# Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 …...AFTER REVISION MADE IN THE BOS HELD ON...

### Transcript of Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 …...AFTER REVISION MADE IN THE BOS HELD ON...

AFTER REVISION MADE IN THE BOS HELD ON 11-5-2018

Department of Physics Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620 024

M.Phil. PHYSICS SYLLABI FOR THE COURSE

Programme code: 1ASPHY

S.NO. Course

Code Course Title Credits

I - Semester

Paper - I

1 MFRP1:17 Research Methodology 4

Paper - II

2 MFRP2:17 Integrable Systems - I 4

3 MFRP2:17 Mathematical Methods for Nonlinear Systems 4

4 MFRP2:17 Applied Computational Methods 4

5 MFRP2:17 Characterization Techniques For Advanced

Materials 4

6 MFRP2:17 Experimental Techniques And Instrumentation 4

7 MFRP2:17 High Pressure Measurements And Techniques 4

8 MFRP2:17 Functional materials and Characterizations 4

Paper - III

9 MFRP3:17 Advanced Computational Physics 4

10 MFRP3:17 Nonlinear Optics 4

11 MFRP3:17 Quantum Field Theory 4

12 MFRP3:17 Experimental Techniques In Low Temperature

Physics 4

13 MFRP3:17 Advanced Nanomaterials 4

14 MFRP3:17 Integrable System-II 4

15 MFRP3:17 Crystal Growth And Thin Film Techniques 4

16 MFRP3:17 Functional materials and Characterizations 4

17 MFRP3:17 Nanoelectronics 4

Paper - IV

18 MFRP4:17 Paper - IV: Teaching and Learning

Skills 4

Paper I : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Unit – I: Working on a Research Problem

Scientific research – Aims and motivation of research – Research methods and methodology –

Selection of a research problem – Literature survey – Access using Internet– Current status – Mode

of attack– Oral report presentation in a seminar – Presentation of a research report - outline of M.Phil

dissertation.

Unit – II: Mathematical Methods

Hypergeometric function – Confluent Hypergeometric function – Series solution of Gauss

Hypergeometric equations – Elementary properties - Symmetry property – Differential and Integral

representations – Linear transformation of Hypergeometric function – Elliptic functions and elliptic

integrals.

Unit – III: Data Analysis

Introduction – Statistical description of data - Mean, variance, skewness, median, mode –

Distributions : The Binomial, Poisson and Gaussian distributions – Student’s t-test, F-test, Chi-square

test – Linear and rank correlations – Modelling data: Least-squares, Fitting data.

Unit – IV: High Performance Computing

High performance computing basics – Elements of Fortran 90 – Constants and variables – Arithmetic

expressions – I/O statements – Logical expressions – Conditional and control statements - Arrays –

Functions and subroutines – Format statements – Advanced features: Procedures, modules, recursive

functions and generic procedures – Applications Software and Libraries.

Uni – V: Advanced Analytical techniques

Analytical Technique – principles of single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction , FT-IR, Raman and

UV-visible spectrometers – SEM, TEM, EDAX – Instrumentation – Sample preparation – Analysis

of materials.

References

1. S. Rajasekar, P. Philominathen and V. Chinnathambi, Research methodology, arXiv.

Physics/0601009 v2. 25 January 2006.

2. C.R. Kothari, Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, (New Age International, New

Delhi, 2006).

3. A.K. Ghatak, I.C Goyal, SJ. Chua, Mathematical Physics (Macmillan India Ltd, New Delhi,1995)

4. V. Rajaraman, Computer Programming in Fortran 90 and 95 (Prentice Hall of India, New

Delhi, 1997).

5. H. K. Dass, Mathematical Physics, S. Chand & Company, New Delhi (2003).

6. M. William and D. Steve, Instrumental Methods of Analysis (CBS Publishers, New Delhi,

1986).

Paper-II: INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS - I

UNIT-I: Basics

Introduction to linear and nonlinear dynamical systems - Finite dimensional conservative and

dissipative systems Canonical transformations - Poisson brackets - Hamilton - Jacobi Theory-

Separation of variables - Elliptic Functions and Elliptic Integrals - Integrability - Partial and

Complete Integrability - Liouville theorem -Analytical Methods to detect integrability.

UNIT-II: The Painlevé Method

Singular points - Classification of singularities - Fixed and Movable singular Points - Singularities of

nonlinear ordinary differential equations - Painlevé analysis applicable for second and third order

nonlinear ODEs - Method of finding solution - Examples.

UNIT-III: Symmetries and Integrability

Introduction - Lie point symmetries - Noether symmetries - Dynamical symmetries and integrability

of finite dimensional systems - λ symmetries - Integrating factors and first integrals -

Nonlocal/potential symmetries - Examples.

UNIT-IV: Prelle-Singer method and Linearization

Prelle-Singer method for second and third order ODEs - Method of finding Integrating factors and

integrals of motion - General solution - Examples - Linearization of nonlinear second and third order

ordinary differential equation - Linearizing transformations-Point, Contact and Sundman type

transformation - Extension to higher order ODEs.

UNIT-V: Other methods

Darboux polynomials - Jacobi’s last multi - plier method - Direct method of finding integrals -

Adjoint symmetry method, integra -ting factors and integrals - Examples.

REFERENCES

1) M. Lakshmanan and S. Rajasekar, Non -linear Dynamics: Integrability, Chaos and Patterns

(Springer, Berlin 2003).

2) A. Goriely, Integrability and Noninte -grability of dynamical systems (World Scientific,

Singapore 2001).

3) Peter E. Hydon, Symmetry Methods for Differential Equations (Cambridge university Press,

Singapore 2000).

4) George W. Bluman and Stephen C. Anco, Symmetry and Integration Methods for Differential

Equations (Springer-Verlag, New York 2002).

5) V. K. Chandrasekar, M Senthilvelan and M. Lakshmanan, 2005 Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Series A

461 2451-2476.

Paper-II: Mathematical Methods for Nonlinear Systems

1. Linear and Nonlinear Systems

Linear and nonlinear forces - Mathematical implications of nolinearity - Linear

superposition principle - Definition of nonlinearity - Effects of nonlinearity -

Solutions of damped and forced linear differential equations - Resonance and jump

phenomena in Duffing oscillator.

2. Solutions of Certain Linear and Nonlinear Differential Equations

Second-order linear differential equations of the form :xR=xyDf Exact

solutions with 0=xR and 0.xR Exact solutions of the second-order nonlinear

equations

00,0,00,0, 32 >a=a<ay=y,xax=x,>a=a<ay=y,xa=x

and

00,0, >a=a<ay=y,x+ax=x 2 - Phase portraits of all the above three

systems.

3. Steady States

Fixed points and their classification in two-dimension - Applications to the

anharmonic oscillator 0=bx+axx d+x 3 and the pendulum system

0sin =x+x - Limit cycle in van der Pol oscillator- Identification of dissipative and

conservative systems - Period-1 and 2 fixed points of logistic map.

4. Analysis of Routes to Chaos

Period doubling phenomenon and chaos in logistic map, Duffing oscillator and

Lorenz system - Feigenbaum constant – Quasi periodic route to chaos - Intermittency

route to chaos.

5. Analysis and Applications of Chaos

Self-similar structure of Henon attractor - Sensitive dependence on initial condition

and butterfly effect of chaos - Necessary conditions for occurrence of chaos in maps

and continuous time systems - Chaotic cryptography - Chaos to calm the

internet.

Books For Study:

1. M. Lakshmanan and S. Rajasekar, Nonlinear Dynamic- Integrability,

Chaos and Patterns (Springer, Berlin, 2003).

2. A.K. Ghatak, I.C. Goyal, and S.J. Chua, Mathematical Physics

(MacMillan, New Delhi, 1995).

Paper II: Applied Computational Methods

Unit I : Programming in Python

What is Python? – Why Python? –Data Types – Namespaces - Conditional

Statements – Sequence Containers – Sets – Dicts – String Formatting – Loops -

Reading and Writing Files – Functions – The Python Standard Library – Classes –

Objects – Methods – visual python.

Unit II : Basic Probability and Statistics

Sampling – Sample space – Probability – Probability distribution – Poisson

distribution – Binomial distribution – Frequency – Mean – Median – Mode –

Standard Deviation – Moment Correlation.

Unit III : Random Numbers

What are random numbers? - Pseudo random numbers – Methods of generating

Pseudo random numbers – Congruential generators – Lagged Fibonacci generator –

Shift register generator – Test for random numbers.

Unit IV : Monte Carlo Methods

Monte Carlo optimization – Hit and miss method – Evaluation of value of Pi -

Monte Carlo (MC) integration – Advantages and Disadvantages of MC integration –

Sampling – Random walk – Important sampling – Generating configurations –

Markov chain – Metropolis algorithm.

Unit V : Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC)

Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) – Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) – Basic idea of

VMC and DMC – Evaluation of ground state energy of Helium using VMC

approach.

References:

[1] M. Lutz, Learing Python, 3rd ed. (O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol, 2007)

[2] M. Lutz, Programming Python, 4th ed. (O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol, 2010)

[3] K.P.N Murthy, Monte Carlo Methods in Statistical Physics (University Press

(India), Hyderabad, 2003)

[4] T. Veerarajan, Probability Statistical and Random Processes (Tata Mcgraw-Hill

New Delhi, 2008)

Paper II: CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR

ADVANCED MATERIALS

Unit-I: Diffraction analyses

X-ray diffraction – powder diffraction–single crystal XRD – determination of lattice

parameters-structure analyses-rocking curve-strain analyses-phase identification-

particle size analyses using Scherer`s formula - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

(XPS)- Auger electron spectroscopy (AES).

Unit-II: Imaging techniques

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) – Field Emission scanning Electron

microscope (FESEM)-Atomic force microscopy (AFM ), scanning tunneling

microscopy (STM), scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM) – Transmission

Electron Microscopy (TEM).

Unit -III: Spectroscopic techniques

Infra red spectroscopy (IR)- UV-visible-Absorption and reflection-Raman Scattering

–Micro-Raman- Surface Enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) – Photoluminescence

(PL)– Cathodeluminescence (CL) – Electroluminescence (EL).

Unit-IV: Magnetic measurement technique

Introduction – magnetism – mutual induction – Types of gradiometers – Gouy

Balance experimental setup – Faraday balance – AC susceptibility method – DC

magnetization – Vibrating sample magnetometer – Vibrating Coil magnetometer –

SQUID magnetometer – calibration of susceptibility with standards.

Unit-V: Electrical properties

I-V / C-V - Hall - Quantum Hall effects - Kelvin probe measurement - FET

characteristics.

References:

1. Ghuzang G.Cao, Nanostructures and Nanomaterials: Synthesis, properties and

applications,

Imperical College Press, 2004

2. Zhong Lin Wang, Hand Book of Nanophase & Nanostructured materials (Vol.

I&II), Springer, 2002.

3. B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray diffraction, Addison Wesley, 1977

4. B.W.Moot, Micro-indentation hardness testing, Butterworths, London , 1956.

5. R.M.Rose, L.A.Shepard and J. Wulff, The structure and properties of materials,

Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1966.

6. S.M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices – Physics and Technology, Wiley, 1985.

7. D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, John Wiley

& Sons, New York, 1998.

8. C. Richard Brundle Charles A. Evans, Jr.Shaun Wilson , Encyclopedia of

Materials Characterization Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992.

Paper – II : EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES AND

INSTRUMENTATION

Unit – I : Thin Film Deposition Techniques

Thin Films – Introduction to Vacuum Technology – Deposition Techniques –

Physical methods – Resistive Heating, Electron Beam Gun and Laser Gun

Evaporation – sputtering:- Reactive sputtering, Radio-Frequency sputtering –

chemical Methods – spray Pyrolysis – Preparation of Transparent conducting oxides.

Unit – II : X-ray diffraction

Crystalline, Noncrystalline materials – 7 crystal systems – Metallic crystal

structure – simple crystal structures – NaCl, CsCl, ZnS, Diamond – Bragg’s law of

Diffraction – Laue method – Powder method – Rotating crystal techniques.

Unit – III : Infrared spectrometer

Introduction – Theory – molecular vibrations – Vibrations frequency –

Number of fundamental vibrations – Factors influencing vibrational frequencies –

Scanning of infrared spectrum – sampling techniques – Finger print region –

Applications of infrared spectroscopy.

Unit – IV : UV-Vis spectrometer

Introduction - Absorption laws – Instrumentation – Formation of absorption

ban – Theory of electronic spectroscopy – Types of electronic transitions –

Transition probability – The chromophore concept – Absorption and intensity shifts

– Types of absorption band – Applications of ultra-violet spectroscopy – Important

terms and definitions in ultraviolet spectroscopy.

Unit – V : Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometer

Basis of Magnetic resonance – NMR and EPR Active materials – Block

diagram of a NMR spectrometer – Chemical shift – 1H

&

13C NMR spectral

analysis.

References:

1. Thin Film fundamentals, A. Goswami, New Age international Publishers,

2006.

2. Solid State Physics, S.O. Pillai, New Age International Publishers, 2006.

3. Fundamental of Molecular Spectroscopy, Ed. IV Colin N. Banwell and

Elaine M. Mc.Cash Mc Graw Hill Internation (2001)

4. Spectroscopy of Organic compounds, P.S. Kalsi Ed. V., New Age

International Publishers (2002)

Paper - II: HIGH PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS AND TECHNIQUES

Unit –I Introduction to High Pressure Pressure as an experimental variable - Natural high pressure - Artificial high

pressure- Production of high pressure-Classical Development of High

Pressure- Recent innovations in UHPLC columns.

Unit –II Pressure Calibration Primary and secondary methods of measurement- Precise measurement of

steady pressure- Measurements at ultra high dynamic pressure- Fixed points

for pressure metrology - Ultra high pressure measurement- Pressure

transducers based on various physical effects- Electrical resistance gauges-.

Unit – III Hydrostatic and Uniaxial Pressure Cells

Piston cylinder system-Theory of long cylinder - Autofrettage wound

cylinders- Pressure limit of the piston - Cylinder system- Hydrostatic cells

practical consideration- Piston seals - Teflon cell- Electrical leads -Windows-

Different type- Clamped cells-Operation and testing of the cells - Uniaxial

pressure cell – Construction – Direct and Indirect measurement- Modified

Bridgman Cell – Construction and Measurements-Limitations of Modified

Bridgman Cell

Unit –IV Bridgman and Diamond Anvil Cell Introduction- Bridgman anvil design – Gasket – Pressure transmitting medium

– Measurement of Critical thickness of gasket – Calibration –DAC

Introduction-Types of DAC-DAC construction- Main construction and parts

of DAC – Miniature diamond anvil cells- alignment of DAC- Loading of

gasket - Preparation and handling of samples- Thickness-Pressure Medium

and Pressure Limitations -Gasket types and Pressure Limits.

Unit –V Transport, Magnetic and Thermal Properties under High

Pressure High pressure X-ray diffraction - Thermo power measurement – Electrical

measurements - AC/DC Magnetization -Application of high Pressure

Measurements - Specific heat measurements-AC Susceptibility measurement

in DAC-Cubic Press measurements

References:

1. The Physics of High Pressure by P.W. Bridgman, Dover Publication

Inc, Newyork (1970).

2. High Pressure Measurement Techniques Ed by G.N. Peggs, Applied

Science and Publishers London (1983).

3. High Pressure Experimental methods by M.I.Eremets, Oxford

University Press (1996).

4. The World of High Pressure by Stewart W.John, Van Nostrand

company Inc. (1967.)

5. High Pressure Techniques in Chemistry and Physics- A Practical

Approach – Ed by Wilfried B. Holzapfel and Neils. Issacs, Oxford

University Press (1997).

Paper- II – Functional materials and Characterizations

Course Objective:

The course on functional materials and characterization is designed with

idea (i) to understand the preliminaries of functional materials and their

nano scale behavior, (ii) to illustrate the various nanomaterials

preparation techniques as powders and thin films, (iii) to demonstrate the

instrumentation of various structural, optical and electrical

characterizations.

Unit – I – Functional materials

Nanoscale particles and fragments- Basic physical parameters-

Properties- Special nanomaterials: Unique assembly and functionality-

Nanotubes and nanostructures- Thin film and multilayer materials- Bulk

nanostructured materials- Biological and biomimetic nanostructures.

Unit – II – Preparation of Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials synthesis- Physical approaches- Arc discharge method-

Laser ablation- Aerosol synthesis- Inert gas condensation- Ball milling-

Chemical vapor deposition- Electro-deposition- Chemical approaches-

Solvothermal- Hydrothermal method- Micro emulsion- Sol-gel synthesis-

Microwave method- co-precipitation.

Unit – III – Thin Films

Thin Films – Introduction to Vacuum Technology – Deposition

Techniques- Physical methods- Resistive Heating, Electron Beam Gun and

Laser Gun Evaporation- Sputtering, Radio – Frequency sputtering-

Langmuir Blodgett Technique – Chemical Methods- Spray Pyrolysis –

Preparation of Transparent Conducting oxides.

Unit – IV – Structural Characterization

Introduction- structure of material- working principle- Instrumentation-

Application- X-ray Diffraction- Electron microscope- Scanning Electron

Microscope (SEM)- Energy dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX)- Tunneling

Electron Microscope (TEM)- Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)-

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

Unit – V – Optical and Electrical Characterization

UV- Visible spectrometer- Photoluminescence – Fourier transform

infrared spectroscopy- Raman spectroscopy- Hall Measurements- Hall

coefficient- Hall mobility- Photovoltaic measurements- Z-scan

experiment.

Reference:

1. M.A. Shah and Tokeer Ahmad, Principles of Nanoscience and

Nanotechnology (Alpha Science International Pvt. Ltd., 2010).

2. A.Gowsami, Thin film Fundamentals (New Age International Pvt.

Ltd., 1996).

3. Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay, Nanoscale Multifunctional Materials

Science and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2010).

4. K.L. Chopra and S.R. Das, Thin Film solar cells (Springer (India) Pvt.

Ltd., New Delhi, 1983).

Practicum:

(i) Preparation of nanomaterials by different techniques like laser

abalation, hydrothermal and microwave mathod.

(ii) Preparation of biomolecule thin films by LB method.

(iii) Hands on training to handle XRD, FTIR, Four probe and Z-scan.

Outcome:

(i) The course delivers the fundamentals of functional nanomaterials.

(ii) Insights the idea of various naomaterial and thin film preparation

techniques.

(iii) Delivers the capacity to handle characterization tools.

Paper – III: Integrable System-II

Unit-I: Integrability Infinite dimensional systems – Definition of integrability – Hamiltonian structures -

Conserved quantities – Poisson Brackets – Brief introduction to analytical methods

in soliton theory – Singularity structure analysis – Examples: Korteweg-de Vries

(KdV), modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), sine Gordon, Nonlinear Schrödinger

(NLS) equations in (1+1) dimensions and Kadamotsev-Petviashvili (KP) and Davey-

Stewartson (DS) equations in (2+1) dimensions. Unit-II: Lie symmetry analysis Introduction to Lie symmetry analysis -Lie groups – Lie algebras - Method of

finding similarity variables and similarity reductions – Examples in (1+1) and (2+1)

dimensions – Nonlocal symmetries and Lie-Bäcklund symmetries of nonlinear

evolutionary equations. Unit-III: Hirota Bilinearization Hirota operators - Hirota bilinearization – Method of deriving one, two and N-

soliton solutions – Examples in (1+1), (2+1) dimensional and multi-component

systems – Bright-Bright, Bright-Dark and Dark-Dark solitons, Breather and Rogue

wave solutions – Method of finding 1-periodic and 2-periodic solutions – Bell

polinomials. Unit-IV: Darboux Transformation Sturm-Liouville problem - Darboux transformation - Method of deriving one, two

and N- soliton solutions – Examples in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensional systems -

Soliton surfaces – Finding soliton surfaces for sine-Gordon and NLS equations. Unit-V: Bäcklund Transformation Bäcklund transformation - Examples of NLS and sine-Gordon equations –

Derivation of one and two soliton solutions of NLS equation sine-Gordon equations

– Applications of solitons in liquid crystals and magnetic systems. References

1. M. Lakshmanan and S. Rajasekar, Nonlinear Dynamics: Integrability, Chaos

and Patterns (Springer, New York, 2003).

2. Peter J. Olver, Equivalence, Invarient and Symmetry, Cambridge university

Press, Cambridge, (1995). 3. R.Hirota, Direct method in Soliton theory, Cambridge university Press,

Cambridge, (2004). 4. V. B. Matveev and M. A. Salle, Darboux transformations and Solitons,

Springer-Verlag,Berlin, (1991).

C. Rogers and W. K. Schief, Bäcklund and Darboux Transformations,

Cambridge university Press, Cambridge, (2002).

Paper – III: Advanced Computational Physics

1. Fortran Programming

Constants and Variables - Input and output statements - Conditional Statements :

if, if-end if, nested if - Do loops: Block do loop and count controlled do loop -

Rules to be followed in do loops - Function subprogram – Subroutine - Array

variables.

2. Numerical Methods -I

Straight-line curve fitting - Newton-Raphson method for a root of one-dimensional

equations - Composite trapezoidal rule for numerical integration of a function -

Power method for the computation of dominant eigenpairs of a square matrix.

3.Numerical Methods –II

Euler and fourth-order Runge-Kutta methods for first and second-order

differential equations - Park and Miller method for uniform random number

generator (Theory only) - Box-Muller method for Gaussian random numbers

(Theory only) - Test for randomness.

4. Fourier Series and Power Spectrum

Fourier Series : Dirichlet's conditions - Formulas for determination of Fourier

coefficients - Fourier expansion of F ( x)= x in the interval −T / 2< x <T / 2

and square wave.

Power Spectrum : Definition, significance, characteristics with

various attractors.

5. Fortran Programs for Certain Numerical Methods

Programs for - straight-line fit, Newton-Raphson method, composite trapezoidal

rule, Euler method, Runge-Kutta method, Park-Miller method for uniform random

number generator and Box-Muller method for Gaussian random number generator.

Books For Study:

1. V. Rajaraman, Computer Programming in Fortran 90 and 95 (Prentice-

Hall of India, New Delhi, 1997).

2. J.H. Mathews, Numerical Methods for Mathematics, Science and

Engineering (Prentice- Hall of India, New Delhi, 1998).

3. A.K. Ghatak, I.C. Goyal, and S.J. Chua, Mathematical Physics

(MacMillan,New Delhi,1995).

Paper - III: NONLINEAR OPTICS

Unit-I: Lasers

Gas lasers – He-Ne, Ar ion lasers – Solid state lasers – Ruby – Nd:YAG – Organic

dye laser – Rhodamine – Semiconductor lasers – Diode laser, GaAs laser

Unit-II: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics

Wave propagation in an anisotropic crystal – Polarization response of materials to

light – Harmonic generation – Second harmonic generation – Sum and difference

frequency generation – Phase matching – Third harmonic generation – bistability –

self focusing.

Unit-III: Multiphoton Processes

Two photon process –Parametric generation of light – Oscillator – Amplifier –

Stimulated Raman scattering – Intensity dependent refractive index optical Kerr

effect – photorefractive, electron optic effects.

Unit-IV: Nonlinear Optical Materials

Basic requirements – Inorganics – Borates – Organics – Urea, Nitroaniline –

Semiorganics – Thiourea complex – X-ray diffraction FTIR, FTNMR – Second

harmonic generation – Laser induced surface damage threshold.

Unit-V: Fiber Optics

Step – Graded index fibers – wave propagation – Fiber modes – Single and

multimode fibers – Numerical aperture – Dispersion – Fiber bandwidth – Fiber loss –

Attenuation coefficient – Material absorption.

Reference:

1. B. B. Laud, Lasers and Nonlinear Optics, 2nd Ed. (New Age International, New

Delhi, 1991)

2. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2003)

3. W. T. Silvast, Laser Fundamentals (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,

2003)

4. D.L. Mills, Nonlinear Optics – Basic Concepts (Springer, Berlin, 1998)

Paper III: Quantum Field Theory

Unit I: Canonical Quantization

General Formulation - Conjugate Momentum – Quantization - Neutral Scalar Field -

Commutation Relations - Normal Ordering - Bose Symmetry - Fock Space - Charged

Scalar Field - U(1) Invariance - Charge Conservation - Particles and Antiparticles -

Time Ordered Product - Feynman Propagator for Scalar Fields - Bose-Einstein

Distribution - Propagators at Finite Temperature.

Unit II: Boson and Fermi Fields

Classical field theory - relativistic fields - identical bosons and quantum fields -

Klein-Gordon propagator and relativistic causality - quantum electromagnetic fields

and photons - Lorentz symmetry & spinor fields - Dirac equation and its solutions -

second quantization of fermions - particle-hole formalism - quantum Dirac field -

Weyl and Majorana spinor fields.

Unit III: Symmetries in QFT - Interacting Fields and Feynman Rules

Continuous symmetries - conserved currents - spontaneous symmetry breaking -

Goldstone bosons - local (gauge) symmetry - QED - Higgs mechanism and

superconductivity - non-abelian gauge symmetries - Yang-Mills theory - discrete

symmetries - Perturbation theory - correlation functions and Feynman diagrams - S-

matrix and cross-sections - Feynman rules: fermions and QED.

Unit IV: Collective Phenomena and Condensed Matter

Superfluids - Finite Temperature - Critical Phenomena - Superconductivity -

Vortices - Monopoles - Instantons - Fractional Statistics - Chern - Simons Terms -

Quantum Hall Fluids.

Unit V: Renormalization and Gauge Invariance

Systematics of renormalization - integration out and the Wilsonian renormalization -

running of the coupling constants and the renormalization group - Anomalous

magnetic moment and the Lamb shift.

REFERENCES:

[1] Quantum Field Theory, L. H. Ryder, Cambridge University Press, 2008

[2] A First Book of Quantum Field Theory, A. Lahiri, Narosa, New Delhi, 2007.

[3] An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory, M. E. Peskin and D. V. Schroeder,

Westview Press, 1995.

[4] The Quantum Theory of Fields, Vol I, S. Weinberg, Cambridge University

Press, 1996.Field Theory, A Modern Primer, P. Ramond, Benjamin, 1980.

Paper – III Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature Physics

Unit-I: Introduction

Properties of cryogenics gases - Liquefaction of gases - liquefaction and

storage of Cryogenic fluids – Critical Temperature - Normal boiling point and

latent heat of vaporization - Triple point - Thermodynamic properties of

cryogenic fluids – Heat exchangers – Adiabatic Expansion and Isenthalpic

expansion-Schematic diagram of a liquefier - Storage of liquefied gases-

Classical Development of Low Temperature Physics - Recent innovations in

Ultra Low temperature.

Unit-II: Closed cycle refrigerators and cryocoolers Introduction - Helium Refrigerator - Closed cycle cryocoolers – Regenerator -

Stirling cycle cryorefrigerator- Split Stirling Cycle Cryocooler- Free

Displacer-Free Piston Stirling Cryogenerator - Gifford-McMahon refrigerator

- Pulse tube refrigerator - Joule-Thomson cryocooler - Relative efficiencies of

different cryocoolers- Limits of Closed cycle refrigerators and cryocoolers.

Unit-III: Mechanical & Thermal properties of Materials

Introduction-Strength and ductility - Ductility at low temperature - Low

temperature strength of solids-Ultimate and Yield Strengths-Fatigue Strength-

Elastic moduli - Thermal properties of materials - Specific heat - Thermal

expansion - Thermal conductivity - Emissive properties-Multilayer Insulation.

Unit-IV: Cryostat design and Thermometry

Introduction principle of cryostat design - Precautions against differential

contraction - Bath cryostats –Cool Down of Bath Cryostat- Continuous flow

cryostats - Closed cycle refrigerator cryostat - Seals at low temperature -

Optical windows - Mounts for thermometers - Different types of commercial

cryostats - Absolute temperature – International temperature scale (ITS 90)

- Secondary thermometers- Thermometer - Resistance thermometers -

Platinum Resistance NTC Resistance Thermometer - Diode thermometers –

Thermocouples - Capacitance thermometers - Magnetic susceptibility

thermometer - Vapour pressure thermometry-Sensors and Actuators –Some

Basic Issues.

Unit-V: Methods of cooling and solid state measurements at low

Temperatures Cooling with

4He - Cooling with

3He - Magnetic cooling – high precision

measurement of low resistances - Measurement of Seebeck coefficient

(Thermoelectric power) - Thermal Measurement (Specific heat and Thermal

conductivity) - Magnetic measurements- Rudiments of VSM-A.C

Susceptibility - Point contact Spectroscopy - Scanning tunneling Microscopy

(STM) and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) - Measurement of noise

and fluctuations.

References:

1. Cryogenics and Measurement of Properties of Solids at Low

Temperatures, by R.Srinivasan, A.K.Raychaudhuri and

S.Kasthurirengan, Allied Publishers Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi (2008).

2. Low-Temperature Physics: an introduction for scientists and engineers

by P.V.E.McClintock, D.J.Meredith and J.K.Wigmore, Blackie and

sons, Glasgow (1984).

3. Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature Physics by Guy

K.White, Clarendon Press. Oxford (1989).

Paper III : ADVANCED NANOMATERIALS

Unit-I: Bulk Synthesis

Synthesis of bulk nanostructured materials - Sol Gel processing- Mechanical alloying

and milling-inert gas condensation technique-bulk and nano composite materials -

Grinding - high energy ball milling-types of balls-WC and ZrO2-materials –ball

ratio-limitations- melt quenching and annealing.

Unit-II: Physical and Chemical approaches

Self assembly-Self Assembled Monolayers (SAM) - Vapour Liquid Solid (VLS)

approach-Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) - Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films -

Spin coating - Templated self assembly Electrochemical approaches: Anodic

oxidation of alumina films, porous silicon and pulsed electrochemical deposition -

Spray pyrolysis - Flame pyrolysis - Thin films -Epitaxy -Lithography.

Unit-III: Zero Dimensional (OD) structures: Nanoparticles

Homogenous Nucleation -diffusion and surface controlled growth process - synthesis

of metallic nanoparticles - semiconductor nanoparticles-metal oxide nanoparticles -

vapor phase reactions -solid state phase segregation -Heterogenous nucleation -

kinetically confined nanoparticles.

Unit-IV: One Dimensional (1D) nanostructures: Nanowires and Nanotubes

Evaporation-condensation - Vapor- liquid - solid (VLS) - VLS model - Nucleation

and growth - surface and bulk diffusion – kinetics – growth of various nanowires –

control of size –precursors and catalysts - single- and multi- wall CNT - Si nanowires

– density and diameter – doping in nanowires.

Unit-V: Two dimensional (2D) Nanostructures: Thin films

Thin films- Environment for thin film deposition (Gas and Plasma) - Introduction to

vacuum technology-physical vapour deposition techniques (Reactive sputtering (DC

and RF), laser ablation); Epitaxy-different types of Epitaxy - Lattice mismatch -

Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) - Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-Chemical vapour

deposition (CVD) - Atomic layer deposition (ALD)

References:

1. W. Gaddand, D.Brenner, S.Lysherski and G.J.Infrate (Eds), Handbook of

nanoscience, Engg and Technology, CRC Press,2002.

2. G.Cao, Naostructures and Nanomaterials: Synthesis, properties and

applications, Imperical College Press, 2004.

3. J.George, Preparation of thin films, Marcel Dekker, InC., New York, 2005.

4. C.N.R.Rao, A.Muller, A.K.Cheetham (Eds), The chemistry of nanomaterials:

Synthesis, properties and applications, Wiley VCH Verlag Gmbh&Co,

Weinheim, 2004.

Paper - III: CRYSTAL GROWTH AND THIN FILM

TECHNIQUES

Unit-I: Basics of Crystal Growth and Thin Film

Nucleation – Different kinds of nucleation – Formation of crystal nucleus – Energy

formation of nucleus – Spherical and cylindrical nucleus. Thin films: Thermodynamics of

nucleation – nucleation and growth of thin films – Various stages of film growth.

Unit-II: Melt & Vapour Growth Techniques

Phase diagram and phase rules - Melt techniques: Bridgman technique – Basic process –

Various crucible design – Czochralski technique – Growth rate – Liquid Encapsulated

Czochralski technique. Verneuil method – Vapour growth: Basic of vapour growth – Physical

vapour deposition (PVD) – Chemical vapour transport (CVT) – transport reaction – transport

materials and agents - Experimental Arrangement – temperature variation methods.

Unit-III: Solution Growth Techniques

Low temperature solution growth: Solution – Solubility and supersolubility – Expression of

supersaturation – Miers T-C diagram – Slow Cooling, solvent evaporation and temperature

gradient methods – High temperature solution growth – Flux growth – Principles of flux

growth – Choice of flux – Growth of Potassium Titanyl Phosphate –Hydrothermal growth –

design aspects of autoclave – Growth of ZnO crystals

Unit-IV: Preparation of Thin Films

Physical methods: Vacuum evaporation - Study of thin film vacuum coating unit -

Construction and uses of vapour sources - wire, sublimation, crucible and electron

bombardment heated sources. Arc and Laser evaporation. Sputtering - Study of glow

Discharge - Physical nature of sputtering - Sputtering yield - Experimental set up for DC

sputtering and RF sputtering. Chemical methods: preparation of thin films by Spray

pyrolysis method.

Unit-V: Properties of Thin Films & Applications

Electrical Properties: Sheet resistance - size effect - Electrical conduction in thin metallic

films - Effect of Annealing - Oxidation - Agglomeration. Optical Properties: Optical

constants and their determination - Spectrophotometer method. Applications of thin films :

Solar Cells – Sensors – Thin film diodes – Thin film field effect transistors.

References

1. J.C. Brice, The Growth of Crystals from Liquid, North Holland Publishing Co,

Amsterdom.

2. L.T.Maissel and Glang, Handbook of thin Film Technology, McGraw Hill, Company,

New York, 1983.

3. J.C.Brice, Crystal Growth Process, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1996.

4. J.C.Brice, The Growth of Crystals from Liquid, North Holland Publishing Co,

Amsterdom.

5. K.L.Chopra, Vacuum deposition Phenomena, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York,

1983.

6. A.Goswami, Thin Film Fundamentals, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

(1996)

7. Holland L, "Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films", Chapman and Hall, 1956.

8. Heavens O S, "Thin Film Physics", Butter worths scientific publications, 1955.

Paper – III – Nanophotonics

Course Objective:

The course on nanophotonics is designed with idea (i) to understand the

characteristics of light and fundamentals of photonics, (ii) to illustrate the

linear and nonlinear interaction of light, (iii) to demonstrate the

construction and working of photovoltaic solar cells.

Unit – I: Foundation of Photonics

Photonics- Photonics and Light Technology- Applications- Properties of

Photons- Plan Waves monochromatic light- Geometrical Optics- Gaussian

Beams- Ray matrices- Describing Light Polarization- Light Characteristics

(beam parameter)- Statistical Properties of photon field- Interference and

coherence of light (Light beats & Frequency spectrum)- Nano-optics in

Nut Shell- Photonics Crystals.

Unit – II – Linear Interaction of Light

Reflection and Dispersion- Absorption and Emission- Measurement of

Absorption- Polarization in Refraction and Reflection- Relation Between

Reflection, absorption and Refraction- Birefringence- Optical activity-

Optical Properties of Nobel Metals - Surface Plasmon Polaritons at plane

interface (SPR sensors)- Surface Plasmons in nano-optics.

Unit – III – Nonlinear Optics

Wave propagation in an anisotropic- Polarization response of materials to

light – Nonlinear polarization of medium- Harmonic Generation- Second

Harmonic generation – Phase matching- Phase generation- Quasi phase

matching- Sum and difference frequency generation- Parametric

amplifiers and oscillators – Pockels’ effect.

Unit- IV- Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction

Third order effects-Third harmonic generation- Bistability- self focusing-

Kerr effect-Spatial solitons- Self-diffraction- Self-Phase modulation-Two-

photon and Multiphoton Absorption- z- Scan measurements- Theoretical

description- Z-Scan with absorbing samples- Case Study on

Nanostructured NLO materials (Graphene systems).

Unit – V – Construction of Solar cells

Solar cell structure – Basic operational principles- The p-n junction-

Formation of a space-charge region in the p-n junction- p-n- junction

under equilibrium- p-n junction under applied voltage- p-n junction

under illumination- solar cell external parameters. Types of solar cells –

Inorganic thin films- Organic thin films- Organic and inorganic thin films. -

Case Study on nanostructured semiconductiong materials for BSSCs.

Reference:

1. Ralf Menzel, Photonics : Linear and Nonlinear Interactions of Laser

Light and Matter (Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2004).

2. Lukas Novotny and Bert Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics

(Cambridge University Press, UK, 2006).

3. B.B. Laud, Lasers and Nonlinear Optics, 3rd Edn. (New Age

International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2011).

4. Ruud E.I Schropp and Micro Zeman, Amorphous and

Microcrystalline Solar cells : Modelling, Materials and Device

Technology, (Springer, USA, 2014).

5. Mario Pagliaro Giovanni Palmisano, and Rosaria Ciriminna, Flexible

solar Cells: (Wiley Online Library, 2008).

Practicum:

(i) Demonstration of low and high intense light interaction with matter.

(ii) Simple experiments to showcase the NLO absorption and refraction

phenomena.

(iii) Fabrication and testing of pn junction solar cells.

Outcome:

(i) The course delivers the fundamentals behavior of light as waves and

particles.

(ii) Insights the idea of conventional light (linear) and laser (nonlinear)

interaction with matter.

(iii) Delivers the capacity to construct and work NLO devices and solar

cells.

Paper - IV: Teaching and Learning Skills Objectives

After completing the course, scholars will be able to

acquaint different parts of computer of computer system and their functions;

understand the operations and use of computers and common accessories;

develop skills of ICT and apply them in teaching, learning and research;

appreciate the role of ICT in teaching, learning and research;

acquire the knowledge of communication skill with special reference to its

elements, types development and styles;

understand the terms communication technology and computer mediated

teaching and develop multimedia / E-content in their respective subject;

understand the communication process through the web;

acquire the knowledge of Instructional Technology and its applications and

develop different teaching skills for placing the content across to targeted

audience.

Unit-I: Computer Applications Skills

Computer System: Characteristics, parts and their functions – Different generations

of computer- Operation of Computer: Switching on/off/restart, mouse control, use

of key board and some functions of key – Information and Communication

Technology (ICT): Definition, meaning, features, trends- Integration of ICT in

teaching and learning – ICT Applications: Using word processors, spread sheets,

power point slides in the classroom –ICT for Research: On-line journals, e-books,

courseware, tutorials, technical reports, theses and dissertations.

Unit -II: Communication Skills

Communication: Definitions – Elements of Communication: Sender, message,

channel, receiver, feedback and noise- Types of Communication: Spoken and

written; non-verbal communication-Intrapersonal, interpersonal, group and mass

communications- Barriers to Communication: Mechanical, physical, linguistic &

cultural – skills of Communication :Listening, speaking, reading and writing–

Methods of developing fluency in oral and written communications- Style, diction

and vocabulary - Classroom communication and dynamics.

Unit-III: Communication Technology

Communication Technology: Bases, trends and developments - Skills of using

communication technology - Computer Mediated Teaching: Multimedia, e-content-

Satellite-Based Communication: EDUSAT and ETV channels - Communication

Through Web: Audio and video applications on the internet, interpersonal

communication through the web.

Unit-IV: Pedagogy

Instructional Technology: Definition, objectives and types – Difference Between

Teaching and Instruction Lecture Technique: Steps, planning of a lecture, delivery of

a lecture- Narration in tune with the nature of different disciplines – Lecture with

power point presentation – Versatility of lecture technique - Demonstration:

Characteristics, principles, planning implementation and evaluation – Teaching -

Learning Techniques: Team teaching, group discussion, seminar, workshop,

symposium and panel discussion- Modes of Teaching: CAI, CMI and WBI.

Unit-V: Teaching Skills

Teaching Skill: Definition, meaning and nature-Types of Teaching Skills: Skill of

set induction, skill of stimulus variation, skill of explaining, skill of probing

questions, skill of blackboard writing and skill of closure – Integration of teaching

skills- Evaluation of teaching skills.

References

[1] Bela Rani Sharma (2007) Curriculum Reforms and Teaching Methods,

Sarupandsons, New Delhi.

[2] Don Skinner (2005) Teacher Training, Edinburgh University Press Ltd.,

Edinburgh.

[3] Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Curriculum for

schools and programme of teacher development, Jonathan Anderson and Tom

Van Weart, UNESCO, 2002.

[4] Kumar, K.L. (2008) Educational Technology, New Age International

Publishers, New Delhi.

[5] Mangal, S.K. (2002) Essential of Teaching – Learning and Information

Technology, Tandon Publications, Ludhiana.

[6] Michael, D and William (2000) Integrating Technology into Teaching and

Learning: Concepts and Applications, Prentice Hall, New York.

[7] Pandey, S.K. (2005) Teaching Communication, Commonwealth Publishers, .

New Delhi.

[8] Ram Babu, A and Dandapani, S (2006) Microteaching ( Vol.1 &2),

Neelkammal Publications, Hydetabad.

[9] Singh V.K. and Sudarshan K.N. (1996), Computer Education, Discovery

Publishing Company, New York.

[10] Sharma, R.A ( 2006), Fundamentals of Educational Technology, Surya

Publications, Meerut.

[11] Vanaja, M and Rajasekar,S (2006) Computer Education, Neelkmal

Publications, Hyderabad.

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