Catholic Counter Reformation
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To counter the Protestant Reformations, Catholics decided to enact reformsThis movement is known as the Catholic-ReformationThe Catholic-Reformation eliminated abuses, clarified Catholic theology, or religious beliefs, and re-established the popes authority over church membersCatholic Counter ReformationCouncil of TrentPope Paul III called a council of bishops togetherCouncil forbade selling of indulgencesCreated seminaries, or religious schools to educate clergy
Clarified Church TeachingSalvation through faith AND good worksChurch tradition = to the Bible as source of truthLatin version of the Bible only accepted version
Re-established Papal AuthorityRe-established the Inquisition to root out hereticsIntroduced CensorshipIndex of Forbidden Books
The Catholic Church used art to further the movementEstablished baroque style that emphasized emotion, complexity, and exaggeration(This is Gian Lorenzo Berninis Apollo and Daphne)
Began sending missionaries (Jesuit monks) to convert new members (mainly to the Americas and China)Spreading CatholicismHe was a Spanish noble Founded the JesuitsJesuits wore robes like monks but did not separate themselves from the worldWent to different countries to try and convert people to CatholicismOpened universities in many countriesBecame advisors to royal courts
St. Ignatius of LoyolaSpanish NunStrict CatholicEncouraged religious devotion and founding of the Carmelite orderMade a saint when she died
Teresa of AvilaRulers of the German States signed the Peace of Augsburg which allowed each German prince to choose the Christian faith of his subjects (Protestant or Catholic)Results in a division of Europe into a Protestant north and Catholic southstill an issue todayLed to war and religious prosecutionA Divided EuropeSt. Bartholomews Day Massacre
August 24, 15723,000 Huguenots (French Protestants) killed in France1598 Edict of NantesReligious wars between French Huguenots and Catholics went on for another 17 years1598 Henry of Navarre becomes King of FranceProtestant leader of Huguenot noblesConverts to Catholicism in order to become KingIssues the Edict of NantesSt. Bartholomews Day MassacreRecognized Catholicism as the official religion of FranceHuguenots had a right to worship in areas where they were the majorityCould hold public officeEdict of Nantes is revoked (taken back) in 1685 by Henrys grandson, Louis XIVEdict of Nantes (1598)Protestant rulers saw a chance to increase powerTook wealth and property of the ChurchNew Christian denominations more favorable to business practicesLess domination by Italian-controlled Church
Protestant SupportThe Thirty Year War (1618-1648)The Thirty Year War was a conflict over religion, territory, and for power among European ruling families.
2 Phases of the WarHapsburg Family (Catholics) was winningThe Hapsburgs were a very wealthy ruling family. For years the head of the Hapsburg family became the German king and Holy Roman Emperor. They were Catholic.2. Hapsburg Family (Catholics) was defeatedThe French began to fear that the Hapsburgs were gaining too much power so the French got involved. Cardinal Richelieu, a French man, dominated the remaining years of the war. Richelieu was a Catholic, but he decided to help the Protestants and sent troops to help them.
**IMPORTANT**Because Cardinal Richelieu went against his religion of Catholicism, he changed the war from a religious war (Protestant vs. Catholics) to a political war (Hapsburg ruling family vs. the French nobility)
Peace of WestphaliaEnded the 30 Year WarResults:4 million died, trade and agriculture was disrupted and Germanys economy was ruined1st: Weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria2nd: Strengthened France by awarding it German territory3rd: Ended Religious Wars in EuropeThe Renaissance had been a rebirth in Europe of learning, ideas, and beauty.The Protestant Reformation stemmed from the questioning that humanism encouragedThe Catholic Reformation was a response to the abuses the Protestant Reformation brought to lightIn the end, Europe is religiously dividedIn conclusion