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    By Ashish Eben Apurv TodkarOmkar

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    Blu-Ray Disc[official acronym BD] is an optical disc storage[Data storage,1080

    video & audio, Stereoscopic 3D(PS3 video games)].The capacity is from 25-50layered] & 50-100GB[Dual layered].

    This media type is appropriately named after the blue laser being used to write dblue laser was was developed in 1996 by Shuji Nakamura.The letter e is not b

    wordBlu due to trademark restrictions.In the year an alliance was formed called as Blu-ray DiscAssociation[Sony, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Hewlett-Packard, WarnerBros., etc.]which represented a group of makers of consumerelectronics, computer hardware and motion pictures.

    As of June 2009, more than 1,500 Blu-ray Disc titles are availablein Australia and the United Kingdom, with 2,500 in Japan, the UnitedStates and Canada. The encoding for video formats is MPEG-2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and VC-1.

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    Sony or Philips started two projects applying i.e. UDO[Ultra Density Optical] & DPioneer) for a format of rewritable discs that would eventually became Blu-ray Dspecifically, BD-RE).

    1st of prototypes of DVR blue were reviled at the CEATEC exhibition in Oct 20002002,the project was officially called as Blu-Ray Disc. A group formed named asFounders, which was founded by nine initial members.

    The first consumer was available in stores at April 10,2003 called as the Sony BDRE recorder was available only in Japan & price was US $ 3800. there was no starecorded video, and no movies were released for this player.

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    Hollywood studios wouldnt accept it due to its Blu-ray Disc standards ,as being more secure Digital Right Management system & they didnt wanted to repeat theContent Scramble Systemused on standard DVDs.

    In October 4,2004 the Founders group was officially changed to Blu-ray Disc Asseven 20thCentury Fox joined the Board of Directors.

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    CODECSThe BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilities for both hardecoders (players) and movie software (content).


    For video, all players are required to support MPEG-2 Part 2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC-1.[64] MPEG-2 is the codec used on regular DVDs, which allows backwarMPEG-4 AVC was developed by MPEG, Sony, and VCEG. VC-1 is a codec thadeveloped by Microsoft. BD-ROM titles with video must store video using one mandatory codec's; multiple codec's on a single title are allowed.

    The choice of codec's affects the producer's licensing/royalty costs as well as thmaximum run time, due to differences in compression efficiency. Discs encodedvideo typically limit content producers to around two hours of high-definition csingle-layer (25 GB) BD-ROM. The more-advanced video codec's (VC-1 and M

    typically achieve a video run time twice that of MPEG-2, with comparable qual

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    AUDIOFor audio, BD-ROM players are required to support Dolby Digital (AC-3), DTSPlayers may optionally support Dolby Digital Plus and DTS-HD High Resolutiolossless formats Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio.[65] BD-ROM titlthe mandatory schemes for the primary soundtrack. A secondary audiotrack, if puse any of the mandatory or optional codec's.

    BIT RATEFor users recording digital television programming, the recordable Blu-ray Discinitial data rate of 36 Mbit/s is more than adequate to record high-definition broany source (IPTV, cable/satellite, or terrestrial). BD Video movies have a maximtransfer rate of 54 Mbit/s, a maximum AV bitrate of 48 Mbit/s (for both audio aand a maximum video bit rate of 40 Mbit/s. This compares to HD DVD moviesmaximum data transfer rate of 36 Mbit/s, a maximum AV bitrate of 30.24 Mbit/maximum video bitrate of 29.4 Mbit/s.

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    Digital Rights ManagementThe Blu-ray Disc format employs several layers of digital rights management.

    BD+ Such programs can: was developed by Cryptography Research Inc. and is bconcept of Self-Protecting Digital Content. BD+, effectively a small virtual macin authorized players, allows content providers to include executable programs oDiscs.

    The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribudigital rights management. It was developed by AS Licensing Administrator, LLconsortium that includes Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Panasonic, Warner Bros., IBMSony.

    BD-ROM Mark is a small amount of cryptographic data that is stored separatelyBlu-ray Disc data. Bit-by-bit copies that do not replicate the BD-ROM Mark aredecode

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    The diameter of the disc is 120mm & thickness 1.2mm which issame as normal DvD. The centre hole diameter is 15mm


    The disc uses blue-violet laser, which operates at 405nm wavelength to read & wrlasers diameter is .1mm & is used to read block size of 640KbECC[Elliptic Curve

    Cryptography].Diode used is InGaN[Indium Gallium Nitride].

    Due to data layer being closer to the surface of the disc the disc had to be scratch stthey made use ofcartridgesbut it was raising the cost of an already expensive medium

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    Drive speed

    Data rateTheoretical Write time for Blu-ray

    Disc (minutes)

    Mbit/s MB/s Single-Layer Dual-Layer

    1 36 4.5 90 180

    2 72 9 45 90

    4 144 18 22.5 45

    6 216 27 15 30

    8 288 36 11.25 22.5

    10 360 45 9 18

    12[61] 432 54 7.5 15

    Recording Speed

    So they picked up a technology calledHard-Coating. TDKwas very 1st company to use thistechnology & named itDurabis. See this bothSony&Panasonicreplicated the trademark

    hard-coating technology methods & namedSpin-Coating.Verbatims recordable andrewritable Blu-ray Discs use their own proprietary hard-coat technology, calledScratchGuard.

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    The power conservation allows the development of multi-layer platforms and highrecording.

    BD-ROMhas two layers that are single & dual layer. Its capability can go above dualayer]which has been proven.In future it can store data upto 200GB.

    The recommended resolutions it can support are 1920x1080p & 1280x720p,in fut

    R esolution Frame rate 1 Aspect ratio Video format restrictions

    19201080 59.94-i 16:0919201080 50-i 16:0919201080 24-p 16:0919201080 23.976-p 16:09

    14401080 59.94-i 16:9 (anamorph ic) MPEG - AVC / MPTE VC- o l

    0 080 50-i 6:9 (a amorphic) MPEG - AVC / MPTE VC- o l

    0 080 2 -p 6:9 (a amorphic) MPEG - AVC / MPTE VC- o l

    0 080 23.976-p 6:9 (a amorphic) MPEG - AVC / MPTE VC- o l280720 59.9 -p 6:09280720 50-p 6:09280720 2 -p 6:09280720 23.976-p 6:09

    720 80 59.9 -i :3/ 6:9 (a amorphic)

    720576 50-i :3/ 6:9 (a amorphic)

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    y Blu-Ray and HD-DVDboth use blue lasers, which operate at lower wavelen(405 nanometers) than current red lasers (650 nanometers).

    y That microscopic difference goes a long way. Longer wavelengths sufdiffraction, which limits their ability to focus tightly on a surface.

    y But a blue laser's shorter wavelength allows it to read and write data omuch tighter surface area, which in turn allows storage of far more dadisc that's roughly the same diameter of current DVDs.

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    y While consumers won't have to worry aboutobsolescence when it comes to their old DVDcollections, the format war brewing between newBlu-Ray and HD-DVD discs does present an age-oldproblem that evokes the VHS vs. Beta fiasco of the1980s.

    y The HD-DVD formatlike the VHS format that won outover Betacould become far more widely available toconsumers sooner and at a lower price (at leastinitially) than Blu-Ray discs.

    y That's because the HD-DVD format utilizesmanufacturing techniques very similar to those usedfor the current generation of DVDs.

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    Shorter distance to travel forsame amount of data results infaster data seek times

    Important for randomaccess of data

    Better for video game andPC data applications

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    y On the other hand, Blu-Ray discs require an entirely new manufacturiwith transition costs borne largely by duplicators (unless Blu-Ray bacdevise a subsidy system.

    y That, along with other issues, is expected to delay the introduction of discs until sometime in 2006, which could hand a major advantage to DVD format. (add hard return here)

    y "In this kind of battle, the guy who is out there first and cheaper is gothe winner," says Fariborz Ghadar, director for the Center for Global BStudies at Penn State University.

    y "The more expensive and later one is going to be the loser." (The Blu-contends that it will bring manufacturing costs nearly in line with HDthe next year.