Black-necked Crane ... Preface This report on Black-necked Crane is the result of intensive studies...
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Status, Breeding Productivity and Conservation in Ladakh, India
Status, Breeding Productivity and Conservation in Ladakh, India
World Wide Fund for Nature-India
Department of Wildlife Protection Government of Jammu & Kashmir
C M Seth
Chandan P, A Chatterjee, P Gautam, C M Seth, J Takpa, S Haq, P Tashi and S Vidya (2005) : Black-necked Crane -Status, Breeding Productivity and Conservation in Ladakh, India 2000-2004. WWF-India and Department of Wildlife Protection. Government of Jammu and Kashmir.
Photo Credit : Pankaj Chandan/WWF-India
Published in June 2005 by WWF-India
This report on Black-necked Crane is the result of intensive studies and surveys in the harsh and unique environment of Ladakh. There are several fi ndings which will be of great interest to ornithologists and particularly people working on cranes.
The report takes into account the interest of the general reader and therefore has the fi rst two chapters accounting for general information on the cranes of the world and the Black-necked Crane respectively. The essence of the report lies in the chapter giving account of the survey observations from almost all the wetlands of eastern Ladakh, where the Black-necked Cranes are known to breed and feed. Such an exhaustive survey is the fi rst ever to be conducted in all the 22 wetlands in this region. The information generated from the current survey has been put in perspective against past studies and a detailed analysis has been carried out. The section on the threats to the breeding cranes and the fi nal chapter on recommendations should be of particular interest to conservation planners.
This report puts into one place most of the important research related to status, breeding productivity and conservation of the Black-necked Crane in the Ladakh region of India. It is hoped that the report will not only be a source of reference for researchers but also will be of help to planners and other stakeholders in conservation and management of the species and its habitat.
It is also hoped that this research will inspire further in-depth work on this unique species and the ecosystems that support it.
Black-necked Crane - Status, Breeding, Productivity and Conservation
A study like this spanning over years under hostile climatic conditions and challenging terrain of Ladakh can never be successful without the whole hearted support of numerous individuals and organizations. We have tried our best to thank all those who have contributed in one way or the other, in making this study possible.
We are greatly indebted to all the organizations, agencies and individuals in Ladakh, for their cooperation and support during various stages of the study. Our special thanks to Thupstan Chhewang, former Chief Executive Councillor, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), currently Member of Parliament from Ladakh; Rigzin Spalbar, Chief Executive Councillor, LAHDC; Tashi Dorje, former Deputy Commissioner, Leh; Sonam Lundup, former SDM, Nyoma; Mohd. Abbas, Forest Range Offi cer, Nyoma; M P Singh, Engineer, Indian Institute of Astrophysics; who guided us and facilitated the research at all stages.
We would like to thank the Indian Army and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) for their support and participation, which did not end with the study; the defence forces have pledged to continue supporting the conservation of Black- necked Crane. To name a few, Lt. Gen. Arvind Sharma, AVSM, VSM; Lt. Gen. M L Naidu, YSM, GOC 14 Corps; Maj. Gen N S Brar, COS 14 Corps; Daljeet Singh, former DIG, ITBP, Ladakh Sector and Brig. R K Shivrain, AVSM, who have been personally involved in this initiative.
Our warm thanks to Col R T Chacko; Dr George Archibald; Otto Pfi ster; K S Gopi Sundar, Ashfaq Ahmed, Dr S A Hussain, Li Fengshan and Sherub for providing crucial and relevant literature, which facilitated the study and the preparation of this report.
We are sincerely thankful to Dr Asad R Rahmani, Dr R S Chundawat, Qamar Qureshi and Dr Nita Shah for reviewing the manuscript and providing crucial comments and suggestions. We are also thankful to Dr Afi fullah Khan for his technical inputs during the study.
We appreciate the help of Pushp Jain and Sikha Gosh for their editorial inputs.
We are heartily thankful to Dr Biksham Gujja, WWF International and Leen de Jong, WWF – Netherlands for their support to the High Altitude Wetlands Conservation Project.
The project team found continuous support and encouragement from Ravi Singh, CEO and Secretary General, WWF India. Our special thanks go to him.
Our deep gratitude to Nisa Khatoon, Tashi Lashkit, Zarina Bano, Jigmett Tahi, Dawa Tsering, Dr Sandeep Behera, Dr Abhishek Bhatnagar, Srabani Das, Dr Harendra Singh Bargali, Saurabh Bhatia, Bachchu Singh and Trilok Chand of the Freshwater and Wetlands Programme team of WWF-India.
Last but not the least we greatly appreciate the warmth and hospitality of the people of Ladakh which made the hostile conditions seem hospitable and our work possible.
Ladakh dotted with some of the world’s most unique and spectacular wetlands, also holds the distinction of being the only known breeding ground of Black-necked Crane, Grus nigricollis in India. Few studies which formed the basis for this initiative, have touched upon only some aspects of the ecology of the cranes, the reasons for which could range from hostile climatic conditions to inaccessibility of the region.
WWF-India has been working towards conservation of high altitude wetlands in the Ladakh region and has identifi ed the Black- necked Crane as a priority species owing to its critically endangered status. Under this initiative, WWF in collaboration with the Department of Wildlife Protection, Jammu and Kashmir conducted the study for fi ve consecutive seasons starting from May 2000 to November 2004 on the breeding population of Black-necked Crane and covered virtually all the potential wetlands in Ladakh. Regular surveys were conducted and the observations were analysed to fi nd out breeding success and productivity. The analysis was made using an established methodology and the results indicate that though the population seems to be increasing, the overall breeding productivity is declining. The increase in the population is due to the discovery of new breeding sites and populations and the decline in breeding success is due to increased human activities, and resultant secondary impacts, like direct killing by dogs as well as pressure on habitat because of unplanned developmental activities.
The study indicates that incubation period and the fi rst few weeks after hatching are the most crucial periods in the breeding cycle of the Black-necked Crane in Ladakh. Thus, immediate measures need to be taken to ensure that no disturbance is caused to the birds during the breeding season, especially the incubation period.
Chapter 1 - Cranes of the World 9
Chapter 2 - Black-necked Crane 13
Chapter 3 - Study Background and Objectives 19
Chapter 4 - The Survey of Potential Wetlands – Observations & Results 25
Chapter 5 - Recommendations 49
Cranes of the World
A typical sight of crane rotating eggs in the nest
Black-necked Crane - Status, Breeding, Productivity and Conservation10
Cranes are among the most spectacular birds on earth that travel thousands of kilometres without caring for boundaries created by human beings. There are 15 magnifi cent species of cranes throughout the world (Appendix 1). They are amongst the tallest of fl ying birds and the Sarus Crane holds the avian record in this regard (Archibald et al. 1981). They are characterized by a long neck and long legs. Between their compact plumage and migratory behaviour they manage to adapt to the cold and the seasonal fl ux quite successfully. Most species have distinctive coloured head and facial features. These are usually found in combinations of red plumage or exposed patches of red skin, surrounded by black, grey and white plumage, occasionally accompanied by pronounced wattles and ornate crests. The Blue Crane is an exception and has the least patterned head compared to other cranes. The feathering at the rear of the head in the adults of this species, however, is elongated, giving them a distinctive bulbous appearance (Johnsgard 1983). The bills are long and straight and are used for pecking at, or digging for food. Another typical feature of cranes, although not the Crowned Crane, is their elongated and convoluted trachea. This allows them to produce resonant and bugle like calls. A crane can be heard up to 3 to 4 km. In most
species the windpipe is long and convoluted. The Crowned Crane, however, lacks this development and consequently does not produce the trumpet-like calls, and sounds instead rather plaintive. Male and female are similar in size and plumage. They reach sexual maturity between three and six years of age,