BAROQUE MUSIC Baroque DATES: DATES: BAROQUE: BAROQUE: The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600...

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Transcript of BAROQUE MUSIC Baroque DATES: DATES: BAROQUE: BAROQUE: The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600...

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  • BAROQUE MUSIC
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  • Baroque DATES: DATES: BAROQUE: BAROQUE: The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600 to 1750 (coincides with the death of J.S. Bach.) From the Portuguese word barroco meaning an ornamented piece of jewellery. First used to describe the highly decorative style of architecture at the time.
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  • Fingerprints of musical style Early Baroque composers favour a light, homophonic musical texture melody plus simple chordal accompaniment; but before long, there is a return to polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures. Early Baroque composers favour a light, homophonic musical texture melody plus simple chordal accompaniment; but before long, there is a return to polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures. The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the musical foundation for most types of piece providing a purposeful bass-line (sometimes a walking bass) making the music move steadily onwards. The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the musical foundation for most types of piece providing a purposeful bass-line (sometimes a walking bass) making the music move steadily onwards. The same musical mood is usually kept throughout an entire piece. The same musical mood is usually kept throughout an entire piece. The violin family takes over from the viols; the orchestra begins to take shape, with the string section as a firm basis always with keyboard continuo (harpsichord or organ) filling out the harmonies above the figured bass and decorating the musical texture. The violin family takes over from the viols; the orchestra begins to take shape, with the string section as a firm basis always with keyboard continuo (harpsichord or organ) filling out the harmonies above the figured bass and decorating the musical texture.
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  • Fingerprints 2 The system of modes falls out of use by the end of the 17 th century; music is now based on major and minor scales. The system of modes falls out of use by the end of the 17 th century; music is now based on major and minor scales. Typical forms used by Baroque composers: binary, ternary (including the da capo aria), rondeau, variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue. Typical forms used by Baroque composers: binary, ternary (including the da capo aria), rondeau, variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue. Main types of Baroque music: Main types of Baroque music: vocal chorale, recitative and aria, opera, oratorio, cantata; vocal chorale, recitative and aria, opera, oratorio, cantata; instrumental Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo concerto. instrumental Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo concerto. Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward: melodies are frequently long and flowing, and decorated with ornaments (eg appoggiaturas, trills); contrasts (particularly in concertos), of instrumental timbres, of few instruments against many, of loud contrasted against soft (terraced dynamics, sometimes echo effects), and blocks of sound of different timbres (eg strings and wind alternately, then together). Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward: melodies are frequently long and flowing, and decorated with ornaments (eg appoggiaturas, trills); contrasts (particularly in concertos), of instrumental timbres, of few instruments against many, of loud contrasted against soft (terraced dynamics, sometimes echo effects), and blocks of sound of different timbres (eg strings and wind alternately, then together).
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  • Instruments-Harpsichord A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals and the spinet. A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals and the spinet. keyboardinstruments keyboardinstruments All these instruments generate sound by plucking a string rather than striking one, as in a piano or clavichord. The harpsichord family is thought to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to the end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical means to pluck the strings. All these instruments generate sound by plucking a string rather than striking one, as in a piano or clavichord. The harpsichord family is thought to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to the end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical means to pluck the strings.soundstringpianoclavichordpsalterysoundstringpianoclavichordpsaltery
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  • Baroque Orchestra Typical features include: Typical features include: Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums. Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums. Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up chords on a bass line (figured bass), Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up chords on a bass line (figured bass), Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures. Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures. Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against strings, or Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against strings, or Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings then wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo. Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings then wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo.
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  • Baroque Orchestra The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example of a true orchestra which came into existence in the mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France where Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes (hautboys) and transverse flutes to his vingt- quatre violons du Roy. As well as violins and woodwind, the baroque orchestra would have still contained continuo instruments such as the harpsichord or theorbo (lute). The new-fangled instrumentation and orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe and soon became the standard solo instrumental grouping. The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example of a true orchestra which came into existence in the mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France where Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes (hautboys) and transverse flutes to his vingt- quatre violons du Roy. As well as violins and woodwind, the baroque orchestra would have still contained continuo instruments such as the harpsichord or theorbo (lute). The new-fangled instrumentation and orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe and soon became the standard solo instrumental grouping.orchestraFranceJean-Baptiste Lullyflutesvingt- quatre violons du Roy harpsichordorchestraFranceJean-Baptiste Lullyflutesvingt- quatre violons du Roy harpsichord
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  • Typical forms used by Baroque composers Binary (AB) Binary (AB) Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA) Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA) Rondo (ABACADA) Rondo (ABACADA) Variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia) Variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia) Ritornello form Ritornello form Fugue Fugue
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  • Main types of Baroque music VOCAL OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale, recitative and aria, cantata; VOCAL OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale, recitative and aria, cantata; CONCERTO GROSSO, SOLO CONCERTO, FUGUE, Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), INSTRUMENTAL CONCERTO GROSSO, SOLO CONCERTO, FUGUE, Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa),
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  • OPERA Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Italy, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. From the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has been contention whether the music is paramount, or the words Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Italy, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. From the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has been contention whether the music is paramount, or the wordsdramaticartItaly1600dramaticartItaly1600 The drama is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are customarily sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra. The drama is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are customarily sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra. theatrecostumesactinglibrettosungsingers musical ensembleorchestra theatrecostumesactinglibrettosungsingers musical ensembleorchestra
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  • ORATORIO An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. It differs from an opera in that it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and form, except that choruses were more prominent in oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition of oratorios was the 17th and 18th centuries. An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. It differs from an opera in that it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and form, except that choruses were more prominent in oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition of oratorios was the 17th and 18th centuries.musical composition orchestrasoloistschorus operascenerycostumesmusical composition orchestrasoloistschorus operascenerycostumes Most oratorios from the common practice period to the present day have biblical themes, but a number of composers, notably George Frideric Handel, wrote secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and Roman mythology. Whether religious or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, and can include such topics as the creation of the world, the life of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or biblical prophet. Most oratorios from the common practice period to the present day have biblical themes, but a number of composers, notably George Frideric Handel, wrote secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and Roman mythology. Whether religious or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, and can include such topics as the creation of the world, the life of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or biblical prophet.biblicalGeorge Frideric HandelGreek RomanmythologyJesusbiblicalGeorge Frideric HandelGreek RomanmythologyJesus
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  • CONCERTO GROSSO The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and full orchestra (the ripieno- filling). The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and full orchestra (the ripieno- filling).pluralItalianbaroque musicensembleconcertinoripienopluralItalianbaroque musicensembleconcertinoripieno Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg Friedrich Hndel, who expanded the ripieno to include wind instruments. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form, notably the 2nd Concerto, which has a concertino of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo violin. Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg Friedrich Hndel, who expanded the ripieno to include wind instruments. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form, notably the 2nd Concerto, which has a concertino of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo violin.Georg Friedrich HndelBrandenburg ConcertiJohann Sebastian BachGeorg Friedrich HndelBrandenburg ConcertiJohann Sebastian Bach
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  • SOLO CONCERTO In classical music, the word concerto (pl. concerti or concertos; from the Italian concerto, which means concert) is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore. In classical music, the word concerto (pl. concerti or concertos; from the Italian concerto, which means concert) is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore.classical musicItalianclassical musicItalian The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the musical form of a piece, as most pieces called "concerto" have three movements, of which the first is typically in sonata form and the last typically a rondo. The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the musical form of a piece, as most pieces called "concerto" have three movements, of which the first is typically in sonata form and the last typically a rondo.soloorchestramusical formmovementssonata formrondosoloorchestramusical formmovementssonata formrondo The term apparently arose in the beginning of the 17th century, and came to describe chiefly compositions which bring unequal instrumental or vocal forces into opposition. The term apparently arose in the beginning of the 17th century, and came to describe chiefly compositions which bring unequal instrumental or vocal forces into opposition.
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  • Ritornello form In both types of concerto, movements are built up in ritornello form. In both types of concerto, movements are built up in ritornello form. The music starts off with the ritornello (little return) played by the ripieno group (tutti meaning all) with the soloist(s) joining in. This is the main theme and it returns at various points throughout the movement. It may reappear in full or in shortened form. The music starts off with the ritornello (little return) played by the ripieno group (tutti meaning all) with the soloist(s) joining in. This is the main theme and it returns at various points throughout the movement. It may reappear in full or in shortened form.
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  • Ritornello structure Between appearances of the ritornello there are contrasting sections of music called episodes. Between appearances of the ritornello there are contrasting sections of music called episodes. RitornelloTuttiEpisode1Soloist(s)RitornelloTuttiEpisode2Soloist(s)RitornelloTutti
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  • FUGUE In music, a fugue is a type of contrapuntal composition. It begins with a theme stated by one of the voices playing alone. A second voice then enters and plays the same theme, while the first voice continues on with a contrapuntal accompaniment. The remaining voices enter one by one, each beginning by stating the same theme. The remainder of the fugue develops the material further using all of the voices and, usually, multiple statements of the theme. In music, a fugue is a type of contrapuntal composition. It begins with a theme stated by one of the voices playing alone. A second voice then enters and plays the same theme, while the first voice continues on with a contrapuntal accompaniment. The remaining voices enter one by one, each beginning by stating the same theme. The remainder of the fugue develops the material further using all of the voices and, usually, multiple statements of the theme.contrapuntal Middle and late Baroque composers such as Dieterich Buxtehude (16371707) and Johann Pachelbel (1653 1706) contributed greatly to the development of the fugue, and the form reached ultimate maturity in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach (16851750). Middle and late Baroque composers such as Dieterich Buxtehude (16371707) and Johann Pachelbel (1653 1706) contributed greatly to the development of the fugue, and the form reached ultimate maturity in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach (16851750).BaroqueDieterich BuxtehudeJohann PachelbelJohann Sebastian BachBaroqueDieterich BuxtehudeJohann PachelbelJohann Sebastian Bach
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  • IDENTIFY THE FORM 1)2)3)4)5) CONCERTO GROSSO ORATORIO FUGUE OPERA SOLO CONCERTO
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  • What is ornamentation? In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or "ornament" that line. They are performed as "fast notes" around a central note. The amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to relatively little or even none. In the baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody relatively unornamented the first time, but decorate it with additional flourishes the second time.improviseda capo aria
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  • Trill The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare tremolo).musicalornamenttremolo In modern musical notation a trill is generally indicated with the letters tr above the trilled note. This has sometimes been followed by a squiggly line, and sometimes in the past, the squiggly line on its own was used. The following two notations are equivalent:musical notation
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  • Trill The usual way of executing a trill is to rapidly alternate between the note indicated and the note directly above it in the given scale
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  • Acciaccatura From the Italian word acciaccare, "to crush"; The acciaccatura, is perhaps best thought of as a shorter, less melodically significant type of ornament. It is written using a grace note (often a quaver, or eighth note), with an oblique stroke through the stem:
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  • The exact interpretation of this will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but the following is possible: Acciaccatura
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  • A short figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again. It is indicated by a mirrored S-shape lying on its side above the staff. An inverted turn (the note below the one indicated, the note itself, the note above it, and the note itself again) is usually indicated by putting a short vertical line through the normal turn sign, though sometimes the sign itself is turned upside down. If the turn symbol is placed directly above a note, it is performed exactly as outlined above. If it is placed between two notes, however, the note before the symbol is played, then the turn, and then the following note. So the following turns:
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  • might be played like this:
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  • The mordent is thought of as a rapid single alternation between an indicated note, the note above (called the upper mordent) or below (called the lower mordent or mordent) the indicated note, and the indicated note again.mordent The upper mordent is indicated by a short squiggle; the lower mordent is the same with a short vertical line through it:
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  • As with the trill, the exact speed with which the mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but at moderate tempi the above might be executed as follows:
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  • From the Italian word appoggiare, "to lean upon"; The appoggiatura is important melodically and often suspend the principal note by taking away the time- value of the appoggiatura prefixed to it The added note (the unessential note) is one degree higher or lower than the principal note. The appoggiatura is written as a grace note prefixed to a principal note and printed in small character, usually without the oblique stroke:
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  • This would be played as follows:
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  • Baroque composers Corelli A.Scarlatti D. ScarlattiTelemann Monteverdi Vivaldi Purcell J.S. Bach Handel Couperin Lully Rameau
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  • J.S. Bach 1685-1750 J.S. Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany. He came from a long family history of professional musicians including church organists and composers. J.S. Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany. He came from a long family history of professional musicians including church organists and composers. Johann Sebastian Bach was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the baroque genre and brought it to its ultimate maturity. German composerorganist baroqueGerman composerorganist baroque Although he introduced no new forms, he enriched the prevailing German style with a robust contrapuntal technique, a control of harmonic and motivic organisation from the smallest to the largest scales, and the adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad, particularly Italy and France. contrapuntal Many people consider him to be the greatest Baroque composer, and one of the greatest composers of all time. He was one of the leading figures, along with the likes of George Frideric Handel, in the transition from baroque to Classical music George Frideric HandelClassicalmusic George Frideric HandelClassicalmusic Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew Passion St John Passion Suites (English, French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas
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  • G.F. Handel 1685-1759 He was a German/British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. He was a German/British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios.Baroque composerconcerti grossioperasoratoriosBaroque composerconcerti grossioperasoratorios Born in Germany as Georg Friedrich Hndel he lived most of his adult life in England, becoming a subject of the British crown in 1727. Born in Germany as Georg Friedrich Hndel he lived most of his adult life in England, becoming a subject of the British crown in 1727.Germany England BritishGermany England British His most famous piece is Messiah, an oratorio set to texts from the King James Bible; other well-known works are Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks. He deeply influenced many of the composers who came after him, including Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and his work helped lead the transition from the Baroque to the Classical era. His most famous piece is Messiah, an oratorio set to texts from the King James Bible; other well-known works are Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks. He deeply influenced many of the composers who came after him, including Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and his work helped lead the transition from the Baroque to the Classical era.MessiahKing James BibleWater Music for the Royal FireworksHaydnMozart BeethovenMessiahKing James BibleWater Music for the Royal FireworksHaydnMozart Beethoven Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14 Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites.
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  • Monteverdi 1567-1643 His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. During his long life he produced work that can be classified in both categories, and he was one of the most significant revolutionaries that brought about the change in style. Monteverdi wrote the earliest dramatically viable opera, Orfeo, and was fortunate enough to enjoy fame during his lifetime. His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. During his long life he produced work that can be classified in both categories, and he was one of the most significant revolutionaries that brought about the change in style. Monteverdi wrote the earliest dramatically viable opera, Orfeo, and was fortunate enough to enjoy fame during his lifetime.RenaissanceBaroque music operaOrfeoRenaissanceBaroque music operaOrfeo Operas- Orfeo, Arianna Motets Madrigals Vespers
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  • Alessandro Scarlatti 1659-1725 Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12. Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12. He was especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera. He was the father of two other Baroque composers, Domenico Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti. He was especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera. He was the father of two other Baroque composers, Domenico Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti.operascantatasNeapolitanDomenico ScarlattiPietro Filippo ScarlattioperascantatasNeapolitanDomenico ScarlattiPietro Filippo Scarlatti The first composer to strongly differentiate between the singing styles of aria and recitative and used advanced harmonic procedures for the time. The first composer to strongly differentiate between the singing styles of aria and recitative and used advanced harmonic procedures for the time. Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Opera- Pompeo Cantatas- over 600 6 Concerto Grossi Oratorios
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  • Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757 He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist. He was extremely influential in the development of keyboard music, especially in Spain, Portugal and England, through his individual style. He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist. He was extremely influential in the development of keyboard music, especially in Spain, Portugal and England, through his individual style.ItaliancomposerItaliancomposer A harpsichord virtuoso from a young age, he revolutionised keyboard technique. First to use rapid arpeggios, repetition of the same note and the crossing of hands. A harpsichord virtuoso from a young age, he revolutionised keyboard technique. First to use rapid arpeggios, repetition of the same note and the crossing of hands. He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result of living in Portugal and Spain for long periods of his life. He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result of living in Portugal and Spain for long periods of his life. Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14 Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto
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  • Telemann 1681-1767 He was a German composer, and organist. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig. The most prolific composer of his era, he was a contemporary of Johann Sebastian Bach and a friend of George Frideric Handel. While in the present day Bach is generally thought of as the greater composer, Telemann was widely renowned for his musical abilities during his lifetime. He was a German composer, and organist. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig. The most prolific composer of his era, he was a contemporary of Johann Sebastian Bach and a friend of George Frideric Handel. While in the present day Bach is generally thought of as the greater composer, Telemann was widely renowned for his musical abilities during his lifetime.Germancomposer University of LeipzigJohann Sebastian Bach George Frideric HandelGermancomposer University of LeipzigJohann Sebastian Bach George Frideric Handel Telemann traveled widely, absorbing various musical styles and incorporating them into his own compositions. He is known for writing concertos for unusual combinations of instruments, such as multiple violas or trumpets. Telemann traveled widely, absorbing various musical styles and incorporating them into his own compositions. He is known for writing concertos for unusual combinations of instruments, such as multiple violas or trumpets. He held a series of important musical positions, culminating in that of music director of the five largest churches in Hamburg, from 1720 until his death in 1767. He was succeeded by his godson Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. He held a series of important musical positions, culminating in that of music director of the five largest churches in Hamburg, from 1720 until his death in 1767. He was succeeded by his godson Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Hamburg1720Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Hamburg1720Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25 Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites
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  • Corelli 1653- 1713 Italian composer, teacher and violinist. Italian composer, teacher and violinist. His playing and composing were an influence on Bach and he taught Vivaldi. His playing and composing were an influence on Bach and he taught Vivaldi. He is known as The father of Concerto Grosso for his work in defining the style. He is known as The father of Concerto Grosso for his work in defining the style. Despite being influential he was not a prolific composer. Despite being influential he was not a prolific composer. 12 Concerto Grossi 5 sets (of 12) Trio Sonatas
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  • Purcell 1659-1695 English composer and organist. English composer and organist. He is generally considered to be one of England's greatest composers indeed, he has often been called England's finest native composer. Purcell incorporated Italian and French stylistic elements but devised a peculiarly English style of Baroque music He is generally considered to be one of England's greatest composers indeed, he has often been called England's finest native composer. Purcell incorporated Italian and French stylistic elements but devised a peculiarly English style of Baroque musicBaroque musicBaroque music Composed an enormous amount of theatrical music for plays including The Fairy Queen, a masque for A Midsummer's Night Dream, King Arthur and Indian Queen. Composed an enormous amount of theatrical music for plays including The Fairy Queen, a masque for A Midsummer's Night Dream, King Arthur and Indian Queen. One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2 Coronation
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  • Vivaldi 1678-1741 Italian priest, composer and violinist. Italian priest, composer and violinist. He is one of the composers credited with helping the Baroque style evolve into the Classical style by his use of harmonic contrasts and innovative melodies and themes. He is one of the composers credited with helping the Baroque style evolve into the Classical style by his use of harmonic contrasts and innovative melodies and themes. Bach was deeply influenced by his concertos and arias and transcribed many of Vivaldi's works for harpsichord. Bach was deeply influenced by his concertos and arias and transcribed many of Vivaldi's works for harpsichord. He was an extremely prolific composer. He was an extremely prolific composer. Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios and sacred music The Four Seasons
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  • Lully 1632-1687 Italian born French composer, guitarist, violinist and dancer. Italian born French composer, guitarist, violinist and dancer. Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14 th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time. Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14 th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time. He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites
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  • Rameau 1683-1764 Composer, organist and harpsichordist Composer, organist and harpsichordist He was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean- Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera, and was attacked by those who preferred Lully's style. He was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean- Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera, and was attacked by those who preferred Lully's style.French composersmusic theoristsBaroqueJean- Baptiste LullyoperaFrench composersmusic theoristsBaroqueJean- Baptiste Lullyopera Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for harpsichord)
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  • Francois Couperin Franois Couperin (born in Paris November 10, 1668 died September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. Franois Couperin was known as "Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of the musically talented Couperin family because of his immense virtuosity on the organ and the harpsichord. Franois Couperin (born in Paris November 10, 1668 died September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. Franois Couperin was known as "Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of the musically talented Couperin family because of his immense virtuosity on the organ and the harpsichord.Paris November 101668September 121733 FrenchBaroqueCouperinorganharpsichordParis November 101668September 121733 FrenchBaroqueCouperinorganharpsichord He was indebted to Corelli whose Trio Sonata form he introduced to France. He was indebted to Corelli whose Trio Sonata form he introduced to France. J.S. Bach was an admirer of his harpsichord technique and compositions. J.S. Bach was an admirer of his harpsichord technique and compositions. Harpsichord and organ works Suites
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  • QUIZ TRY YOUR NEW FOUND KNOWLEDGE WITH THIS INTERACTIVE QUIZ. TRY YOUR NEW FOUND KNOWLEDGE WITH THIS INTERACTIVE QUIZ. JUST CLICK ON THE ANSWER AND FIND OUT IF YOU ARE RIGHT. JUST CLICK ON THE ANSWER AND FIND OUT IF YOU ARE RIGHT.
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  • Italian composer, teacher and violinist. 1653- 1713 Italian composer, teacher and violinist. 1653- 1713 He is known as The father of Concerto Grosso for his work in defining the style. He is known as The father of Concerto Grosso for his work in defining the style. 12 Concerto Grossi TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1688- 1733 BaroqueBaroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. Harpsichord and organ works Suites
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  • He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist. 1685- 1757Italian composer He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result of living in Portugal and Spain for long periods of his life. Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14 Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25 Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites 1681- 1767 TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1659-1695 Composer and organist. Composer and organist. One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2 Coronation TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1567-1643 1567-1643 Operas- Orfeo, Motets Madrigals Vespers His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music.RenaissanceBaroque music TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1659-1725 Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12. Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12. Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Opera- Pompeo Cantatas- over 600 6 Concerto Grossi Oratorios TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1632-1687 1632-1687 Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14 th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time. Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14 th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time. He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1685-1750 Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew Passion St John Passion Suites (English, French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1683-1764 Composer, organist and harpsichordist Composer, organist and harpsichordist Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for harpsichord) TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1685-1759 Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14 Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites. TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • 1678-1741 Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios and sacred music The Four Seasons TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
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  • Quiz What is a concerto grosso? What is a concerto grosso? What is a solo concerto? What is a solo concerto? What is an oratorio? What is an oratorio? What is an opera? What is an opera? What is a fugue? What is a fugue?