B1b Example Presentation

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 What effect is the growth in the number of people having on the earth and its resources? (9) Population increasing is affecting the environment more and more. Burning of fossil fuels for electricity and transport, leading to global warming and acid rain. Deforestation for the building of roads, houses, factories and farms. We did quarries for metal ores and building material destroying habitats and killing animals and plants. As we use raw materials they run out and things like oil and metals are non-renewable. As population increases so does waste. Body waste, packaging and other waste all need to be disposed of. This uses land. Sewage, fertilisers from farms and toxic chemicals from industry pollutes rivers. Land becomes polluted with toxic chemicals, pesticides h erbicides and heavy metals.

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Transcript of B1b Example Presentation

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    What effect is the growth in the number of

    people having on the earth and its resources? (9)

    Population increasing is affecting the environment more and more. Burning of fossil fuels for electricity and transport, leading to global

    warming and acid rain. Deforestation for the building of roads, houses, factories and farms.

    We did quarries for metal ores and building material destroying

    habitats and killing animals and plants. As we use raw materials they run out and things like oil and metals

    are non-renewable.

    As population increases so does waste.

    Body waste, packaging and other waste all need to be disposed of.

    This uses land.

    Sewage, fertilisers from farms and toxic chemicals from industrypollutes rivers.

    Land becomes polluted with toxic chemicals, pesticides herbicides

    and heavy metals.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    What are the effects of acid rain

    on living organisms? (4)

    Acid rain kills trees and plants

    Makes lakes acidic and kills aquatic plants and fish.

    Pollution can be blown hundreds of miles from where

    they are made and affect living organisms over a largearea.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Define an SSSI and explain why

    they are important (4)

    Site of Special Scientific Interest

    Areas where rare plants or animals live or spend time.

    Large biodiversity.

    Areas that are highlighted for protection.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Explain how fossils formed and how they are

    used for evidence of evolution. (4)

    Most fossils are formed when the hard parts of an animal

    are replaced by minerals.

    Animals and plants may also become preserved and do

    not decay.

    Footprints and droppings can also be fossilised.

    Fossils collected from different ages rocks can show the

    evolution of a species horse fossil record is almost


  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Explain with examples the theories of

    evolution and how they came about. (8)

    Creationism pre 18th century, god created the earth.

    Charles Darwin travelled to the Galapagos islands on HMS Beagle

    in 1831.

    Discovered a species of finch that had adapted to the different food

    sources available. Darwin said that evolution came about through natural selection.

    Those animals that could not adapt would become extinct dodo.

    Lamarck thought evolution happened by acquired characteristics.

    He thought that if an animal used a body part, it would get bigger,

    and that this bigger organ would be passed on to its offspring.

    Lamarck called his theory the fountain of life.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Using a detailed example explain how

    natural selection takes place (4)

    Peppered moths

    300 years ago most peppered moths were light in colour.

    The industrial revolution and the pollution this caused meant only

    the more rare dark moths could survive and breed.

    The areas of the country with high levels of pollution therefore had ahigh population of dark moths.


    In 1915 oysters in Malpeque Bay in Canada were attacked by a


    A few of the oysters mutated to form a resistance to the disease and

    survived, natural selection.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Explain with examples what extinction is & the factors

    that can cause a species to become extinct. (7)

    Extinction is where all members of a species are lost from the Earth.

    A new predator in an area can wipe out a prey.

    This new predator may be an old one that has evolved or one that

    has moved into the area.

    The brown tree snake from Australia was taken to Guam in WW2.

    By 1960s many of the birds in Guam were extinct.

    A new disease Bird flu.

    Competition, increased demand for resources. In England most squirrels were brown. When the more aggressive

    grey squirrel was introduced from America it started to drive the red

    squirrel out.

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    Charles Darwin was the first person to describe

    natural selection as survival of the fittest, explain

    how plants and animals ensure their survival (6)

    Animals and plants produce more offspring than the environment

    can support to ensure some survive.

    Fruit flies produce 200 offspring every two weeks. One poppy plant

    produces 15,000 seeds.

    The individuals in a species show lots of variation. This is because

    of differences in genes they inherit.


    Good hearing and sight

    Animals with the best adaptations survive and pass on their genes.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Explain, using examples how animals are

    adapted to living in cold conditions (5)

    Thick layer of fur to insulate the body Polar bear.

    Layer of blubber around the body to reduce heat loss

    and act as a food store Seal.

    Moving around to share body heat Penguins. Small ears to reduce the surface area for heat loss

    Polar bear.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Identify and explain the 3 factors

    that plants compete for in order to survive. (6)

    Light for photosynthesis to make food.

    Water for photosynthesis and support of the plant.

    Nutrients in the soil to make the chemicals they need.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Explain how plants adapt to deal with

    competition from other plants (4)

    In woods smaller plants flower first before the trees grow

    leaves so they can get light.

    Some plants have shallower or deeper roots than others

    to get water and nutrients.

    Plants may grow higher or have larger leaves to catch

    the sunlight.

    Spread seeds over a large area through wind dispersion,

    animal dispersion or explosion.

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    Describe using examples how seeds are adapted

    to ensure they are spread over a large area (8)

    Wind dispersed:

    Small and light

    Have parachutes dandelion clock

    Winged seeds sycamore

    Explosion dispersed:

    Some have pods which burst throwing the seeds out - Geranium

    Animal dispersed:

    Fruit that animals eat and pass through the animal. Hooks which stick to the fur or feathers - Burdock

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Explain how fusion cell cloning takes place to

    produce a clone like Dolly the Sheep (6)

    Adult udder cell taken from sheep A and the nucleus isremoved.

    Mature ovum is removed from sheep B and is emptied.

    A mild electric shock fuses the nucleus from sheep A

    with the ovum from sheep B. This starts to divide to produce an embryo.

    The embryo is implanted into the uterus of sheep C.

    Lamb born is a clone of sheep A.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Gene for insulin production is identified in the human chromosome.

    The gene is cut out with an enzyme.

    The plasmid from a bacteria is cut with the enzyme.

    The gene is inserted into the plasmid.

    The plasmid is put back into a bacteria.

    The bacteria multiplies making more bacteria with the insulin gene.

    The bacteria produce and excrete human insulin.

    Describe the stages in genetic engineering where

    insulin is produced. (7)

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    What are the two main types of reproduction

    Give an example of each and a good and

    bad point for each (8)

    Sexual reproduction


    good point results in variation

    bad point need more than one individual

    Asexual reproduction

    strawberry plant

    good point quick reproduction

    bad point no variation so species doesnt improve (apart

    from random mutation).

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    How are plants adapted for dry conditions? (5)

    Spines instead of leaves to reduced water loss.

    Large root system to increase area for water uptake.

    Waxy cuticle to reduce water loss.

    Stomata pores folded into leaves to reduce water loss.

    Succulent can stores lots of water in stem. Total = 5

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    What are the causes of acid rain and how are we

    trying to deal with the problem (12)

    Burning fossil fuelsThese contain sulphur and nitrogen

    These are released as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides when the fuels

    are burnt.

    These go into the air and dissolve in rain water forming sulphuric acidand nitric acid and fall as acid rain.


    Cars are fitted with catalytic converters

    Chimneys have filters

    Low sulphur coal is being used.

    Lime is put into lakes to neutralise acid.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    Describe with two problems, how global

    warming is occurring (13)

    The earth has an atmosphere of transparent gases.

    The light from the sun travels through these gases to the earth.

    This warms the earth and then leaves the earth as heat.

    The atmosphere traps some of this heat stopping it escaping.

    This keeps the earth warm.

    Human activity produces carbon dioxide gas and methane.

    These gases are making the atmosphere thicker so more heat is being

    trapped in.

    The earths temperature is increasing.

    Ice caps are melting and sea level rising resulting in flooding of land.

    Deserts are expanding.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    What 2 things need to be balanced for sustainable

    development. Give ways this can be done. (10)

    Human progress and environmental stability.

    Using animal waste as fertiliser rather than chemicals

    Replanting hedgerows to protect fields from erosion and to increase

    animal habitats.

    Replacing trees that are cut down.

    Recycling materials.

    Managing fish stocks.

    Conserving resources.Reducing energy loss from buildings.

    Using cars less public transport.

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    What 2 factors will a local authority consider

    when granting planning permission? (4)

    Ensure that the building produces no long term bad effects.

    Carry out field studies to monitor effects.

    Use indicator species such as lichens and water invertebrates

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    What is the difference between a brown field

    and a green field site. Give a good and bad

    point about building on each (6)

    Green field never been built on before no pollution of ground but also

    no services (water etc)

    Brown field been built on before land may be polluted but near to

    services and in the middle of towns.

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    Explain what factors may affect

    the yield of a crop (5)

    The amount of light for photosynthesis to make food.

    The availability of water for photosynthesis and support

    of the plant.

    The amount of nutrients in the soil to make thechemicals they need.

    The amount of competition from other plants/weeds.

    The amount of pesticides/fertilisers used.

  • 8/3/2019 B1b Example Presentation


    We pass on many characteristics to our offspring,

    describe and explain in what form this information

    is passed from parents to children (7)

    Things like eye colour, hair colour, nose shape are inherited.

    This is caused by genetic information being passed on by the sex

    cells gametes. Deoxyribonucleic acid is made of 2 strands twisted into a spiral

    called a double helix.

    Complete strands of DNA are called chromosomes.

    Humans have 46 chromosomes.

    Small sections of a chromosome are called genes.

    Genes are the units of inheritance.

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    Describe and explain the two methods by

    which plants can be cloned (7)

    Taking a cutting

    A cutting is taken from a plant and treated with hormonepowder grows to form a new plant.

    Useful characteristics in the parent plant such as diseaseresistance will be passed on.

    It takes a long time to produce lots of plants.

    Tissue culture.

    A quicker method is to take a sample of tissue (cells)

    from a plant. In the laboratory these cells are treated with hormone

    and lots of plants are produced in a short time.

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    Discuss the positive and negative aspects

    of genetic engineering (10)

    Making low fat meats. Making plants with their own pesticides. Makes plants that grow well in hot or dry parts of the world. Making sheep that can produce life saving proteins in their milk. Preventing genetic illnesses being passed on from parents.

    It is a new science. What are the long term effects? Insects may become resistant to pesticides if they eat pesticide

    resistant plants. How will eating genetically engineered food affect the body?

    Genetically modified crops often arent fertile so farmers have to buynew seeds each year. People may want to use this process to produce their ideal babies in

    the future.

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    Define what is meant by sustainable

    development using some examples, (8).

    Sustainable development is where we do our best tomanage the world around us. This combines humanprogress with environmental stability.

    Uses resources that are replaced regularly

    Produces wastes that break down harmlessly Protects the future. Farmers using plant waste and natural manure as

    fertilisers. Replanting hedgerows to reduce erosion and to increase

    animal habitats. When trees are felled for timber they are replaced. Recycling of material such as glass, plastic, paper, cans

    and material.