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  • CASE STUDY STATUS REPORT

    RHINE RIVER BASIN,

    (Deliverable D27)

    Bureao de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), France

    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), The Netherlands

    May, 2007

  • Author Jean-Daniel RINAUDO and Stephanie AULONG (Brgm, France) Date April 15, 2007

    Case study status report Upper Rhine, France (Deliverable D27)

  • Contact information AquaMoney Partners

  • Copyright © 2006 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the copyright holder.

    Colophone

    This report is part of the EU funded project AquaMoney, Development and Testing of Practical Guidelines for the Assessment of Environmental and Resource Costs and Benefits in the WFD, Contract no SSPI-022723. General

    Deliverable D27

    Deadline April 15th (Month 12)

    Complete reference

    Status Author(s) Date Comments Date

    Approved / Released JD Rinaudo, S Aulong April 15, 2007

    Reviewed by M. Pulido

    Pending for Review

    Second draft

    First draft for Comments

    Under Preparation

    Confidentiality

    Public X

    Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Service)

    Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Advisory Board)

    Confidential, only for members of the consortium

    Accessibility

    Workspace

    Internet X

    Paper

  • AquaMoney

    Content 1. Introduction 1 2. Presentation of the Upper Rhine basin, France 2

    2.1 Location and Water resources 2 2.2 Pressures and impacts 3

    2.2.1 Organic pollution 3 2.2.1.1 Pressures 3 2.2.1.2 Impact on surface water resources 3

    2.2.2 Nitrate diffuse pollution 3 2.2.2.1 Pressures 3 2.2.2.2 Impact on water resources 3

    2.2.3 Toxic polluting substances 4 2.2.3.1 Pressure 4 2.2.3.2 Impact on water resources 4

    2.2.4 Pressures and impact due to mining activities 5 2.3 Assessment of the risk of non compliance with the WFD 6

    2.3.1 Methodology for assessing risk 6 2.3.2 Results of the risk assessment for surface waters 6 2.3.3 Results of the risk assessment for groundwater 7

    2.4 The economic benefits of implementing the water framework directive 9 3. Objectives and methodologies for the case study 10

    3.1 The groundwater issue 10 3.2 Proposed objectives 11 3.3 Methodology 12

    3.3.1 Contingent valuation studies 12 3.3.2 Cost-benefit analysis 13

    3.4 Test of the guidelines 14 4. Activities and tentative workplan 16

  • Case study status report Upper Rhine, France

    1

    1. Introduction

    This report presents the results of the inception phase of the case study conducted in the Upper Rhine river basin district (France) as part of AQUAMONEY workpackage 4. The main objective of WP4 is to test the guidelines developed for assessing WFD resource and environmental costs and benefits of water services across ten representative European river basins. The report briefly presents the river basin district characteristics, based on article 5 report (section 2). It then describes the proposed objectives and methodology for this case study and it identifies the elements of the Guidelines which will be tested in the case study (section 3). The last section provides a tentative work programme. The French part of the Upper Rhine river basin, on which this report focuses, is mainly affected by chemical pollutions and morphological pressures (in particular along the Rhine river itself which has been intensively modified for navigation and hydropower generation). No water scarcity problems are reported in the basin, both for surface and groundwater resources, meaning that the case study will only focus on environmental costs. Given that the Rhine Meuse Water Agency has initiated a series of economic valuation studies to assess environmental benefits related to surface water protection (from pollution and morphological pressures), and also because there is a clear demand from stakeholders for assessing the economic value of groundwater protection, we have proposed that the Upper Rhine case study would focus on groundwater protection issues. From a policy perspective, the case study will contribute to the justification of possible derogations concerning groundwater bodies in the entire district. It will not only conduct a primary valuation study but also address the issue of benefit transfers. The cost of achieving good groundwater quality will also be estimated, using engineering approaches and a full cost-benefit analysis will be performed. The Rhine, as the Danube and the Scheldt, was initially introduced in the project proposal because of its international dimension. However, discussions between the French and the Dutch team have shown that environmental benefits resulting from the implementation of the WFD would be very different in the Upper Rhine basin in France and in the Western part of the Rhine delta in the Netherlands. It was therefore not considered feasible to study the same type of environmental benefits in the two parts of this international basin. A similar statement was made in the Danude basin, and to a lesser extent in the Scheld one. After discussion during the first year annual meeting at Berlin, the decision to conduct independent case studies in the Upper Rhine and in the Rhine delta was approved by the WP leader and project coordinator.

  • AquaMoney BRGM

    2

    2. Presentation of the Upper Rhine basin, France

    2.1 Location and Water resources The French case study focuses on the Rhin-Moselle-Sarre basin which includes two sub-districts of the upper Rhine: the Rhine River itself and its direct tributaries located in the Alsace region (8,160 km); and the Moselle and Saar basins up to the German border (15,360 km). The upper Rhine district is shared between France and Germany as the Moselle- Sarre basin extended over France, Germany, Luxembourg and Belgium. In this case study, we will be focusing on the French part only. The district is composed of two major river basins:

    - the eastern basin comprises the 214 kilometres of the Rhine from the Swiss border at Basel (South) to the German border at Lauterbourg (North) and its direct tributaries which take their spring in the Vosges mountains (Moder, Sauer, Lauter, Bruche, Zorn, Lauch, Doller) and in the Alsacian Jura mountains (Ill river). The total length of the rivers of this basin is 3960 km.

    - The western basin comprises the Moselle and the Saar Rivers and their tributaries. The Moselle has a total length of 313 kilometres between its spring in the Vosges Mountains and the border with Germany and Luxembourg. Its main tributary is the Meurthe River. The Saar also has its spring in the Vosges Mountain and it flows to the German border at Saarguemines. The total length of the rivers of the Moselle Saar basin is 6114 km.

    The Agence de l Eau Rhin Meuse has identified a total number of 469 surface water bodies in the Rhine district: 406 natural river water bodies, classified according to their average discharge (3 classes), the natural region in which they are located (6 regions) and the type of fish habitat (corresponding to the Freshwater fish directive); 45 of these river water bodies have been classified as heavily modified water bodies; 64 artificial water bodies, including 28 canals and 33 artificial lakes; 2 natural lakes, both located in the Vosges Mountains. Also, 15 large groundwater bodies have been designated, two of which are lying accross the Rhine and the Meuse river basin districts. All types of aquifers are present in the case study area (hard rock, alluvial and karstic aquifers) and they represent an essential resource for human need in both sub-districts (total abstraction of 750 millions cubic meters per year approximately 60% of drinking water needs).

    Figure 1 : Location of the case study area and major rivers (source: Agence de l Eau Rhin Meuse)

  • Case study status report Upper Rhine, France

    3

    2.2 Pressures and impacts The two sub-districts (Rhine and Moselle-Saar) include remote and mountainous areas, such as the Vosges hills where water resources are not subject to significant pressures, as well as densely populated and past and present industrialised areas, where groundwater resources and rivers are under significant pressures. Impacts on water resource depend on the local hydrological or hydrogeological context. Rivers are provisioning alluvial aquifers so that pollution affects these water bodies in addition to diffusion. Karst aquifers, also present in the region, are also very sensitive to surface pollution.

    2.2.1 Organic pollution

    2.2.1.1 Pressures Wastewater from urban areas generates a significant pressure on surface water bodies (3.7 million equivalent habitants with 1.98 in the Rhine and 1.72 in the Moselle Saar). The pressure is mainly due to large municipalities (55% of the total pollution in Moselle Saar and 74% in the Rhine) and to municipalities smaller than 2000 inhabitants (25% of the total pollution in Moselle Saar and 10% in the Rhine). The pollution generated by households not connected to