voice and data VLANs, you need to pro-vide a Layer 3 IP interface. There are three methods used to provide this access:an external router connected to a switch, a Layer 3 switch, and a router withbuilt-in switch ports.

    VLANs and an External RouterThe commands used to connect an external router to access the voice and dataVLANs created in the preceding section follow in Listing 7.3.

    Listing 7.3 External RouterLayer 3 VLAN ConfigurationCMErouter(config)# interface fa0/0.12CMErouter(config-if)# encapsulation dot1q 12CMErouter(config-if)# ip address 10.1.12.1 255.255.255.0CMErouter(config)# interface fa0/0.112CMErouter(config-if)# encapsulation dot1q 112CMErouter(config-if)# ip address 10.1.112.1 255.255.255.0

    Router with Built-in Switch PortsListing 7.4 shows the commands used to connect a Layer 3 switch or a router withinternal switch ports to access the voice and data VLANs created previously.

    Listing 7.4 Router with Built-in SwitchLayer 3 VLAN ConfigurationCMErouter(config)# interface vlan 12CMErouter(config-if)# ip address 10.1.12.1 255.255.255.0CMErouter(config)# interface vlan 112CMErouter(config-if)# ip address 10.1.112.1 255.255.255.0

  • 128

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    Power over EthernetTo simplify deployment and ensure that the Cisco IP phones are powered evenin emergencies, power to operate the phones is sourced from the wiring closetsby either powered switches or power patch panels running on uninterruptiblepower supplies (UPSs). Figure 7.3 shows the two methods commonly used toprovide power to IP phones.

    FLP

    Cisco Prestandard FLP

    Voltage

    802.3af DroppedVoltage

    FIGURE 7.3 Power is supplied from the access switch.

    Prestandard power uses a relay in the Cisco IP phone that bridges the transmitpair and the receive pair so that the Fast Link Pulse (FLP) can be detected bythe Cisco Catalyst switch. After the switch detects the FLP, the switch appliesinline power to the Cisco IP phone to activate the relay so that transmit andreceive pairs can power the phone and enable communications.

    Cisco prestandard power can be supplied on two pairs of a standard four-pairEthernet cable. Option 1 is pins 1 and 2 and pins 3 and 6, and option 2 is pins4 and 5 and pins 7 and 8.

    Make sure that all the components in your wiring plant are certified to carry thepower and voltage levels required to power Cisco IP phones. Components suchas cables and patch panels should be Cat 5e or better.

    With the IEEE standard 802.3af and the extended 802.3af plus, the method ofdetecting a powered device connected to Catalyst switches has been modified tomeasure resistance by sending low power to the powered device, measuring theresult, verifying the result by slightly increasing the power, and remeasuring.After the powered device is verified, full power is applied.

    EXAM ALERTYou should understand the two methods of delivering power to the Cisco IP phones:Cisco prestandard and IEEE 802.3af.

  • Essential Network Services: DHCP and NTP129

    Essential Network Services: DHCPand NTPDHCP is a common protocol and is familiar to many network administrators.With DHCP, a scope is defined per subnet and is used to assign IP addresses,along with a subnet mask, from a pool of available addresses. You should assignother values, such as the default gateway and Domain Name System (DNS)server (optional), to the scope by setting option values. Cisco IP phones look foroption 150 (multiple servers) or option 66 (single server) from their DHCPserver. These options provide the IP address of the TFTP server where the IPphone configuration files are stored. You must configure option 150 with the IPaddress of the TFTP server for the IP phones to receive their configuration fileand successfully boot.

    NOTEThe router or server that provides call control typically provides the TFTP function used ina Cisco Unified Communications deployment. Option 150 is the preferred practice.

    NTP is used to synchronize the date and time on your network devices and forIP telephony to display the time on the IP phone and record the date and timefor voicemail messages.

    DHCP ServicesYou can deploy DHCP on any platform that supports customized scope options.These platforms include Windows, Linux, Novell, UNIX, and other operatingsystems.

    When you set up the DHCP service for IP phones, you can define the addresspools in the following ways:

    . Single DHCP IP address pool: Define a single DHCP IP address poolif the router is a DHCP server and if you can use a single shared addresspool for all your DHCP clients.

    . Separate DHCP IP address pool for each Cisco IP phone: Define aseparate pool for each Cisco IP phone if the router is a DHCP serverand you need different settings on nonIP phone devices, such as per-sonal computers, on the same subnet.

  • 130

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    . DHCP relay server: Define a DHCP relay server if the router is not aDHCP server and you want to relay DHCP requests from IP phones toa DHCP server on a different subnet.

    Listing 7.5 shows router-based DHCP services.

    Listing 7.5 Cisco IOS DHCP ConfigurationCME(config)# ip dhcp excluded-address 10.112.0.1 10.112.0.10CMERouter(config)# ip dhcp pool mypoolCMERouter(dhcp-config)# network 10.112.0.0 255.255.255.0CMERouter(dhcp-config)# option 150 ip 10.112.0.1CMERouter(dhcp-config)# default-router 10.112.0.1CMERouter(dhcp-config)# dns-server 10.100.0.1 10.100.0.2CMERouter(dhcp-config)# exit

    NOTEYou should avoid separate DHCP scopes for individual devices if possible because of theadded configuration complexity.

    EXAM ALERTThe DHCP pool name is case sensitive.

    DHCP Relay ServiceImplement DHCP relay when the DHCP server is not on the network wherethe DHCP clients exist. The Cisco IP phones use a broadcast DHCP request-and-response process, and broadcasts are only valid on the local subnet (VLAN).The solution is to convert and track the DHCP broadcast request to either aunicast or a directed broadcast. The broadcast traverses the network to reach thedestination server or subnet and relays the response to the original requestingdevice. Figure 7.4 shows a router acting as the relay agent, accepting the IPphone broadcasts, obtaining the DHCP information from the server, and for-warding the response to the IP phone.

    DHCPBroadcast

    LocalResponse

    DHCPServer

    Requests

    Router

    DHCP Unicast

    DHCP Response toRouter

    FIGURE 7.4 DHCP relay services.

  • Essential Network Services: DHCP and NTP131

    For the Cisco router to support DHCP relay services, it must have the DHCPservice enabled. The Cisco IOS DHCP server is enabled by default. If it has pre-viously been disabled, use the service dhcp command in global configurationmode to enable this feature.

    The ip helper-address ip-address command enables the selective forward-ing of certain types of broadcasts, including Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) andDHCP. The ip-address parameter specifies the DHCP server to which themessages are forwarded. If you have multiple servers, you can configure onehelper address for each server. For the IP phone to obtain IP address informa-tion, configure the relay command on each router interface local to the IPphones pointing to the remote DHCP server.

    Listing 7.6 shows the configuration commands to implement DHCP relay services.

    Listing 7.6 Implementing DHCP Relay ServicesCMERouter(config)# service dhcpCMERouter(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0CMERouter(config-if)# ip helper-address 10.200.0.1

    This listing configures an IP helper address of 10.200.0.1 on the Fast Ethernet0/0 (fa0/0) interface. This interface connects to a network that has IP phones butdoes not have a DHCP server. This command causes the DHCP broadcasts thatenter the router on the Fast Ethernet 0/0 interface to be forwarded to DHCPserver 10.200.0.1. Each request is tracked by the router so that DHCP respons-es are forwarded to the correct local Cisco IP phone.

    Network Time ProtocolNTP synchronizes network infrastructure (routers and switches) and computers(PCs and servers) to a single clock on the network, known as the clock master.NTP is essential to Cisco Unified Communications deployments.

    An NTP network usually gets its time from an authoritative time source. Thissource can be a radio clock or an atomic clock attached to a time server. NTPthen distributes this time across the network. An NTP client initiates a transac-tion with its server with a polling interval that ranges from 64 to 1,024 seconds.This interval dynamically changes over time, depending on the network condi-tions between the NTP server and the client. No more than one NTP transac-tion per minute is needed to synchronize two machines.

    One of the strengths of NTP is that it uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC),which is easily accessed through the GPS satellite system. Because UTC is the

  • 132

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    same worldwide, networks synchronized to UTC avoid interoperability prob-lems with other networks. This synchronization is particularly important whenadministrators are troubleshooting IP telephony traffic and need to compare logfiles from various networks. The time of the internal clock of the Cisco UnifiedCommunications call control platform and the network infrastructure compo-nents should be synchronized with an NTP server.

    The clock timezone zone hours-offset command sets the time zone andnumber of hours that the time zone is offset from the UTC (formerlyGreenwich Mean Time [GMT]). This command allows the Cisco router todefine the operating time zone. If daylight saving time occurs in the area wherethe system is located, you must configure it using the clock summer-time zonerecurring [start-date end-date] command.

    Because Cisco Unified Communications call control can run on multiple plat-forms, the method for enabling NTP varies. To keep the correct time based on thetime of a more authoritative source than its own system, perform the following:

    . Cisco IOS router: The ntp server ip-address command configuresthe Cisco router to synchronize with the NTP server specified by theip-address parameter.

    . LINUX-based servers: Linux-based versions of Cisco UnifiedCommunications Manager have a web-based interface that you can useto set the NTP server to which they can synchronize.

    . Windows-based servers: Windows-based versions of Cisco UnifiedCommunications Manager can be set from the command line.

    Listing 7.7 sets a Cisco router to Pacific Standard Time with daylight savingtime configured and synchronizes the routers system time to an NTP serverwith an IP address of 10.1.2.3.

    Listing 7.7 Configuring NTP and Clock SettingsRouter(config)# clock timezone PST -8Router(config)# clock summer-time PDT recurring first sunday april 02:00

    last sunday october 02:00Router(config)# ntp server 10.1.2.3

  • Understanding the Phone Bootup Process133

    Understanding the Phone BootupProcessAfter completing the configuration of the switch and activating DHCP, theCisco IP phone proceeds through the standard bootup cycle.

    After an IP phone receives power, the following happens:

    1. Power-on self-test (POST): The phone performs a set of tests to ensurebasic functionality.

    2. The phone begins the boot process.

    3. The phone uses Cisco Discovery Protocol to learn the voice VLAN.

    4. The phone initializes a basic IP stack.

    5. The IP phone (DHCP client) sends a DHCPDISCOVER request to the255.255.255.255 broadcast address.

    6. A DHCP server returns a DHCPOFFER message and assigns the fol-lowing for the requested scope: a free IP address, the subnet mask, thedefault gateway, the DNS server (optional), and the TFTP server (option150) for the scope. This information is sent to the DHCP client (the IPphone) using the broadcast address 255.255.255.255 (the router uses theIP phone MAC address at Layer 2).

    7. The IP phone takes the values received from the DHCP response andapplies them to the IP stack of the IP phone.

    8. The IP phone uses the value received in option 150 to attempt toretrieve a configuration file from the TFTP server.

    The IP phone is prepared and ready to operate on the network, but it needs itsunique identity and operating parameters. When the TFTP request for configu-ration files is issued, there is a sequence of requests issued in an attempt to regis-ter with a call agent and operate. The following sections cover the configurationfiles.

  • 134

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    Installing Cisco IP Phone Firmwareand XML Configuration FilesCertain files are necessary for the proper operation of a Cisco IP phone or analogdevice so that it can register successfully with a Cisco Unified Communicationscall control device. These files are not installed on the Cisco router and must beinstalled from an external source. The file types are as follows:

    . Firmware: The firmware is loaded into flash memory on the IP phoneand can survive a reboot.

    . SEPAAAABBBBCCCC.cnf.xml: This XML configuration file is specific toone device, and the AAAABBBBCCCC part of the name is the MAC addressof the device.

    . XMLDefault.cnf.xml: This XML configuration file specifies the properfirmware and the call agents address and port, which the new phoneneeds to register.

    The following sections describe each file type in greater detail.

    FirmwareInstall the firmware required by the Cisco IP phones in the flash memory of theCisco Unified Communications Manager Express systems. There are two com-mands required to provide access to these firmware files:

    . tftp-server flash:firmware-file-name: Use this global command tomake the file available.

    . load phone-type firmware-file: Use this telephony-service commandto associate a type of phone with a firmware file.

    All the necessary firmware files for Cisco IP phones are stored internally in theflash memory of the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express router, soan external database or file server is not required. During registration, Cisco IPphones use TFTP to download firmware files from the routers flash memory. AllCisco Unified Communications Manager Express configuration and languagefiles are located in the memory of the router in the system:/its/ directory.

    To make the firmware file(s) available through a TFTP server, use the tftp-server flash:firmware-file-name(s) command on the Cisco Unified

  • Installing Cisco IP Phone Firmware and XML Configuration Files135

    Communications Manager Express router. The load phone-type firmware-file command under telephony service is also required to associate the modelof IP phone with the appropriate firmware file(s).

    For Cisco Unified Communications Manager, the firmware files are installed onthe server(s) in the cluster that run the TFTP service.

    Device Configuration XML FileThe XML file SEPAAAABBBBCCCC.cnf.xml (where AAAABBBBCCCC is the MACaddress of the IP phone) contains the call agent IP address and port, firmware,locale, directory URL, and many other pieces of information. This file is pres-ent when the IP phone has been added to the configuration.

    Listing 7.8 shows a configuration file that contains the phone model (7931), IPaddress (10.6.150.1), and port (2000) for registering; the firmware filename; thelanguage (English United States); and additional information for proper IPphone operation.

    Listing 7.8 SEPAAAABBBBCCCC.cnf.xml File (AAAABBBBCCCC = the MAC Address)

    {7931 Aug 06 2008 14:23:48}

    M/D/YAEastern Standard/Daylight Time

    2000

    10.6.150.1

    3

    SCCP31.8-3-3S

    English_United_Statesen

  • 136

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    United_States

    United_States

    0http://10.6.4.2/voiceview/authentication/authenticate.do

    http://10.6.150.1:80/localdirectory

    http://10.6.150.1:80/CMEserverForPhone/serviceurl0

    3804

    1

    Default XML FileIP phones and devices that do not find the more specific SEPAAAABBBBCCCC.cnf.xml file can use the XMLDefault.cnf.xml file if they have never registeredbefore and an autoregistration method has been enabled. IP phones that downloadthis XML file through TFTP learn the IP address and port to send Skinny ClientControl Protocol (SCCP) messages to when attempting to register. The IP phonesalso learn the version of firmware that is required to function properly with the CiscoUnified Communications call control product to which the phone is registering.Cisco IP phone models 7931 and 7961 are highlighted.

    Listing 7.9 shows a default configuration file.

    Listing 7.9 XMLDefault.cnf.xml File

    2000

    Listing 7.8 Continued

  • Installing Cisco IP Phone Firmware and XML Configuration Files137

    10.6.150.1

    SCCP31.8-3-3S

    SCCP41.8-3-3S

    Listing 7.9 Continued

  • 138

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    Exam Prep Questions1. What are the reasons for using 802.1Q? (Choose two.)

    A. Standards based multi-VLAN trunking

    B. To allow clients to see the 802.1Q header

    C. To provide inter-VLAN communications over a bridge

    D. To load-balance traffic between parallel links using STP

    E. To provide a voice and data VLAN on a shared connection

    2. Which of the following describes the endless flooding or looping of frames in a Layer 2switched environment?

    A. Flood storm

    B. Loop overload

    C. Broadcast storm

    D. Broadcast overload

    3. Which command correctly connects an Ethernet subinterface to VLAN 50 using 802.1Qtrunking?

    A. Router(config) # encapsulation 50 dot1Q

    B. Router(config) # encapsulation 802.1Q 50

    C. Router(config-if) # encapsulation dot1Q 50

    D. Router(config-if) # encapsulation 50 802.1Q

    4. Which of the following is a Cisco recommendation for IP addressing deployment?

    A. Statically apply IP addresses to IP phones to ensure stability.

    B. Apply public IP addresses to IP phones so that they can be reached fromthe PSTN.

    C. Add IP phones with DHCP as the mechanism for obtaining IP addresses.

    D. Deploy IP phones on the same subnet as data devices.

  • Exam Prep Questions139

    5. Why would you need to implement a DHCP relay server?

    A. If the DHCP server does not have a local interface on the network with theDHCP clients

    B. Because the DHCP request and response process is not broadcast

    C. To relay the proprietary DHCP request of an IP phone to the standardDHCP request understood by the Cisco IOS Software

    D. If an IP phone, a data device, and a DHCP server all reside on the samesubnet

    6. Which protocol do IP phones use during registration to download firmware files fromthe flash memory of the router?

    A. HTTP

    B. DHCP

    C. FTP

    D. TFTP

    7. Which of the following statements accurately describe NTP? (Choose all that apply.)

    A. NTP is used to synchronize syslog time stamps.

    B. NTP is used to synchronize call detail records.

    C. NTP is used to minimize errors during TFTP downloads.

    D. The time displayed on the IP phones must come from an NTP server.

    E. Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express can synchronize its clockto an NTP server.

    F. NTP requires the purchase of an atomic or radio clock.

    8. Which of the following filenames could be used by a Cisco IP phone to synchronize itsfirmware with the call agent? (Choose two.)

    A. XMLdefault.cnf.xml

    B. ephone-1.cnf.xml

    C. SEP001BD5086771.cnf.xml

    D. SEP001BB35853C.cnf.xml

    E. XMLDefault.cnf.xml

  • 140

    Chapter 7: Configuring the Network to Support VoIP

    9. Which of the following commands would be used to deliver firmware file SCCP41.8-3-3S.loads at the request of a Cisco IP phone?

    A. ftp-server flash:/SCCP41.8-3-3S.loads

    B. tftp-server flash:/SCCP41.8-3-3S.loads

    C. tftp-server flash:/SCCP41.8-3-3S

    D. tftp-server SCCP41.8-3-3S.loads

    10. DHCP services can be configured on which of the following devices? (Choose two.)

    A. Cisco IOS routers

    B. Cisco IP phones

    C. Cisco IOS Layer 3 switches

    D. Cisco IOS Layer 2 switches

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions1. A and E. 802.1Q is a standards-based trunking protocol and shares a single physical

    connection for voice and data traffic. End users typically are not permitted to accessthe network over multiple VLANs, so answer B is incorrect. Answer C is incorrect;VLANs isolate traffic at Layer 2. Multiple VLANs are not used for load balancingbecause end stations can only access one VLAN at a time, so answer D is incorrect.

    2. C. Broadcast storm describes the endless flooding of frames in a Layer 2 switchedenvironment. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect. None of those terms have meaning inthe Ethernet switch environment.

    3. C. The encapsulation command followed by the encapsulation type and theVLAN number. Answers A and B are incorrect; the answers are in global mode, notinterface mode. Answer D has the parameters of the encapsulation command backward.

    4. C. Deploy IP phones using DHCP. Statically applying IP addresses is time consumingand error prone, so answer A is incorrect. Using public IP addresses for phones opensa security threat, so answer B is incorrect. Answer D is incorrect; the goal is to sepa-rate voice and data traffic.

    5. A. No direct connection to the DHCP server. The IP phone DHCP request is a broad-cast, so answer B is incorrect. The IP phone uses standard DHCP services, so answerC is incorrect. If the DHCP server is directly attached to the same IP subnet or VLAN,there is no reason to use DHCP relay, so answer D is incorrect.

  • Suggested Reading and Resources141

    6. D. TFTP is used to provision Cisco IP phones. HTTP, DHCP, and FTP are not used dur-ing the automatic provisioning and registration process, so answers B, C, and D areincorrect.

    7. A, B, and E. NTP is the source for syslog and CDR time stamps, and for Cisco UnifiedCommunications call agent synchronization. NTP is not used during TFTP downloadsto minimize errors, so answer C is incorrect. The time displayed on the IP phonescomes from the call agent, so answer D is incorrect. There are many free-access NTPservers on the Internet that have atomic clocks and are typically used as NTP sources,so answer F is incorrect.

    8. C and E. SEP.cnf.xml andXMLDefault.cnf.xml (case sensitive) are valid files. Answer A is incorrect; filerequests are case sensitive and the d in default is lowercase. Answer B is an invalidfilename and is incorrect. Answer D has only 11 hex digits for the MAC address, notthe normal 12, and is incorrect.

    9. B. The complete filename using the TFTP protocol. FTP service is not supported forfirmware upgrades, so answer A is incorrect. The complete filename including exten-sion must be referenced by the tftp-server command. The full directory and file-name must be defined, not default locations.

    10. A and C. Layer 3 devices can provide DHCP services. Answer B is incorrect; IP phonescannot provide DHCP services. Answer D is incorrect; Layer 2 devices cannot provideDHCP services.

    Suggested Reading and Resources1. Droms, R. RFC 2131, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

    http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txt, March 1997.

    2. Mills, David L. RFC 1305, Network Time Protocol (Version 3)Specification, Implementation and Analysis.http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1305.txt, March 1992.

    3. Rekhter, Y., B. Moskowitz, D. Karrenberg, G. J. de Groot, and E. Lear.RFC 1918, Address Allocation for Private Internets.http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3551.txt, February 1996.

    4. IEEE. Information on IEEE 802.1Q and IEEE 802.1af.http://www.ieee.org.

    http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txthttp://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1305.txthttp://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3551.txthttp://www.ieee.org

  • Index

    30B+D telecom definition, 60

    802.1P frames, 126

    802.1Q frames, 124

    Aa-law companding algorithm, 52

    AA & Voicemail tab, CCA (CiscoConfiguration Assistant), 292-293

    AA (Auto Attendant)Cisco Unified Communications,

    375-376Cisco Unity Express, 227

    activating, 227Edit screen, 228-229main screen, 227managing prompts, 229-231

    access switches, 128

    Acct softkey, 254

    adaptive differential PCM (ADPCM). SeeADPCM (adaptive differential PCM)

    adaptive differential pulse code modula-tion (ADPCM) codecs, 52

    Additional Commands to Complete theVoicemail Integration listing (11.3), 217

    address call signaling, 26

    addressable call endpoints. See dialpeers

    addressing (E.164), 30

    ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse codemodulation) codecs, 52, 75-77

    Advanced Intercom Configuration listing(12.3), 248

    after-hours command, 253-254

    AIM-CUE (Advanced Integration ModuleCisco Unity Express), 212

  • 398

    alternate extension number keyword (park-slot command)

    alternate extension number keyword(park-slot command), 245

    analog circuits, 39E&M circuits, 42-44ground start circuits, 41-42loop start circuits, 39-40switched analog circuits, 50

    analog gateways, 104-105

    analog signals, digitized analog signalscompression, 52-53encoding quantized values to

    binary, 52sampling, 51-52

    analog telephones, 36-37communication paths, 36DTMF (dual tone multifrequency)

    signaling, 37foreign exchange trunks, 37-39legacy PSTN, 24receivers, 36switch hooks, 36transmitters, 36wires, 36

    applications classifications, CiscoAutoQoS, 160

    architecture, Cisco UnifiedCommunications, 379

    Assigning Overlay to Three Phones listing(10.7), 197

    AUCX command, 95

    AUEP command, 95

    auto assign command, Cisco UnifiedCME, 204

    auto-reg-ephone command, Cisco UnifiedCME, 203

    AutoQoS (Cisco), 159-164application classifications, 160Frame Relay multipoint interfaces, 162high-speed serial interfaces, configur-

    ing on, 162interoperability, 160low-speed serial interfaces,

    configuring on, 163monitoring, 160

    MQC (Modular QoS CLI) trafficclass definitions, 159

    policies, generating, 160ports, configuring, 160reporting, 160routers, 162-163switch ports, configuring on, 164switches, 163-164trust boundaries, 161

    BBack Up the Configuration with a Single

    Command listing (13.2), 261

    backupsCisco Unified CME, 260-261SBCS (Small Business

    Communications System), 306-307bandwidth

    codecs, 79-81converged networks, QoS (quality of

    service), 148-153increasing, 152

    Bandwidth Utilization graph (CCA), 302

    barge-in keyword (intercom command), 248

    Batphones, 38

    Bhatia, Manoj, 102

    blind call transfer, 242

    blind keyword (transfer-mode command), 243

    blind keyword (transfer-system command), 242

    BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol), 131

    bootup process, IP phones, 133

    brackets [ ] wildcard (destination-patterncommand), 112

    BRI (Basic Rate Interface) digital circuits, 61

    BRI (Basic Rate Interface) ports, 105

    business telephone systems, 24-25

    busy tone, informational call signaling, 27

  • CCA (Cisco Configuration Assistant)399

    Ccall accounting, configuring, 254

    call agents, MGCP (Media GatewayControl Protocol), 94

    call blocking, configuring, 253-254

    call control, routers and servers, 129

    call detail records (CDRs), 254

    call forwardconfiguring, 240-242SCCP (Skinny Client Control

    Protocol), 242types, 240

    call handling parameters, Cisco UnityExpress, setting, 224-225

    call legs, 106-108

    call messaging, Cisco UnifiedCommunications, 373-375

    call parkCCA Voice Features section, 296configuring, 243-245

    call pickup groups, configuring, 245-247

    call processing agent, Cisco UnifiedCommunications, 372-373

    call setup (PSTN), 27-28

    call setup messagesH.323 protocol, 94MGCP (Media Gateway Control

    Protocol), 96SCCP (Skinny Client Control

    Protocol), 92SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), 98

    call signaling, 25address signaling, 26functionality, 27informational call signaling, 27supervisory signaling, 25-26voltages, 27

    call transferblind call transfer, 242configuring, 242-243consultative call transfer, 242

    call-agent (CUCME), verifying, 268-269

    call-forward command, 240

    Caller ID Block Code feature, CCA VoiceFeatures section, 295

    capacities, Cisco Unity Express, 212-213

    CAS (channel-associated signaling), 105E1 circuits, 59T1 circuits, 59, 69

    Catalyst Express 520 series switches,SBCS (Smart Business CommunicationsSystem), 278-279

    Cavanaugh, Michael J., 15

    CBWFQ (class-based weighted fair queuing), 152

    CCA (Cisco Configuration Assistant), 286configuring, 286-287device properties, setting, 287-288downloading, 286file management, 289graphical views, 288installing, 286Maintenance Selection screen, 305Monitoring section, 301PBX mode, 290routing configuration, 301SBCS (Small Business

    Communications System), 281, 286default state, 307device configurations, 306-307event notifications, 302-303maintaining, 304-307monitoring, 301-304software upgrades, 304-306system messages, 304

    system configuration, 298-300system files, upgrading, 289UC500, attaching to, 286voice configuration, 289-298

    Device screen, 290Dial Plan section, 296-297Network section, 291-293SIP trunk, 293-294

  • 400

    CCA (Cisco Configuration Assistant)

    System configuration screen, 290-291

    Users section, 297-298Voice Features section, 294-296

    wireless connectivity configuration,300-301

    CCNA certifications, 11candidates, 11-15requirements, 13-15

    CCNA Voice examsMeasureUp practice test, 381-384

    Certification mode, 381Custom mode, 382objectives, 382shortcuts, 383Study mode, 381technical support, 384

    objectives, downloading, 14practice exams, downloading, 14preparation, 15-16

    readiness, 17-18study materials, 15studying, 16-17

    taking, 19-20test anxiety, dealing with, 18test coordinators, 19

    CCNA Voice Official Exam CertificationGuide, 15

    CCNA Voice Quick Reference, 15CD-ROM, 381

    installing, 382-383MeasureUp practice tests, 381-384

    Certification mode, 381Custom mode, 382objectives, 382shortcuts, creating, 383Study mode, 381

    technical support, 384CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol), 125, 288

    CDRs (call detail records), 254

    CELP (code-excited linear prediction), 77

    Certification mode (MeasureUp practicetests), 381

    Cioara, Jeremy, 15

    circuitsanalog circuits, 39

    E&M circuits, 42-44ground start circuits, 41-42loop start circuits, 39-40

    digital circuits, 50BRI (Basic Rate Interface)

    circuits, 61E1 circuits, 57-61PRI (Primary Rate Interface)

    circuits, 60T1 circuits, 55-56, 59-61TDM (time-division multiplex-

    ing), 53-54PLAR (private line, automatic ring-

    down) circuits, 38Cisco 521 Wireless Access Points, SBCS

    (Smart Business CommunicationsSystem), 280

    Cisco AutoQoS, 159-164applications classifications, 160Frame Relay multipoint

    interfaces, 162high-speed serial interfaces,

    configuring on, 162interoperability, 160low-speed serial interfaces,

    configuring on, 163monitoring, 160MQC (Modular QoS CLI) traffic

    class definitions, 159policies, generating, 160ports, configuring, 160reporting, 160routers, 162-163switch ports, configuring on, 164switches, 163-164trust boundaries, 161

    Cisco Catalyst 2950 series switches,Enhanced Image software, 163

  • Cisco Unified CME401

    Cisco certificationsbenefits, 11CCNA certifications, 11

    candidates, 11-15requirements, 13-15

    Cisco Configuration Assistant (CCA). SeeCCA (Cisco Configuration Assistant)

    Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), 125,164, 288

    Cisco Easy VPN Remote and Server support, SBCS (Smart BusinessCommunications System), 280

    Cisco Emergency Responder, 378

    Cisco Integrated Services Router, 212

    Cisco IOS DHCP Configuration listing(7.5), 130

    Cisco IOS Firewall, SBCS (SmartBusiness Communications System), 280

    Cisco IP phonesbootup process, 133default XML files, 136device configuration XML files,

    installing, 135firmware, installing, 134-135PoE (Power over Ethernet), 128powering, 128switch ports, 124three-port switches, 124

    Cisco Smart Business CommunicationsSystem call processing (CUC), 372

    Cisco Telepresence, 378

    Cisco Telepresence Multipoint Switch,378-379

    Cisco Unified CME, 172, 186, 240benefits, 172call accounting, 254call blocking, 253-254call-agent, verification, 268-269Cisco Unity Express, integration,

    220-226configuration

    backups, 260-261call forward, 240-242

    call park, 243-245call pickup groups, 245-247call transfer, 242-243ephone-dn configuration

    mode, 241global configuration mode, 241intercom, 247-249paging, 249-251

    connecting, 104directory services, 252endpoints, 178-179ephone-dns

    configuring, 187-197dual-line ephone-dns, 191dual-line ephone-dns (primary

    and secondary), 192multiple ephone-dns, 193-196overlay ephone-dns, 196-197shared ephone-dns, 192single-line ephone-dns, 191

    ephones, 186configuring, 186-187

    features, 172phone features, 173system features, 174-175trunk features, 175-176voicemail features, 176

    gateways, 104-106hardware requirements, 176-177HTTP access parameters, setting, 222installation, troubleshooting, 262-269integrated services routers, 172IP phones

    activation, 262-263registration, 262-264

    licensing, 178MoH (Music On Hold), 251operations, verifying, 264-269platforms, 177routers, 69, 177

    telnetting into, 262software requirements, 178

  • 402

    Cisco Unified CME

    telephony servicescommands, 197-200configuring, 197-205endpoint reboot, 205endpoint verification, 204-205firmware provisioning, 201-203registration configuration, 203-204

    users, importing, 222-223version number, verifying, 269

    Cisco Unified Communications, 371architecture, 379Auto Attendants, 375-376call processing agent, 372-373Cisco Unity, 374-375Cisco Unity Connection, 374Cisco Unity Express, 373-374Contact Center, 377Emergency Responder, 378endpoints, 372infrastructure, 371IVRs, 375-376MeetingPlace, 378messaging services, 373-375Mobility, 378Presence, 378TelePresence, 378TelePresence Multipoint Switch,

    378-379Cisco Unified Communications 500

    (UC500) series devices, SBCS (SmartBusiness Communications System),276-278

    Cisco Unified Communications Manager(CM). See CM (Cisco UnifiedCommunications Manager)

    Cisco Unified Communications ManagerBusiness Edition call processing (CUC), 373

    Cisco Unified Communications Managercall processing (CUC), 373

    Cisco Unified Communications ManagerExpress (CME). See CME (Cisco UnifiedCommunications Manager Express)

    Cisco Unified Communications ManagerExpress call processing (CUC), 373

    Cisco Unified Contact Center Express, 377

    Cisco Unified Meeting Place, 378

    Cisco Unified Mobility, 378

    Cisco Unified Presence, 378

    Cisco Unity, 374-375

    Cisco Unity Connection, 374

    Cisco Unity Express, 212, 373-374AA (Auto Attendant), 227

    activating, 227Edit screen, 228-229main screen, 227managing prompts, 229-231

    call handling parameters, setting,224-225

    capacities, 212-213Cisco Unified CME

    importing users, 222-223integration, 220-226

    configuring, 212-226GUI initiation wizard, 220-226preintegration CLI configuration,

    214-217service module interface, 214

    factory defaults, resetting, 219features, 213-214functionality, 213-214host router CLI tools, 231-233IMAP (Internet Message Access

    Protocol), 212installing, 217-220integrated messaging, 214logging into, 220-221platforms, 212-213troubleshooting, 231-233upgrading, 217-220user mailboxes, setting defaults,

    223-224VoiceView Express, 214

    Cisco Voice Gateways and Gatekeepers, 48Cisco Voice over IP (CVoice) (Authorized

    Self-Study Guide), 102, 121

  • commands403

    Cisco-proprietary protocols, SCCP (SkinnyClient Control Protocol), 90-92

    class-based weighted fair queuing(CBWFQ), 152

    CLI (command-line interface), 79, 212

    CM (Cisco Unified CommunicationsManager), 91

    MGCP (Media Gateway ControlProtocol), 95-96

    SCCP (Skinny Client ControlProtocol), 91-92

    CME (Cisco Unified CommunicationsManager Express). See CiscoUnified CME

    cnf-file perphone command, 263

    CO (central office) trunks, legacy PSTN, 24

    code-excited linear prediction (CELP), 77

    codec command (dial peers), 113

    codec definitions, 38

    codecs, 38, 68, 75-82ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse

    code modulation) codecs, 52, 75-77bandwidth, 79-81CELP (code-excited linear

    prediction), 77CS-ACELP (conjugate-structure

    algebraic-code-excited linear pre-diction), 75-78

    DSP/codec combinations, 38G.711, 74-78, 83

    packetization, 74sampling, 74

    G.711 PCM (pulse code modulation)codec, 50

    G.722, 78G.729, 75-81

    packetization, 75RTP sampling, 75

    G.729a, 76-81, 83G.729ab, 78G.729b, 78iLBC (Internet Low Bit-Rate

    Codec), 78

    ITU-T codecs, 75LD-CELP (low-delay code-excited

    linear prediction), 75-77PCM (pulse code modulation), 75

    codes, numbering plans, 28

    comma (,) wildcard (destination-patterncommand), 112

    command-line interface (CLI), 79, 212

    commandsafter-hours, 253-254call-forward, 240cnf-file perphone, 263create cnf-files, 263debug, 262debug tftp events, 262dial peers, 111-114

    codec command, 113destination-pattern command,

    111-112fax rate command, 114id precedence command, 114port command, 112preference command, 113-114session target command, 112vad command, 114

    directory, 252ephone-dn, 266-267intercom, 247-249ip helper-address ip-address, 131ip source, 263load, 263moh, 251multicast moh, 251name, 252no debug all, 262no moh, 251paging, 249-251park-slot, 244pin, 254service dhcp, 131show, 264-269show ephone, 264-266

  • 404

    commands

    show interface mod/port switchport, 126

    show run, 263show telephony-service, 263, 268-269spanning-tree portfast, 126switchport access vlan, 126switchport mode access, 126switchport voice vlan vlan-id, 126telephony services, 197-200terminal monitor, 262terminal no monitor, 262tftp-server, 263-264transfer-mode, 242-243transfer-pattern, 243transfer-system, 242undebug all, 262

    communication paths, analog telephones, 36

    compact flash, UC500 devices, 277

    compressiondigitized analog signals, 52-53header compression, 152payload compression, 152

    conferencing, DSPs (digital signalprocessors), 83

    configurationCCA (Cisco Configuration

    Assistant), 286-287device properties, 287-288routing configuration, 301security configuration, 300-301system configuration, 298-300voice configuration, 289-298

    Cisco AutoQoS VoIPhigh-speed serial interface, 162low-speed serial interface, 163switch ports, 164

    Cisco Unified CMEbackups, 260-261call accounting, 254call blocking, 253-254call forwarding, 240-242

    call park, 243-245call pickup groups, 245-247call transfer, 242-243directory services, 252ephone-dn configuration

    mode, 241global configuration mode, 241intercom, 247-249MoH (Music On Hold), 251paging, 249-251

    Cisco Unity Express, 212-226GUI initiation wizard, 220-226preintegration CLI configuration,

    214-217service module interface, 214

    dial peers, 108-109ephone-dns, Cisco Unified CME,

    187-197ephones, Cisco Unified CME,

    186-187NTP (Network Time Protocol), 132PINs (personal identification

    numbers), 254ports, Cisco AutoQoS, 160SBCS (Smart Business

    Communications System), CCA(Cisco Configuration Assistant), 281

    switch ports, 126telephony services, Cisco Unified

    CME, 197-205VLANs (voice LANs), 125-127

    Configuring a Shared Ephone-dn listing(10.2), 192

    Configuring an Overlay listing (10.6), 196

    Configuring AutoQoS on Switch Ports list-ing (8.4), 164

    Configuring NTP and Clock Settings list-ing (7.7), 132

    Configuring the Cisco AutoQoS VoIPFeature on a High-Speed SerialInterface listing (8.1), 162

    Configuring the Cisco AutoQoS VoIPFeature on a Low-Speed Serial Interfacelisting (8.2), 163

  • device configuration XML files, Cisco IP phones, installing405

    confirmation tone, informational call sig-naling, 27

    congestion tone, informational call sig-naling, 27

    conjugate-structure algebraic-code-excit-ed linear prediction (CS-ACELP), 75

    connections, CME (CommunicationManager Express), 104

    console ports (UC500 devices), 277

    consult keyword (transfer-mode com-mand), 243

    consultative call transfer, 242

    Contact Center Ecpress (CUC), 377

    converged networks, QoS (quality of serv-ice), 144-148

    bandwidth capacity, 148-153Cisco Auto QoS, 159-164end-to-end delay, 148-153jitter, 150-153networks after convergence, 146-147networks before convergence,

    145-146packet loss, 150-153QoS policy, 157-159

    COs (central offices), 27DTMF (dual tone multifrequency)

    signaling, 37FXO (Foreign Exchange Office)

    interface cards, 37-39FXS (Foreign Exchange Station)

    interface cards, 37-38SS7 protocol, 28switches, legacy PSTN, 24

    COS (type of service) field (Layer 2frames), 155

    CPU Utilization graph (CCA), 302

    CRCX command, 95

    create cnf-files command, 263Cisco Unified CME, 203

    cRTP (compressed RTP), 79headers, 80operational stages, 80

    CS-ACELP (conjugate-structure algebraic-code-excited linear prediction), 75-78

    CSS (common channel signaling), 60-61

    CSUs (channel service units), 56

    Custom mode (MeasureUp practice tests), 382

    DD4 format, T1 circuits, 56

    datapolicing, 152QoS (quality of service), traffic

    requirements, 156-157shaping, 152

    date-format command, Cisco UnifiedCME, 199

    Davidson, Jonathan, 102

    debug ccsip commands (Cisco UnityExpress), 233

    debug ccsip Commands listing (11.7), 233

    debug command (Cisco Unified CME), 262

    debug ephone Options listing (11.6), 232

    debug ephone register command (CiscoUnified CME), 205

    debug tftp events command (CiscoUnified CME), 205, 262

    Debug TFTP Events listing (13.5), 262

    debug voice ccapi inout command (CiscoUnity Express), 233

    default stateCisco Unity Express, resetting, 219SBCS (Small Business Communica-

    tions System), resetting, 307default XML files, Cisco IP phones, 136

    Delay Start, E&M circuits, 44

    destination-pattern command (dialpeers), 111-112

    detailed segment information, RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol), 71

    device configuration XML files, Cisco IPphones, installing, 135

  • 406

    device configurations, SBCS (Small Business Communications System), backing up and restoring

    device configurations, SBCS (SmallBusiness Communications System),backing up and restoring, 306-307

    device properties, CCA (CiscoConfiguration Assistant), changing, 287-288

    Device screen, CCA (Cisco ConfigurationAssistant), 290

    DHCP (Dynamic Host ConfigurationProtocol), 129-131

    pool names, 130relay services, 130-131

    Dial Peer Matching listing (6.2), 116

    dial peers, 107-108commands, 111-114

    codec command, 113destination-pattern command,

    111-112fax rate command, 114id precedence command, 114port command, 112preference command, 113-114session target command, 112vad command, 114

    configuring, 108-109matching, 114-117

    inbound dial peer matching, 115outbound dial peer matching,

    115-117POTS dial peers, 107-110tag numbers, 113VoIP dial peers, 110-111

    Dial Plan section, CCA (CiscoConfiguration Assistant), 296-297

    dial tone, informational call signaling, 27

    dialplan-pattern command (Cisco UnifiedCME), 198-199

    digital circuits, 50BRI (Basic Rate Interface) circuits, 61E1 circuits, 57-59

    CAS (channel-associated signal-ing), 59

    CSS (common channel signaling),60-61

    PRI (Primary Rate Interface) circuits, 60

    T1 circuits, 55-56CAS (channel-associated signal-

    ing), 59CSS (common channel signaling),

    60-61TDM (time-division multiplexing),

    53-54digital facilites, 54-55

    digital gateways, 104-106

    digital signal processors (DSPs). SeeDSPs (digital signal processors)

    digitized analog signalscompression, 52-53quantized values, encoding to

    binary, 52sampling, 51

    quantization, 51-52directed call pickup, 246

    directory command, 252

    directory services, configuring, 252

    DLCX command, 95

    DNs (directory numbers), 186ephone-dns

    configuring, 187-197dual-line ephone-dns, 191dual-line ephone-dns (primary

    and secondary), 192multiple ephone-dns, 193-196overlay ephone-dns, 196-197shared ephone-dns, 192single-line ephone-dns, 191

    DNS (Domain Name System), 129

    Dodd, Annabel Z., 64

    Donohue, Denise, 48

    downloadingCCA (Cisco Configuration

    Assistant), 286Cisco Unity Express, 217-218

    DSP/codec combinations, 38

  • ephone-dns407

    DSPs (digital signal processors), 38, 68-70, 82

    conferencing, 83digital gateways, 106echo cancellation, 83MTPs (media termination points), 83transcoding, 83voice streams, packetizing, 73-74

    DTMF (dual tone multifrequency) signaling, 26, 37

    dual-line ephone dns (primary and secondary), 191

    configuring, 192

    EE&M (recEive and transmit) analog voice

    port, 105

    E&M (recEive and transmit) circuits, 42-44

    E.164 addressing, 30

    E1 circuits, 57-59CAS (channel-associated

    signaling), 59CSS (common channel signaling),

    60-61R2 multiframe, 58R2 signaling, 57

    earpieces, analog telephones, 36

    echo cancellation, DSPs (digital signalprocessors), 83

    Emergency Responder, 378

    encapsulation, ISL (Inter-Switch Link)encapsulation, Cisco IP phones, 124

    end-to-end delay, converged networks,QoS (quality of service), 148-153

    endpointsCisco Unified CME, 178-179Cisco Unified Communications, 372dial peers, 107-108

    commands, 111-114configuring, 108-109

    matching, 114-117POTS dial peers, 107-110tag numbers, 113VoIP dial peers, 110-111

    SBCS (Smart BusinessCommunications System), 279

    SCCP (Skinny Client ControlProtocol), 91

    telephony servicesrebooting, 205verifying, 204-205

    Enhanced Image software, Cisco Catalyst2950 series switches, 163

    Ephone and Ephone-dn Configuration list-ing (10.1), 188

    ephone-dn commands (CUE), 215, 266-267

    ephone-dn configuration mode, CiscoUnified CME, 241

    ephone-dnscall accounting, configuring, 254call blocking, configuring, 253-254call forwarding, configuring, 240-242call park, configuring, 243-245call pickup groups, configuring,

    245-247call transfers, configuring, 242-243Cisco Unified CME

    configuring, 187-197dual-line ephone-dns, 191dual-line ephone-dns (primary

    and secondary), 192multiple ephone-dns, 193-196overlay ephone-dns, 196-197shared ephone-dns, 192single-line ephone-dns, 191

    detailed information, viewing, 266-267

    directory services, configuring, 252intercom, configuring, 247-249MOH (Music On Hold),

    configuring, 251

  • 408

    ephone-dns

    multiple ephone-dns, extension numbers, 193

    paging, configuring, 249-251ephones

    Cisco Unified CME, configuring,186-187

    detailed information, viewing, 264-266

    ERP (enterprise resource planning) appli-cations, QoS (quality of service), 157

    ESF (Extended Super Frame) format, T1circuits, 56

    ESI (European service identification)code, 29

    Essential Guide to Telecommunications,The, 64

    Ethernet, 81Cisco IP phones, powering over, 128frames, 127PoE (Power over Ethernet), 128

    Ethernet ports, UC500 devices, 277

    ETNS (European Telephony NumberingSpace), 28-29

    event notifications (CCA), 302-303

    expansion ports, UC500 devices, 277

    extension numbers, multiple ephone-dns, 193

    external routers, VLANs (voice LANs), 127

    External RouterLayer 3 VLANConfiguration listing (7.3), 127

    Ffacilites (digital), 54-55

    factory default stateCisco Unity Express, resetting, 219SBCS (Small Business

    Communications System), resetting, 307

    Failed FTP Backup listing (13.3), 261

    Fast Link Pulse (FLP), 128

    fax rate command (dial peers), 114

    file management, CCA (CiscoConfiguration Assistant), 289

    files, Cisco Unity Express, downloading,217-218

    Files Required for a Cisco 7931 IP Phonelisting (13.6), 264

    firmwareCisco IP phones, installing, 134-135phones, 201provisioning, telephony services,

    201-203First Match listing (6.3), 116

    fixed end-to-end delay, QoS (quality ofservice), 149

    FLP (Fast Link Pulse), 128

    foreign exchange trunks, 37-39

    frame headers, COS (cause of service)field, 155

    Frame Relay (FRF.3), 81

    Frame Relay multipoint interfaces, CiscoAutoQoS, 162

    frames802.1P frames, 126802.1Q frames, 124Ethernet frames, 127Layer 2 frames, COS (cause of serv-

    ice) field, 155FRF.3 (Frame Relay), 81

    front view (CCA), 288

    FTP (File Transfer Protocol), Cisco UnifiedCME configurations, backing up, 261

    full-blind keyword (transfer-system command), 242

    full-consult keyword (transfer-systemcommand), 242

    functionalitycall signaling, 27Cisco Unity Express, 213-214

    FXO (Foreign Exchange Office) analogvoice port, 105

    FXO (Foreign Exchange Office) interfacecards, 37-39

  • header compression409

    FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) analogvoice ports, 105

    FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) interfacecards, 37-38

    FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) ports,UC500 devices, 277

    GG.711 codec, 74-78, 83

    packetization, 74sampling, 74

    G.711 PCM (pulse code modulation)codec, 50

    G.722 codec, 78

    G.729 codec, 75-76, 79G.729a codec, compared, 78-81packetization, 75RTP sampling, 75

    G.729a codec, 76-78, 83729 codec, compared, 78-81

    G.729ab codec, 78

    G.729b codec, 78

    gateways, 104analog gateways, 104

    voice ports, 105CME (Cisco Unified

    Communications ManagerExpress), 104-106

    dial peers, 107-108commands, 111-114configuring, 108-109matching, 114-117POTS dial peers, 107-110tag numbers, 113VoIP dial peers, 110-111

    digital gateways, 104-106voice ports, 105-106

    PBXs (private branch exchanges),104

    PSTN (public switched telephonenetwork), 104

    Generated Configuration for the CiscoAutoQoS VoIP Feature on a Low-SpeedSerial Interface listing (8.3), 163

    generating policies, Cisco AutoQoS, 160

    glares, 40

    global configuration mode, Cisco UnifiedCME, 241

    Goleniewski, Lillian, 48

    GPckUp softkey, 247

    graphical user interfaces (GUIs), 212

    graphical views, CCA (Cisco ConfigurationAssistant), 288

    ground start circuits, 41-42

    group pickup, 246

    Group Pickup section, CCA (CiscoConfiguration Assistant), 295

    Call Park feature, 296Caller ID Block Code feature, 295Hunt Group feature, 295-296Intercom feature, 295Multi-party (Ad hoc) Conference

    feature, 296Outgoing Call Block Number List

    feature, 295Paging feature, 295

    groups, paging groups, configuring, 250-251

    GUI initiation wizard, Cisco UnityExpress, 220-226

    GUIs (graphical user interfaces), 212

    HH.323 protocol, 90-93

    call setup messages, 94hardware requirements

    Cisco Unified CME, 176-177SBCS (Smart Business

    Communications System), 276HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control), 60

    header compression, 152

  • 410

    header layout, RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol)

    header layout, RTP (Real-Time TransportProtocol), 71

    headerscRTP (compressed RTP) headers, 80IP headers, TOS (type of service)

    field, 154Layer 2 frame headers, COS (cause

    of service) field, 155health-monitoring, CCA (Cisco

    Configuration Assistant), 302

    High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), 60

    high-speed serial interfaces, CiscoAutoQoS VoIP, configuring on, 162

    host router CLI tools, Cisco Unity Express,231-233

    hotlines, 38

    HTTP access parameters, Cisco UnifiedCME, setting, 222

    Hunt Group feature, CCA Voice Featuressection, 295-296

    huntstop, multiple ephone-dns, 194-196

    huntstop command, Cisco Unified CME,194-195

    Iid precedence command (dial peers), 114

    IEEE 802.1P, 126

    IEEE 802.1Q frames, 124

    IEEE 802.3af power, 128

    iLBC (Internet Low Bit-Rate Codec), 78

    IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol),Cisco Unity Express, 212

    Immediate Start, E&M circuits, 44

    Implementing DHCP Relay Services list-ing (7.6), 131

    importing Cisco Unified CME users, CiscoUnity Express, 222-223

    in-band signaling, 90

    inbound dial peer matching, 115

    informational call signaling, 27

    infrastructure, Cisco UnifiedCommunications, 371

    installationCCA (Cisco Configuration

    Assistant), 286CD-ROM, 382-383Cisco IP phone firmware, 134-135Cisco IP phones, device configura-

    tion XML files, 135Cisco Unified CME, troubleshoot-

    ing, 262-269Cisco Unity Express, 217-220

    integrated messaging, Cisco UnityExpress, 214

    integrated services routers, Cisco UnifiedCME, 172

    Integrating Voice and Data Networks, 64Integration, Cisco Unity Express, Cisco

    Unified CME, 220-226interactive backup process, Cisco Unified

    CME, 260Interactive Backup Process listing

    (13.1), 260Intercom, configuring, 247-249intercom command, 247-249Intercom Configuration listing (12.2), 248Intercom feature, CCA Voice Features

    section, 295Internet Low Bit-Rate Codec (iLBC), 78interoffice trunks, legacy PSTN, 24interoperability, Cisco AutoQoS, 160interregister signaling, 58IOS voice gateways, 79IP (Internet Protocol), 70IP headers, TOS (type of service)

    field, 154ip helper-address ip-address

    command, 131ip http commands (CUE), 215IP phones

    activating, 262-263bootup process, 133default XML files, 136device configuration XML files,

    installing, 135

  • Maintenance selection screen (CCA)411

    DHCP (Dynamic HostConfiguration Protocol), 129-130

    relay services, 130-131firmware, installing, 134-135NTP (Network Time Protocol),

    131-132registration, 262-264switch ports, 124

    ip source command, 263

    ip source-address command, 198

    ip unnumbered loopback command (CUE), 214

    ISL (Inter-Switch Link) encapsulation,Cisco IP phones, 124

    ITSPs (Internet telephony serviceproviders), 117

    ITU-T codecs, 75

    IVRs (interactive voice responses), CiscoUnified Communications, 375-376

    JKLjitter, converged networks, QoS (quality

    of service), 150-153

    Kalidindi, Satish, 102

    Keagy, Scott, 64

    keepalive command, Cisco Unified CME,198

    key systems, PBXs (private branchexchanges), compared, 24-25

    Krake, Kris A., 15

    label keyword (intercom command), 248

    LANs (local area networks), VLANs (voiceLANs), 124-125

    configuring, 125-127external routers, 127routers with built-in switch ports, 127

    Layer 2 frames, COS (cause of service)field, 155

    Layer 2 VLANs, 125

    LD-CELP (low-delay code-excited linearprediction), 75-77

    LEAP (Lightweight ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol), Cisco 521Wireless Access Points, 280

    legacy PSTN (public switched telephonenetwork), 24

    LFI (link fragmentation and interleaving), 153

    licensing, Cisco Unified CME, minimumrequirements, 178

    limit count keyword (park-slot command), 244

    link fragmentation and interleaving (LFI), 153

    LLQ (low latency queuing), 152

    load command, 202, 263

    local group pickup, 246

    local numbers, numbering plans, 28

    local-consult keyword (transfer-systemcommand), 242

    locale command, Cisco Unified CME,199-200

    logging into Cisco Unity Express, 220-221

    logical circuits, multiplexing, 50

    longest idle hunts (CCA), 296

    loop start circuits, 39-40

    loopbacks, session targets, 112

    low latency queuing (LLQ), 152

    low-delay code-excited linear prediction(LD-CELP), 75

    low-speed serial interfaces, CiscoAutoQoS VoIP, configuring on, 163

    Mmac-address command, Cisco Unified

    CME, 187

    maintaining SBCS (Small BusinessCommunications System), CCA (CiscoConfiguration Assistant), 304-307

    Maintenance selection screen (CCA), 305

  • 412

    Mallory, David

    Mallory, David, 48

    matching dial peers, 114-117inbound dial peer matching, 115outbound dial peer matching, 115-117

    MDCX command, 95

    MeasureUp practice tests (CD-ROM), 381-384

    Certification mode, 381Custom mode, 382objectives, 382shortcuts, creating, 383Study mode, 381technical support, 384

    Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP).See MGCP (Media Gateway ControlProtocol)

    media gateway controllers, MGCP (MediaGateway Control Protocol), 94

    MeetingPlace (CUC), 378

    Memory Utilization graph (CCA), 302

    Message Waiting Indicator (MWI), 215

    messages, SCCP (Skinny Client ControlProtocol), 91

    MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol),90, 94-95

    call agents, 94call setup messages, 96Cisco Unified Communication

    Manager Express, 96commands, 95media gateway controllers, 94

    Mills, David L., 141

    MLP (Multilink PPP), 81

    Mobility (CU), 378

    MoH (Music on Hold), 43, 82audio jack, UC500 devices, 277configuring, 251

    MoH feature, CCA Voice Features section, 295

    moh command, 251

    monitoringCisco AutoQoS, 160SBCS (Small Business

    Communications System), CCA(Cisco Configuration Assistant),301-304

    Monitoring section (CCA), 301

    mouthpieces, analog telephones, 36

    MQC (Modular QoS CLI) traffic class defi-nitions, Cisco AutoQoS, 159

    MTPs (media termination points), DSPs(digital signal processors), 83

    mu-law, 52

    Mukherjee, Sudipto, 102

    Multi-party (Ad hoc) Conference feature,CCA Voice Features section, 296

    multicast moh command, 251

    Multilink PPP (MLP), 81

    multiple ephone dnsconfiguring, 193-196huntstop, 194-196

    Multiple Ephone-dns with the SameNumber on a Single Phone withHuntstop Configured listing (10.5), 195

    Multiple Ephone-dns with the SameNumber on Separate Phones andHuntstop Configured listing (10.4), 194

    Multiple Ephone-dns with the SameNumber on Separate Phones listing(10.3), 193

    multiple logical circuits, multiplexing, 50

    multiplexing, 50TDM (time-division multiplexing),

    53-54multiservice routers, Cisco Unified

    CME, 172

    MWI (Message Waiting Indicator), 215

    Nname command, 252

    NANP (North American Numbering Plan),28-29

  • packetization413

    NAT (Network Address Translation), SBCS(Smart Business CommunicationsSystem), 280

    Network section, CCA (Cisco ConfigurationAssistant), 291-292

    network-locale command, Cisco UnifiedCME, 200

    networksconverged networks

    Cisco AutoQoS, 159-164QoS (quality of service), 144-153,

    157-159DHCP (Dynamic Host

    Configuration Protocol) services,129-130

    relay services, 130-131DNS (Domain Name System), 129NTP (Network Time Protocol),

    131-132VLANs (voice LANs), 124-125

    configuring, 125-127external routers, 127Layer 2 VLANs, 125routers with built-in switch

    ports, 127NM-CUE (Network Module Cisco Unity

    Express), 212-213

    NM-CUE-EC (Network Module ExtendedCapacity Cisco Unity Express), 212-213

    no auto-reg-ephone command, CiscoUnified CME, 203

    no debug all command, 262

    no moh command, 251

    no such number tone, informational callsignaling, 27

    no-auto-answer keyword (intercom command), 248

    no-mute keyword (intercom command), 248

    notify extension number keyword (park-slot command), 245

    NTFY command, 95

    NTP (Network Time Protocol), 131-132

    numbering plans, 28-29codes, 28ETNS (European Telephony

    Numbering Space), 28-29local numbers, 28NANP (North American Numbering

    Plan), 28-29U.K. National Numbering Scheme,

    28-29Nyquists Theorem, 51

    Oobjectives, MeasureUp pratice tests, 382

    objectives (CCNA voice exams), down-loading, 14

    off-hook supervisory signaling, 26

    official Cisco IIUC training courseware, 15

    on-hook supervisory signaling, 26

    only keyword (park-slot command), 245

    operational stages, cRTP (compressedRTP), 80

    operations, Cisco Unified CME, verifying,264-269

    out-of-band signaling, 90

    outbound dial peer matching, 115-117

    outcall SIP notification method (CiscoUnit