Biofuel: Potential Energy Source in Road Transportation ... · ... Potential Energy Source in Road...

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SUSTAINABLE FUTURE ENERGY 2012 and 10 th SEE FORUM Innovations for Sustainable and Secure Energy 21-23 November 2012, Brunei Darussalam 98 [11] YanfengGaoa, HongjieLuo, ZongtaoZhanga, LitaoKanga, Zhang Chena,JingDua, MinoruKanehiraa, ChuanxiangCao(2012) NanoceramicVO2 thermochromic smart glass:A review on progress in solution processing, Nano Energy1, pp221246. [12] Carlos Batista, Ricardo M Ribeiro and Vasco Teixeira(2011) Synthesis and characterization of VO2-based thermochromic thin films for energy-efficient windows, Batista et al. Nanoscale Research Letters , 6:301. [13] Smitha G.B., Ben-David, A. and Swift, P.D.(2001) A new type of TiN coating combining broad band visible transparency and solar control, Renewable Energy ,22 ,pp 79- 84. [14] Bollero, A., Grossberg, M., Asenjo,B. and Gutiérrez, M.T. (2009) CuS-based thin films for architectural glazing applications produced by co-evaporation: Morphology, optical and electrical properties, Surface & Coatings Technology 204,pp 593600. [15] Aguilar, J.O., Gomez-Daza, O., Brito, L., Nair, M.T.S. and Nair, P.K. (2005) Optical and mechanical characteristics of clear and solar control laminated glass using zinc sulphide and copper sulphide thin films ,Surface & Coatings Technology 200,pp 25572565. [16] Le Dréo ,H., Banakh,O., Keppner, H., Steinmann,P.A, Briand ,D. and de Rooij,N.F. (2006) Optical, electrical and mechanical properties of the tantalum oxynitride thin films deposited by pulsing reactive gas sputtering, Thin Solid Films 515,pp952956. [17] U.S. patent No.4861569, Frank H.Gillery , Allison Park , Sputtered titanium oxynitride films, dated Aug.29th.1989. [18] U.S. Patent No.5377045, Jesse D.Wolfe, Durable low-emissivity solar control thin film coating, dated 27th April.1994. [19] U.S.patent no.5085926, Yaunobu Iida, Neat reflecting glass with multilayer coating, dated 04th Feb.1992. [20] U.S. Patent no. 6188512, Woodared et al, Dual titanium nitride layers for solar control, dated 13th Feb.2001. [21] Milton Ohrius, Materials science of thin films deposition and structure ,(2002),2nd Edition, Academic press. [22] Khamsone Keothongkham, Samuk Pimanpang, WasanMaiaugree,Saman Saekow, Wirat Jarernboon, and Vittaya Amornkitbamrung,(2011), Electrochemically Deposited Polypyrrole for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Counter Electrodes, International Journal of Photoenergy , 2012, Article ID 671326, 7 pages. [23] Qi Qin and Yunxia Guo,(2011), Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Polyaniline Film on ITO Conductive Glass by Electrochemical Polymerization, International Journal of Photoenergy , 2012, Article ID 519674,6 pages. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Biofuel: Potential Energy Source in Road Transportation Sector in Malaysia M. Shahabuddin*, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, M.A. Hazrat, M. Mofijur, Vizy Nazira, M. Varman, A.M. Liaquat Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. *Corresponding author Tel.: +60162418438; Fax: +603 79675317, E-mail: shahabuddin.[email protected] Abstract In this present era transportation sector is consuming vast amount of energy which is mostly met by petroleum fuel and some part by biofuel. Global energy depletion and concern about increasing future energy demand forced researchers to find some renewable and sustainable alternatives. Since environment has been polluted at an alarming rate by gasoline and diesel fuelling thus the use of biofuel has crucial importance as it has no such problem. In this investigation we sought to extend our observation on present local energy scenario in transportation sector and prediction of future energy demand based on continuous trend.
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Transcript of Biofuel: Potential Energy Source in Road Transportation ... · ... Potential Energy Source in Road...

  • SUSTAINABLE FUTURE ENERGY 2012 and 10th SEE FORUM

    Innovations for Sustainable and Secure Energy

    21-23 November 2012, Brunei Darussalam

    98

    [11] YanfengGaoa, HongjieLuo, ZongtaoZhanga, LitaoKanga, Zhang Chena,JingDua,

    MinoruKanehiraa, ChuanxiangCao(2012) NanoceramicVO2 thermochromic smart glass:A

    review on progress in solution processing, Nano Energy1, pp221246. [12] Carlos Batista, Ricardo M Ribeiro and Vasco Teixeira(2011) Synthesis and

    characterization of VO2-based thermochromic thin films for energy-efficient windows, Batista

    et al. Nanoscale Research Letters , 6:301.

    [13] Smitha G.B., Ben-David, A. and Swift, P.D.(2001) A new type of TiN coating

    combining broad band visible transparency and solar control, Renewable Energy ,22 ,pp 79-

    84.

    [14] Bollero, A., Grossberg, M., Asenjo,B. and Gutirrez, M.T. (2009) CuS-based thin films

    for architectural glazing applications produced by co-evaporation: Morphology, optical and

    electrical properties, Surface & Coatings Technology 204,pp 593600. [15] Aguilar, J.O., Gomez-Daza, O., Brito, L., Nair, M.T.S. and Nair, P.K. (2005) Optical and

    mechanical characteristics of clear and solar control laminated glass using zinc sulphide and

    copper sulphide thin films ,Surface & Coatings Technology 200,pp 2557 2565. [16] Le Dro ,H., Banakh,O., Keppner, H., Steinmann,P.A, Briand ,D. and de Rooij,N.F.

    (2006) Optical, electrical and mechanical properties of the tantalum oxynitride thin films

    deposited by pulsing reactive gas sputtering, Thin Solid Films 515,pp952956. [17] U.S. patent No.4861569, Frank H.Gillery , Allison Park , Sputtered titanium oxynitride

    films, dated Aug.29th.1989.

    [18] U.S. Patent No.5377045, Jesse D.Wolfe, Durable low-emissivity solar control thin film

    coating, dated 27th April.1994.

    [19] U.S.patent no.5085926, Yaunobu Iida, Neat reflecting glass with multilayer coating,

    dated 04th Feb.1992.

    [20] U.S. Patent no. 6188512, Woodared et al, Dual titanium nitride layers for solar control,

    dated 13th Feb.2001.

    [21] Milton Ohrius, Materials science of thin films deposition and structure ,(2002),2nd

    Edition, Academic press.

    [22] Khamsone Keothongkham, Samuk Pimanpang, WasanMaiaugree,Saman Saekow, Wirat

    Jarernboon, and Vittaya Amornkitbamrung,(2011), Electrochemically Deposited Polypyrrole

    for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Counter Electrodes, International Journal of Photoenergy ,

    2012, Article ID 671326, 7 pages.

    [23] Qi Qin and Yunxia Guo,(2011), Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Polyaniline

    Film on ITO Conductive Glass by Electrochemical Polymerization, International Journal of

    Photoenergy , 2012, Article ID 519674,6 pages.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Biofuel: Potential Energy Source in Road Transportation Sector in Malaysia

    M. Shahabuddin*, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, M.A. Hazrat, M. Mofijur, Vizy Nazira, M.

    Varman, A.M. Liaquat Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur,

    Malaysia.

    *Corresponding author Tel.: +60162418438; Fax: +603 79675317, E-mail:

    [email protected]

    Abstract

    In this present era transportation sector is consuming vast amount of energy which is mostly

    met by petroleum fuel and some part by biofuel. Global energy depletion and concern about

    increasing future energy demand forced researchers to find some renewable and sustainable

    alternatives. Since environment has been polluted at an alarming rate by gasoline and diesel

    fuelling thus the use of biofuel has crucial importance as it has no such problem. In this

    investigation we sought to extend our observation on present local energy scenario in

    transportation sector and prediction of future energy demand based on continuous trend.

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    Possible ways to meet the energy challenges especially in transportation sector has been

    focused locally. From the investigation, it is found that apart from petroleum fuel, natural gas

    and other sources, biofuel can be the key player to meet the increasing energy demand. As

    compared to petroleum and other fuel biofuel is the promising alternative which possesses

    many advantages such as renewability, environmentally friendly, higher lubricity, safer

    handling and so on. However, it should be noted that some application problems of biofuel

    are still exist which need to be resolved for its widespread applicability.

    Keywords: Renewable energy, Biofuel, Road transportation, Emission, Energy demand

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Transportation system plays the crucial importance for the socio-economic development of a

    country. The predominant issue for this sector is the energy which is usually met by fossil fuel

    like diesel and gasoline. Because of rapid fossil fuel depletion, unknown petroleum reserve,

    increasing future energy demand the global warming and climate change due to the exhaust

    emission of the fossil fuel have been put forward to search the alternative solution regarding

    the energy. Even though various sources of alternative energy have been discovered, biofuel

    remain one of the most potential alternatives to cut down the dependency on fossil fuel by

    replacing it fully or partially. Transportation sector has dominated huge energy consumption

    and global warming as well. The consumption in transportation sector accounting for 40% of

    total energy regarded as a second largest consumption after the industrial sector in Malaysia.

    Presently, petroleum is met around 98% of the entire demand in transportation sector which is

    accountable for the harmful CO2, NOx, HC and particular matters thus resulting the global

    warming at an alarming rate. Study report shows that the transportation sector is the

    responsible for the global warming of about 13.5% [1]. Global CO2 emissions increased from

    21 billion tons in 1990 to 29.4 billion tons of CO2 in 2008. Within the total world emissions,

    41% was originated from China and the United States, as these two countries alone produced

    12.1 billion tons of CO2 in 2008. On top of that, transportation sector contributed 6.6 billion

    tons of CO2 which is 22.5% of total CO2 emissions in 2008 [2]. Transportation sector emitted

    1081 Mtoe (23.1%) in 1973 and climbed significantly to 2300 Mtoe which is 27.3% of the

    total global energy consumption in 2008. The main reason for the increase in transport sector

    is the continuing growth in household incomes and number of vehicles [3]. The share of road

    transport in the total energy consumption of the transport sector in 2008 was the highest at

    80%, followed by air transport (11%), maritime transport (7%) and railways (3%) [4]. Global

    demand for transport appears unlikely to decrease in the foreseeable future as the World

    Energy Outlook projects that it will grow 45% by 2030 [5]. A recent study regarding the

    influence of anthropogenic activities towards climate change had also proven that

    transportation sector would be the highest potential contributor to atmospheric warming in the

    near decades [6]. Transportation sector is one of the major components of globalization and

    makes a vital contribution to the economy. Besides, it plays a curial role in daily activities

    around the world. Unfortunately, this activity is major energy consumption and use most of

    the limited non-renewable energy that creates a negative impact to living environment [7].

    Over the years, several meeting and conference on global warming and climate changes have

    been conducted which have organized by the various organizations including United Nation

    and over 200 countries have participated around the world [8]. Nevertheless, the use of fossil

    fuel in transportation sector is growing faster and the trend appeared to be moving upward

    dramatically. Thereby, the development and implementation of sustainable energy in this

    sector have been given a priority in many countries including Malaysia [9]. Malaysia with a

    huge supply of palm oil for biofuels production is intended to implement mandatory biodiesel

    blends in its transportation sector in 2011 in order to achieve its carbon reduction commitment

    towards a more sustainable development [10].Malaysia has the leading position in terms of the

    production and export. It has become one of the most crucial foreign exchange earners of this

    country. Rapidly increasing economic activities and rising incomes have led to an exponential

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    increase in the demand for both freight and passenger transport services in the country,

    especially in the rapidly growing urban areas. Malaysia has experienced high levels of

    motorization over the past two decades to meet the growing transportation demand. Road

    transport is the main energy consumption within the transportation sector The Malaysian

    government has set on a strategy to utilize non-petroleum, domestic energy resources to

    increase self-reliance in energy. In order to meet the future energy demand especially in

    transportation sector, this the high time to make a constructive energy policy and emission

    standard. Policy makers should realize the future crisis and are required to make a long short,

    medium and long terms policy considering all the view, aspects and alternatives. This paper

    presents the biofuel scenario in Malaysia, energy consumption in transportation sector,

    emission rate, and a trend of energy and emission pattern for transportation sector in Malaysia.

    In addition to that a projection up to 2035 and 2050 for several parameters has been

    accumulated from the several studies. Apart from that, substantiality of biofuel in

    transportation sector as and some challenges are discussed in this study which may help the

    policy makers to step forward.

    2. BIOFUEL

    Biofuel is the environment friendly and renewable source of alternative fuel which is mainly

    produced from animal fats (tallow, lard, white or yellow grease, poultry fats, or fish oils);

    recycled greases (used cooking and frying oils); and most commonly, plant oils (from

    soybeans, corn, rapeseed, sunflowers, and cottonseeds, etc.). To use this biofuel in diesel

    engine its require no engine modification as well [11]. In general, the term biofuel is used to

    represent all the liquid and gaseous transportation fuels derived predominantly from biomass

    [12].The biodiesel production process for diesel vehicle is shown in Fig.1. Currently, biodiesel

    and bioethanol are the two most promising biofuels being projected to replace conventional

    fossil fuels in transportation. Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) is normally

    synthesised through transesterification of vegetable oils with methanol and the aid of

    appropriate catalysts. It can be used to replace mineral diesel in compression-ignition (CI)

    engine which has almost similar properties without requiring any major engines modifications.

    Commercial production of biodiesel has been well established and is available to be purchased

    as turn-key plants in many countries [13] On the other hand, bioethanol is suitable to replace

    the usage of gasoline in petrol engine. Conventional bioethanol is produced from the

    fermentation of simple sugar or starch crops. Its large-scale production has been well proven

    and demonstrated successfully in Brazil [14]. However, it competes with food sources for

    human consumption which renders it susceptible to criticisms. Another alternative raw

    material for bioethanol production is using inedible food sources mainly lignocellulosic

    material such as forest and agricultural biomass waste. However, additional pretreatment steps

    are normally required which will increase the overall production cost. Process optimisation is

    still being researched intensively at pilot plant scale in order to find a more cost-effective

    production method for mass commercialisation [15].

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    Fig.1 Bio fuel for diesel vehicle [16]

    3. BIOFUEL SCENARIO IN MALAYSIA

    In Malaysia, palm oil is the main sources of biofuel. It is produced domestically which helps

    to reduce the dependency of oil import of the country. In Malaysia biofuel also produces from

    non-edible oil source such as Jatropha and some other domestic crops which are highly

    potential and they do not contend with food crops [17, 18]. In 2009-2010, Malaysia produced

    about 40% (consumed 7.5%) of world palm oil, while Indonesia 46%, Thailand 3%, Naigeria

    2%, Colombia 2% and others 7% [19]. Malaysia produces more than 17 million tonnes of

    crude palm oil (CPO) annually from a total of 4.69 million hectares of palm oil plantations

    [13]. More than 88% of the total palm oil production is exported to countries such as EU,

    China, India and US due to higher prices and demand. The rest of the palm oil is either being

    processed into food products for local usage or biodiesel for foreign exportation. Based on the

    current production volume and assuming that 80% of it was dedicated for food sources.

    Malaysia had sufficient supply of palm biodiesel to support up to B50 biodiesel blend for

    transportation [20]. At the same time, Malaysia have the potential to generate more than

    104.55 million tonne of lignocellulosic biomass waste annually (including agricultural

    biomass and forest residues) [21]. Currently, most of the domestic biodiesel fuels are supplied

    by small and medium producers which can only cater for a restricted group of users.

    Procurement of biodiesel from Malaysia can secure a reliable biodiesel supply over a long

    term to prepare for the imminent mandatory biodiesel blending in transportation fuels. A

    stable supply of biodiesel can effectively quash publics apprehension to embrace biodiesel as their choice of transportation fuel. Moreover, Malaysia has been able to produce high quality

    biodiesel consistently at optimised cost which meet the international standards for biodiesel

    (ASTM D 6571 and EN 14214). Recently Malaysian government has set the target to use B5

    (5% methyl ester blend with 95% diesel) [22]. Malaysia imports about 10 million tonnes of

    petroleum diesel fuel annually and this import can be reduced by 500,000 tonnes by using

    B5 saving an estimated amount of US $380 million per year [23] .In this respect every petrol stations are selling B5 according to Malaysian government regulation since 1 January 2010 [24].

    3.1 Global energy status and transportation perspective

    The trend of world energy production from 1990 to present and the projection until 2030 has

    been shown in Fig. 2. It is depicted from the Figure that in the year of 2035 the production of

    total energy would be nearly 100Mb/d including development unused crude field, production

    from the new fields which would be found, natural gas and unconventional oil sources.

    However this is the big challenge to find new fields and implementation of energy form the

    projected natural gas and unconventional sources. Besides, present scenario and projection of

    consumption by transportation until 2050 is shown in Fig. 3. It is clear from the Figure that

    biofuel would be the one of the major contributor to meet future energy demand.

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    Fig. 2 World oil production by type in the New Policies Scenario [25]

    Fig. 3 World Transport Energy Use by IEA/E TP Scenario [25]

    4. ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY TRANSPORTATION SECTOR IN MALAYSIA

    Energy consumption In Malaysia, the final energy use has risen at an annual growth rate of 6%

    from year 2000 to 2008 and reached 45 Mtoe in 2008. A huge portion of total energy is

    consumed in industrial and transportation sector. The transportation sector alone accounted for

    36% of total energy use in 2008 as shown in Fig. 4 [26] The increased use of energy raised

    serious concerns in the Malaysian government about the need to overcome heightened energy

    expenditure by promoting the end-use energy efficiency. On top of that, transportation sector

    is highly dependent on petroleum products as the source of energy. In 2008, Malaysia has

    proven oil reserves of 5.46 billion barrels and 68% are located in East Malaysia Sabah and

    Sarawak [27]. Malaysias crude oil production has declined in recent years and the average oil production is around 690 thousand barrels per day in 2008. In terms of number of passenger

    and freight carried, road transport is still leading among the transportation modes in Malaysia.

    Fig. 5 shows the mode of transportation allocation for passenger [28]. There are more than

    94% of passengers carried by road transport. The rail passenger is about 4.7% while air

    transport served 0.5% of total passengers. Table 1 presents the trend of energy consumption in

    transportation sector from different energy sources. It can be seen from the Table, that the

    leading source of energy in transportation is petrol followed by diesel and Aviation turbine

    fuel (ATF) and aviation gasoline (AV) gas. Recently a considerable change has been observed

    in the use of natural gas for the transportation sector. Furthermore, mostly the total energy

    consumption is increasing year by year and it has been more than doubled form the year of

    1995 to 2008.

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    Fig.4 Energy consumption by sector in 2008

    Fig.5 percentage of passenger by transportation type

    Table 7 Energy consumption trend by transportation sector in Malaysia (ktoe) [26, 29]

    Year Petrol Diesel ATF and AV gas Fuel oil Natural gas Electricity Total

    1995 4477 2168 1160 17 5 0 7827

    1996 5161 2417 1335 32 4 1 8950

    1997 5574 3106 1439 75 5 1 10200

    1998 5849 2311 1619 9 4 1 9793

    1999 6778 3174 1424 13 0 4 11393

    2000 6378 4103 1574 4 7 4 12070

    2001 6820 4534 1762 5 14 5 13140

    2002 6940 4680 1785 4 28 4 13441

    2003 7352 5019 1852 3 40 5 14271

    2004 7867 5398 2056 4 54 6 15385

    2005 8138 5132 2010 4 95 5 15384

    2006 7838 4726 2152 3 120 5 14825

    2007 8549 4859 2155 3 147 4 15717

    2008 8788 5283 2112 3 194 15 16395

    5. EMISSION

    The vehicular exhaust emissions are one of the main sources of global warming and

    environmental pollution. The vehicular exhaust emission is increasing dramatically due the

    increasing numbers of vehicle in the world, which have an adverse effect on environment as

    well as humans health [30, 31]. According to united state environmental protection agency

    (EPA), the legislated maximum amount of emissions from the heavy duty diesel engines are

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    CO: 15.5g/bhp-hr, PM: 0.01 g/bhp-hr, NOx: 0.20 g/bhp-hr and non-methane hydro carbon

    (NMHC): 0.14 g/bhp-hr for the model year later 2007 [32]. Whereas, emissions standard of

    Euro V for the diesel engine vehicles are, carbon monoxide (CO): 500 mg/km, particulate

    matter (PM): 5 mg/km (80% lower than Euro IV standard), oxides of nitrogen (NOx): 180

    mg/km (20% lower than Euro IV standard), combined emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen

    oxides: 230 mg/km [33]. The world petroleum reserve is diminishing swiftly but its demand is

    increasing day by day. Due to the depletion of fossil fuel along with environment concern,

    attention has been drawn to develop a clean alternative fuel which will reduce both of the

    exhaust emission and the petro fuel dependency [34]. Therefore, it became a global issue to

    develop such clean alternative fuel which is technically feasible, domestically available and

    environmentally acceptable. According to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT, US),

    ethanol, natural gas, hydrogen, biodiesel, electricity, methanol are included as an alternative

    fuels. It is reported that these fuels can be used to reduce petroleum consumption, harmful

    pollutants and exhaust emissions. The use of biodiesel as internal combustion (IC) engine

    fuels can play a vital role to help the developing countries in terms of reducing the both of

    environmental impact and the adverse human health effect of fossil fuels. According to well

    to wheel base assessment, biodiesel from oil seed reduces about 40-60% GHG emission [35].

    The biodiesel extends many environmental benefits over petro diesel. It is less toxic, huge

    biodegradable and emit lower CO, THC, and PM emission as compared to petro diesel [36].

    Therefore, the production of biodiesel and its use is increasing steadily and hopefully retain in

    future. The transportation sector which fully utilizes petroleum products is no doubt the main

    contributor in CO2 emission [37]. However, the projected CO2 emission relief by sector and

    the key technology for reducing CO2 emission has been shown in Fig.6 and 7 respectively. It

    can be seen form the Fig. 6 that transportation accounts the second largest sector to reduce the

    CO2 emission of 23%. While from Fig.7 it is depicted that

    renewable energy is the third largest key factors to reduce (17%) projected CO2 emission.

    Fig. 6 World energy-related CO2 emissions abatement by region [25]

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    Fig 7.key technology for reducing global Co2 emission [38]

    6. CURRENT BIOFUEL POLICY IN MALAYSIA

    Since the introduction of Fifth Fuel Policy under the Eighth Malaysian Plan (20012005), Malaysia has been working to integrate renewable energy into its energy fuel mix.

    Transportation sector had the largest energy demand in the year 2000 with roughly 41% out of

    the total energy demand at 29.70 mtoe (million tonne of oil equivalent). Even though energy

    demand for industry had surpassed transportation in 2008 as the largest energy demand sector,

    transportation still recorded a considerable increase in energy demand up to 32.7% from 2000

    within just an eight year span [39, 40] . Despite the fact that ample of efforts had been put

    forward to rein in the escalation of energy demand, the annual increment was still being

    forecasted at about 3.5% average. Due to the excessive energy demand coupled with a large

    portion of its energy sources were still derived from fossil fuels, transportation remained as

    one of the largest GHG emitters in Malaysia. The emission was worsen due to the lack of

    proper public transportation infrastructure in Malaysia which has resulted in heavy reliance on

    passenger vehicles. Biofuel policy and development of biofuel are presented in Table 2.

    Table 2 Chronology of biodiesel development in Malaysia [13, 41, 42]

    Year Milestone

    1982-1985 Feasibility study of palm oil methyl ester in the laboratory, steering committee

    formation, construction of biodiesel plant heaving capacity 3000 tonnes in

    each year, and field trial in taxis conducted from the government of Malaysia

    and finally pilot plant launched at the end of this duration

    1986-1994 Several Field trials conducted including 31 commercial vehicles and

    stationary engines in phase I, bench test by Mercedes Benz in Germany in

    phase II, and finally trail on commercial buses.

    1995 Transfer of PME production technology to industry to produce oleochemicals,

    carotenes (pro-Vitamin A) and Vitamin E

    2001 Use of a CPO and fuel oil blend for power generation initiated andResearch

    on low-pour-point palm biodiesel initiated

    2002-2005 Field trials using processed liquid palm oil and petroleum diesel blends (B2,

    B5, B10) in MPOB vehicles began (i.e. a straight vegetable oil SVO biofuel

    blend), Trials of refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm oil and

    petroleum diesel blends (B5)using MPOB vehicles and shifting the

    technology from MPOB to Lipochem (M) SdnBhd and CarotinoSdnBhd

    2006 National Biofuel Policy launched, First commercial-scale biodiesel plant

    began operations, Envo Diesel launched, 92 biodiesel licenses approved

    2007 Increase in CPO price caused many biodiesel projects to be either suspended

    or cancelled

    2008 Malaysian Bio fuel Industry Act 2007 came into force

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    Usage of Envo Diesel was scrapped and replaced with B5

    2009-2010 Government vehicles from selected agencies began use of B5 blend and

    Government announcement that the B5 mandate for commercial use will be

    deferred to

    June 2011.

    7 CHALLENGES OF BIOFUEL

    Recent study report [16] made concern on biofuel regarding its Supply cost, supply volume,

    dependence on a specific country, Influence on food prices, competition with farmland, Forest

    destruction etc. In addition, technological development, infrastructure, popularity, and policy

    can be the important factors for the wider application of biofuel. These influential factors are

    described in brief as follows.

    7.1 Supply cost

    One of the main barriers for the wider application of bio fuel is its supply cost. Depending on

    the geographical situation and feedstock the price of the biofuel is several times higher than

    diesel and gasoline. Resulting people are discouraged to use biofuel. Moreover, there have

    various procedure including refining transesterification which are maintained to make

    adaptable with the internal combustion engine. Thereby the production cost becomes higher.

    7.2 Supply volume

    Adequate supply of biofuel is an important factor for the frequency of use in transportation

    sector. The cultivation of biofuels is not sufficient with compared to the amount required.

    7.3 Dependency on specific country

    Most of the countries in the world are not so much familiar on biofuel. Presently very few like,

    Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil USA, and Nigeria are producing uttermost (more than 90%)

    amount of world total production. However, there have several countries consisting huge lands

    which are suitable for the biodiesel feedstock are not being utilized. In addition, some

    biodiesel feedstocks like Jatropha can be grown in the marginal land and does not required much water. Therefore it is a vital issue to find the land availability worldwide and cultivate

    the biofuel feedstock. Otherwise, all other countries would be depended on the some specific

    country although they become interested to use it.

    7.4 Contend of food

    Most of biofuel like palm, soybean, sunflower, coconut etc. which are available in the market

    are used as a food thus there will be a great threat to the food price if the application of such

    feedstock is increased in the biodiesel production as well. Therefore, it is our recommendation

    to find new non-edible feedstock and use for biodiesel production. Meanwhile, some of non-

    edible feed-stocks such that Jatropha curcas, Madhuca indica, and Pongamia pinnata etc. are

    found to be very potential however, the cost of production is low as well as can be grown in

    the marginal land as well. So the emphasize should be given to the investigation of

    physicochemical properties of such feed-stocks and their standardization.

    7.5 Technology

    In order to replace the existing fossil fuel and make competitive with them, technological

    development is the pre request. Implementation of advanced technology in biofuel production

    can play their role for plantation, processing and final use. In order to enhance the production

    rate or oil yield, there have no alternative regardless of the advanced technology. Especially

    for the most populated country where the land for the cultivation is not enough is an important

    demand to increase the production rate with in land available. This can be achieved through

    intensive research in biotechnology, plant agronomy and precision agriculture techniques [9].

    Technological advancement is required to for the oil extraction, transesterification and

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    fermentation processes of the biodiesel and bioethanol production respectively. The former

    had been well established but still requires some optimisation. The latter is still in research

    phase and technology breakthrough will be needed for full commercialisation

    7.6 Infrastructure

    Another vital issue for the successful implementation of biofuels in transportation sector will

    be the establishment of both hard and soft infrastructure. The relevant biofuels supply chain

    infrastructure will need to be convenient and sufficient to reach to the end-users for their daily

    usage. In terms of hard infrastructure, biofuels blending and refuelling station facilities will

    need to be set up adequately together with complete transportation of biofuels supply network.

    This is best to prevent any conflict of interest since biofuels and fossil fuels are competing

    products of each other. Moreover, it can help to identify possible difficulties for better

    planning in the future [43]. Blending facilities will have to be in minimum distance from both

    conventional oil and gas refineries and biofuels processing facilities in order to minimize the

    transportation cost. Existing refuelling stations will need to be supplied with biofuels blends

    and equipped with necessary modifications. Some modification of existing diesel and gasoline

    engine will further lead to the increase in the performance and emission behavior as well.

    7.7 Policy

    For the long term social and economic development, well established policy from the

    government is pivotal. Government as the critical stakeholder in the implementation of

    biofuels blends for transportation sector will be responsible to stage a suitable platform or

    medium for other stakeholders such as industry players, non-governmental organisations

    (NGO), research institutes and private investors to contribute towards the development of the

    biofuels blends. government policies will be critical in areas such as sub sidisation scheme, tax

    relief, financial assistance, information dissemination, investment environment, authorisation

    and standards of biofuels blends. Previously, increasing environmental awareness had fuelled

    the demand for biofuels such as biodiesel and plenty of biodiesel plants were constructed.

    However, when the price of crude oil plummeted to about USD 30/bbl, expensive biodiesel

    was unable to compete with mineral diesel and thus rendered its demand to drop substantially.

    Consequently, most of the biodiesel plants were either being shut down or forced to cut down

    their production [13] . Future policy makers will need to address the above shortcomings and

    prevent the history from repeating itself.

    7.8 Public acceptance

    Public acceptance for biofuels will be the last challenge to be addressed once all the relevant

    infrastructures and supply system are in place. Since mass public is the major user of fossil

    fuels in transportation sector, their willingness to switch to biofuels blends is important to

    ensure the success of the implementation. Lack of public support for new transportation fuels

    can eventually lead to catastrophic failure as already seen in the case of natural gas in Canada

    and New Zealand. Whilst mandatory biofuels blends can force the public to make the switch,

    it was extremely important that they were being given sufficient information pertaining to the

    changes. Many of the citizens in developing countries such as Malaysia had low

    environmental awareness and are not familiar with the operation of biofuels.

    8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    World is now confronted into two major crisis including energy crisis and global

    environmental pollution and resulting rapid climate change. If the crude petroleum production

    continues in the same manner as present then the production will be declined drastically from

    roughly 65Mb/d to 18Mb/d. Even though it is tried to keep the production rate likewise today,

    it is believed to fill up another 47 Mb/d by developing existing unproductive crude petroleum

    fields and by the discovering new field. However the increasing demand of projected up to

    2035 of about 100 Mb/d would be managed by the alternative resources like natural gas and

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    unconventional oil. Resulting dangerous adverse effect would be imposed on the developing

    countries including Malaysia. If the projected crude fields are not found as predicted and

    alternatives sources are not implemented as thought then the world would be confronted a

    dangerous threat which may be more dangerous that second world war. Meanwhile, the

    scenario war for oil has already been started. On the other hand, without new policy

    intervention with regards to oil and emission, the CO2 emission would be doubled within

    2050. Since the transportation sectors are accountable for more than 37% of total emission

    thus without especial care and strong policy world has be faced drastic climate change.

    Consequently, huge part of the world would be submerged into the see. Vital part of the some

    south Asian countries like Bangladesh, Maldives will be lost by the ocean. In addition

    Malaysia and some other developing country will face dangerous challenge as they are not

    much concern about emission climate change etc. Meanwhile USA and Europe has set

    emission standard for their own countries. However those standards have been set considering

    their own geographical circumstances, socio-economic infrastructures, own political situation

    and policy. Hence it is recommended that every country including Malaysia should be

    established their own energy policy and emission standards taking in to consideration above

    mentioned factors. Biodiesel is gradually gaining acceptance in the market as an

    environmentally friendly alternative diesel fuel. Malaysia has huge potential for palm oil base

    biodiesel production and plays a role to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuel.

    However, the use of inedible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is

    accelerated by the need of edible oil as food and the reduction of biodiesel production cost.

    Therefore, jatropha and calophyllum inophyllum have great prospect as feedstock for biodiesel

    in Malaysia. Apart from that, various aspects must be examined and overcome before

    biodiesel can be established and continue to mature in the market. This study serves as a

    guideline for further investigation and research in order to implement and improve the

    transportation sector

    9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The authors would like to acknowledge the, University of Malaya, Ministry of Higher

    Education (MOHE) of Malaysia for HIR grant (Grant No. UM.C/HIR/MOHE/ENG/07) which

    made this study possible.

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