Bab2 Definisi Dan Konsep
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CHAPTER 2 DEFINITION AND CONCEPT
DAVIDSON (2006): Change means doing things differently refers to a significant difference in what was before. Doing things in a new way Following a new path Adopting new technology Installing a new system Following new management procedures Merging Reorganizing Or any other highly significant, disruptive event.2
CHANGE SPECTRUM Analyse the nature of the change faced by organization to determine magnitude & potential impact Locating change on the change spectrum 3 situasi dlm spektrum perubahan: Hard aspects :static change environment Soft aspects : people orientation Fleksibel (in between hard & soft aspects)
SITUASI JELAS/PASTI (Hard Aspects)
Persekitaran perubahan statik Objektif dan kekangan yang dapat diukur dengan jelas Implikasi serta merta Skala jangka pendek Bersemuka yang minimal heavily mechanized
SITUASI KRG. PASTI/SUBJEKTIF (Soft Aspects)
Perubahan 100% berorientasikan manusia Objektif dan skala masa tidak jelas Persekitaran adalah dinamik dan sukar dijelaskan Hubungan personal Respon emosi
Images of Managing Change The images we hold of organization affect the interpretations of What we think is going on What we think needs to happen How we think should happen
Providing vision and meaning to our staff so that their identity becomes closely associated with the organization
Images of Managing Change Two key images of managing Management as control Management as shaping...
Three key images of change outcomes Intended change outcomes Partially intended change outcomes Unintended change outcomes
Images of Managing Change Controlling top-down management It is based on controlling the activities in the organization. It can be illustrated by Fayols characteristics of management planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling.
Images of Managing Change Shaping a more participative style of management. mold change outcomes through encouraging a variety of players within the organization to be involved in the various stages of change. focuses on improving the capabilities of the organization.
Images of Change Outcomes Intended Change Outcomes: regards change is a result of planned action instigated and influenced by a change manager can be achieved through three broad strategies: Empirical-rational strategies assume that people are rational & follow their own self-interest
Normative-re-educative strategies Assume that changes occur when people dispense with their old, normative orientations & gain commitment to new ones
Power coercive strategies Achieving intentional change by those with greater power
Images of Change Outcomes Partially Intended Change Outcomes: Only some change intentions are achievable there is often a discrepancy between the change that is planned and that which occurred Affected by Power Processes Interest the different skill levels of managers
The intended outcomes of change may need to be remodified during the implementation process, so the result of which is partially intended change outcomes.2-11
Images of Change Outcomes Unintended Change Outcomes: Managers often have great difficulty in achieving intentional change outcomes Forces beyond the control of the change manager that greatly influence the outcomes of change these can impede any attempts to achieve intended change within an organization. There are a plethora of internal or external factors that prevail over the impact of the change manager.
Images of Change Managers six images of change managersDirector, Navigator, Caretaker, Coach, Interpreter, NurturerImages of Managing
Controlling . . . (activities)
Shaping . . . (capabilities)
IntendedImages of Change Outcomes Partially Intended Unintended
Images of Change ManagersDirector image of management as control; change outcomes as being achievable Assumption: Change is a strategic choice that manager make and the survival and general well-being of the organization depends on them Supported by the n-step models and contingency theory.
Images of Change ManagersCoach Assumption: Change managers are able to intentionally shape the organizations capabilities in particular way
Relies upon building in the right set of values, skills and drills that are deemed to be the best ones to be drawn upon in order to achieve desired organizational outcomes. Related to OD approaches.
Images of Change ManagersNavigator Control is the heart of management action, although a variety of external factors mean that managers may achieve some intended change outcomes and others will occur over which they have little control. Assumption: Change unfolds differently over time and according to the context in which the organization finds itself Supported by the contextualist and processual theories of change.
Images of Change ManagersInterpreter The manager creates meaning for other organizational members, helping them to make sense of various organizational events and actions. Manager need to be able to provide legitimate arguments & reasons Supported by the sense-making theory of organizational change
Images of Change ManagersCaretaker The managers control is severely constrained by a variety of internal and external forces beyond their scope. The caretakers have a limited role on whether change will occur or not Have little influence over the direction of change Supported by life-cycle, population-ecology and institutional theories.
Images of Change ManagersNurturer Assumption: even small changes may have a large impact on organizations: and managers are not able to control the outcome of these changes but may nurture their organizations.
Managers may nurtute, facilitates organizational qualities that enable positive self-organizing to occur. Have little ability to influence the direction of change Related to chaos and Confucian/ Taoist theories.
Three Core Uses of the Images These six images of change managers have three core uses: They highlight a variety of assumptions that change managers make about change and increase the awareness of different interpretations of change. They draw attention to the dominant images of change within an organization. They highlight a range of perspectives available to change managers.2-20
Linking Vision and Change
Refer Chapter 9_Palmer
Vision The role of vision in producing organizational change is linked to the image one has of managing change Vision is commonly thought of as a guide for the organization in identifying the appropriateness of particular changes that are proposed Examples: solve unsolved problems innovatively - 3M give ordinary folk the chance to buy the same things as rich people - Wal-Mart Untuk menjadi di antara badan corporat yang terunggul di dunia dalam bisnes tenaga dan yang berkaitan -- Tenaga Nasional to become Asias premier automotive brand; a brand that connects with people and provides products which become life companions -Proton
Images of Managing Change vs VisionImages Director Navigator Link Vision and Change Vision is something that is essential to producing successful organizational change. It should be articulated early on and it is up to leaders to do this. Vision is important but not necessarily able to be achieved because of competing visions that exist among various organizational parties and stakeholders. Vision is in many ways immaterial to the way change will proceed. Change is rarely the outcome of visionary actions Vision is something that is important and is more likely to emerge through the facilitation skills of the change leader interacting with his or her followers, shaping their agendas and desired futures. Vision is the ability to articulate the inner voice of the organization, that which is lived, be it core ideology or values, and that underpins the identity of the organization. Vision is emergent from the clash of chaotic and unpredictable change forces. Visions are likely to be temporary and always in the process of being rewritten.9-23
How Context affects Vision
ability to produce visionary change depends onChange susceptibility Degree to which there is acceptance of the need to change
Resource availability The extent to which resources are on hand to engage in strategic change
4 organizational contexts in terms of their ability to produce visionary changeRigid organizations Bold organizations Overmanaged organizations Liberated organizations9-24
How Context affects Visioncont Rigid organizations have little in the way of available resources and lack acceptance of the need for change Hierarchical & inflexible
Bold organizations low resources but high acceptance of the need for change More organic structures & less rule-bound Visionary leadership is more likely to emerge
How Context affects Visioncont Overmanaged organizations high resource availability but little acceptance of the need for change More stable environment & dominated by past practices
Liberated organizations High acceptance of the need for change, & high availability of resources those where visionary processes are likely to be most successful
Failure of Vision Visions can fail for a number of reasons including being: too specific too vague inadequate too unrealistic too complex irrelevant blurred
A vision must be able to adapt over time A dominant vision will be one that outlasts others that may be present within the organization.9-27
Debates linking Vision and Change three key debates that link vision and change. Does vision drive change or emerge during change? Does vision help or hinder change? Is vision an attribute of heroic leaders or of heroic organizations?
Vision Is an Attribute of Heroic Leaders successful strategic organizational change will only occur when it is led effectively. Charismatic leaders secure images in their followers and enact their visions through four processes: Framing art of managing the meaning of followers, getting them to accept the visions interpretation and meaning by stressing its importance and aligning it with followers value.
Scripting extends framing, building upon it by coordinating and integrating more specific sets of ideas and actions.
Staging selection of symbols, artifacts, props and setting for reinforcing the vision
Performing enacting the vision, occurs through exemplification of required behaviours and promotion of themselves and their vision.9-29
Vision is an Attribute of Heroic Organizations It is a visionary company that will last the distance, irrespective of its leadership. Vision consists of a core ideology which defines what the organization stands for it becomes the core purpose and envisioned future of the organization solve unsolved problems innovatively - 3M give ordinary folk the chance to buy the same things as rich people Wal-Mart To be a leading oil and gas multinational of choice Petronas to meet the various needs of the consumer everyday by marketing and selling foods of a consistantly high quality - Nestle