Carl Wernicke

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Transcript of Carl Wernicke

  • 1. Carl Wernicke By Charles Lok, Sunwoo Park, & Leslie Chan

2. Wernickes Area 3. Location and Function

  • Located at the junction of the partiety, temporal, and occipital lobes in the left hemisphere
  • Responsible for:
    • Language Comprehension
    • Semantic Processing
    • Language Recognition
    • Language Interpretation

4. Discovery

  • Wernicke (1874) observed that patients with damage to the left temporal lobe had difficulty with speech and understanding sentences
  • Hypothesized that an area in the left temporal lobe was responsible for speech processing

5. Method of Research

  • Observational method (observing brain damaged patients)

6. Evaluation

  • Strength
    • Was supported by many studeis that were conducted later
    • Became the basis of further findings of Wernicke's Aphasia and Wernicke-Geschwind model
  • Limitation
    • The results and findings of only patients with brain damage cannot be applied to the normal people.

7. Wernickes Aphasia

  • A.K.A Receptive Aphasia
  • Results from damage to the Wernickes area

8. Research

  • Wernicke (1874) found that patients who had sustained damage to the left temporal cortex had difficulty in speaking

9. Method

  • Observation
  • Post-Mortem Studies examining stroke victims
  • Both methods are limited as they are based on brain damaged patients and thus generalizing the results to the general population may not be valid

10. Symptoms

  • A person with Wernickes aphasia will most likely:
    • Speak in a regular pace however interchange certain words for others making their sentences near impossible to comprehend
    • Have difficulty understanding speech
    • Their speech is unaffected however they do not know that what they are saying is wrong
    • Reading is near impossible
    • They do not understand what others say

11. Evaluation

  • Wernickes aphasia and damage to the Wernickes area have been frequently correlated
  • Studies treat Wernickes aphasia as a given and expand upon
    • Wernicke's aphasia and normal language processing: A case study in cognitive neuropsychology.
    • An On-Line Analysis of Syntactic Processing in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia
    • Recovery from wernicke's aphasia: A positron emission tomographic study

12. Wernicke-Geschwind Model

  • Initially, proposed by Carl Wernicke in 1870s
  • In 1965, Norman Geschwind renewed the theory in 1955
  • Model of language
  • Accounts for hearing, speaking, and reading

13. Process 14. Hearing

  • Spoken WordArea 41Wernickes AreaHear and Comprehend Word
  • Hearing: the hearing process starts off with a spoken word, the sounds of the spoken words are sent through the auditory pathway to Area 41 (primary auditory cortex) also known as the Heschl's gyrus. Subsequently, the sounds of the spoken words continue on to Wernicke's area, where the meaning is educed.

15. Speaking

  • CognitionWernickes AreaBrocas areaFacial Area of Motor CortexCranial NervesSpeak
  • Speaking: the meaning of words are process in Wernicke's area and then sent to Broca's area, which stores motor programs for speaking words. Moreover, morphemes (the smallest linguistic that has sementic meaning) are assembled here. Therefore, the model suggests that broca's area is in charge of articulating words. Subsequently, the instructions for words are sent to the facial area of motor cortex and then sent to the facial motor neurons in the brain stem, which then sends out orders to facial muscles in order to produce sound.

16. Reading

  • Written wordArea 17Area 18, 19Area 39 (angular gyrus)Wernickes areaRead
  • Reading: the visual perception of words are sent to the area 37, angular gyrus (in the parietal lobe), and then to Wernicke's area (for silent reading), if its "reading out loud" then it works together with Broca's area.

17. Method of Research

  • Observing damaged patients
  • Geschwinds aphasic patients

18. Limitations

  • Limited
  • = Research based on aphasic patients so it does not apply to normal people
  • Studies that went against it (Penfield and Roberts) in 1959
  • = effects of the surgical removal of language ares from the W-G model had no correlationto the deficits consistent with the models predictions

19. Strengths

  • Experiments that supported the model
  • = Hecaen and Angelergues (1964)
  • -- they came to the same conclusion with 215 patients suffering brain damage in the left-hemisphere
  • = Ojemann (1983)
  • --- electrically stimulated W-G areas

20. Link to video

  • This will enhance your understanding of the model

21. Works Cited

  • Glassman
  • Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner
  • Myers