Beneficiation MST

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  • 8/14/2019 Beneficiation MST


    1. Enhancing quality / property of materials for getting its

    higher added value

    2. Beneficiation : every process carrying out , mechanically ,

    physically for materials to meet the materials specification

    required by industries / market

    3. Beneficiation : any process which involve no chemical

    reaction for getting higher added value

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    There are many types of raw materials used in industries :

    Classification of these raw materials can be divided into its sources

    raw materials come from natural deposits

    raw materials come from agro plants product

    raw materials come from disposed materials

    raw materials come from other industries activities

    Classification of raw materials based on its physical appearance

    as a solid materials

    as a liquid materials

    or may be gaseous materials ??

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    both crude raw materials and industrial / processed raw materialfirst should be identified according to its nature

    Identification includes :

    Chemical composition : mole or weight percentage , weight or

    mole fraction bases refer to its chemicals compound or its

    oxides compound chemical analysis ( volumetric /gravimetric ), analysis using analytical instrument ( AAS ,

    GC , GC MS etc.)

    This identification means to determine or to distinguish what

    are the main chemicals compounds which should be in the

    crude or raw material

    purification processes ? Physical properties of the crude or raw material :

    grain size or particle size screen analysis ?

    water content drying processes ?

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    chemical compounds bases ( volumetric / gravimetric

    analysis , analytical instrument / GC or GS - MS organic

    compounds bases)

    oxides bases ( Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer =

    AAS inorganic compounds bases )

    Can be expressed as a mole bases or weight bases








    icomponentfractionweightXi =

    lrawmateriacrudeinicomponentofweightWi /=

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    i mmmm


    Y ++++=


    icomponentfractionmoleYi =

    lrawmateriacrudeinicomponentofmolemi /=







    332211 ++++


    icomponentfractionweightXi =

    icomponentofeightmolecularwMWi =

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    identification of solid state crude / raw materials usually includes

    oxide compounds , by using AAS ( Atomic Absorption

    Spectrophotometer dry or wet bases composition ) Al2O3 , SiO2

    mineralogy analysis , to determine the existing minerals which

    compose the crude / raw material by using XRD instrument

    analysis for example : limestone

    CaCO3 chemical compound

    CaO oxide compound for CaCO3

    Calcite mineral form of limestone

    Aragonite mineral form of limestone

    Clay : AL2O3 2 SiO2H2O : aluminates silicate compound

    Al2O3 & SiO2 oxide compounds for clay

    kaolinite , montmorilonite, halloysite : minerals of clay

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    Identification of minerals using its basal spacing and its 2

    value, it means that for specified crystalline form , it has

    the fixed basal spacing and specific 2 value.

    Basal spacing means the distances whish measured

    between crystal lattice surfaces , usually each mineraltype has many basal spacing values , to identify the

    minerals needs at least 2 its corresponding basal spacing.

    For example: clay minerals

    kaolinite mineral has the basal spacing : 7.15 Ao ,

    3.566 Ao

    and 2.331 Ao

    Montmorilonite mineral has the basal spacing :14.7 Ao

    4.42 Ao, 1.49Ao

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    XRD can be used to identify the minerals qualitatively , just

    looking for the basal spacing or its 2 values whichcorrespond to the minerals` basal spacing

    Analysis quantitatively using XRD instrument needs the

    providing mineral standard. It can be done by comparing

    the reflected X-Ray beam counts between the mineral

    standard and sample for the same basal spacing or 2values

    Comparing the counts of reflected X-Ray of one sample

    with others for the same basal spacing or 2 value , can

    indicate the relatively mineral content. The higher the

    counts means having the higher mineral content

    Keep in mind : XRD method analysis is suitable only for

    crystalline minerals , not for amorphous minerals

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    no particles in industries having single size

    the size of these particle should be noted as ranges of its


    Usually particle sizes in term of Mesh size , mesh screen

    Tyler standard wire mesh

    Mesh definition : for smaller particles , Mesh is define as a number of

    holes each square inch of wire mesh


    1 inch

    1 inch


    Mesh : 100

    there are 100 holes

    each square inch

    Screen aperture :

    the diameter / the

    opening of each hole in mesh


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    standard screen system , means that in each

    system consists of several mesh-screens, whichits aperture is orderly specified

    An = aperture of the nth screen from the top of

    the screen arrangement


    = aperture of the (n+1)th screen from the top

    of the screen arrangement

    An = 2 An+1

    Mesh number : 100

    A100 = 0,147 mmMesh number : 150 A150 = 0,104 mm

    The diameter / size of particle which

    retained 150 Mesh and through 100 Mesh

    should be noted as : - 100 + 150 Mesh