Apresentação1 guyana

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  • 1.BRITISH GUYANA "The Land ofMany Waters" officially the Co- operative Republic of Guyana"ONE PEOPLE, ONE NATION, ONE DESTINY"

2. localization Modern Guyana is bordered to the east bySuriname , to the south and southwest byBrazil , to the west by Venezuela , and onthe north by the Atlantic Ocean . 3. the independence of British GuianaGuyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth . 4. Environment and biodiversityMore than 80% of Guyana is still covered by forests, ranging from dry evergreen and seasonal forests to montane and lowland evergreen rain forests. Guyana has one of the highest levels of biodiversityin the world. Guyana, with 1,168 vertebratespecies, 1,600 bird species, boasts one of the richest mammalian fauna assemblages of any comparably sized area in the world. 5. Economy The main economic activities in Guyanaare agriculture (production of rice andDemerara sugar ), bauxite mining, gold mining, timber, shrimp fishing andminerals, The sugar industry, whichaccounts for 28% of all export earnings, islargely run by the company Guysuco,which employs more people than anyother industry 6. Major trading partners Canada, US, UK, Portugal, Jamaica,Trinidad and Tobago, China, Cuba,Singapore, Japan , Brazil, Suriname (2009 7. Guyanas riversThe four longest rivers are the Essequibo at 1,010 kilometres (628 mi) long, the Courantyne River at 724 kilometres (450 mi), theBerbice at 595 kilometres (370 mi), and the Demerara at 346 kilometres (215 mi). 8. Guyanas mountainsSome of Guyanas highest mountains areMount Ayanganna (2,042 metres / 6,699feet), Monte Cabura (1,465 metres /4,806 feet) and Mount Roraima (2,810metres / 9,219 feet the highestmountain in Guyana) on the Brazil-Guyana-Venezuela tripoint border, part ofthe Pakaraima range. 9. Unemployment,9.1% (2008), Labour force , 418,000 (2001 estimate) 10. Cost of livingThe cost of living in Guyana is high. This is because most ofthe items used in daily life are imported with hightransportation costs involved. Monopoly in some businesssectors also causes higher profit booking and furtherraising of prices. For example, approximate prices (as ofJanuary, 2010) of gasoline (petrol) is US$ 5 per gallon, andelectricity prices are close to US$ 0.33 per unit A domesticgas bottle (or gas cylinder) is slightly over US$ 20. Rent foraverage family accommodation may exceed US$ 100 permonth in safe urban locations,but most people have theirown homes and do not rent, and personal income tax,which is 33.33% (one third) of total taxable income makesthe cost of living higher. An employees salary is normallypaid in Guyanese dollars (1 US Dollar = 200 GuyaneseDollars approx.) and income tax is deducted by theemployer. 11. guyanas climateThe local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, though moderated by northeast trade winds along the coast. There are two rainy seasons, the first from May to mid-August, the second from mid- November to mid-January. 12. Guyanas peopleThe present population of Guyana is racially andethnically heterogeneous, composed chiefly of thedescendants of immigrants who came to thecountry as either enslaved or indentured labourersrespectively, from Africa and India. The populationtherefore is made up of groups with ethnicbackgrounds from India, Africa, Europe, China,with Aboriginal. These groups of diverse nationalitybackgrounds have been fused together by acommon language, i.e.,English and Creole. Therehas been racial tension between the majority Indo-Guyanese and Afro-Guyanese . 13. Languages of guyana English is the official language of Guyana andused in its schools. In addition, Caribanlanguages (Akawaio, Wai-Wai, Arawak andMacushi) are spoken by a small minority, whileGuyanese Creole (an English-based creole withAfrican and/or East Indian syntax whosegrammar is not standardised.) is widely spoken. 14. religionData from a 2002 census on religious affiliationindicates that approximately 57% of thepopulation are Christian (of those, 17% arePentecostal, 8% are Roman Catholic, 7% areAnglican, 5% are Seventh-day Adventist, and20% belong to other Christian denominations).Approximately 28% are Hindu, 9% are Muslim (mostly Sunni), and members of the BahFaith and Rastafarianismmake up most of theremaining 2%. An estimated 4% of thepopulation does not profess any religion.[ 15. Politics of GuyanaPolitics of Guyana takes place in a framework ofa semi-presidential representative democraticrepublic, whereby the President of Guyana isthe head of government, and of amulti-party system. Executive power is exercised by thegovernment. Legislative power is vested inboth the government and the NationalAssembly of Guyana. 16. militaryThe military of Guyana consists of the Guyana Defence Force (GDF), which includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Corps. 17. transporthere are a total of 116 miles (187 km) of railway,all dedicated to ore transport. There are 4,952miles (7,970 km) of highway, of which 367 miles(590 km) are paved. Navigable waterwaysextend to 669 miles (1,077 km), including theBerbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers. Thereare ports at Georgetown, Port Kaituma, and New Amsterdam. There is 1 international airport (Cheddi Jagan International Airport, Timehri); 1regional airport (Ogle Airport); and about 90airstrips, 9 of which have paved runways.Guyana andSuriname are the only two countriesin South America which drive on the left. 18. Water supply and sanitationKey issues in the water and sanitation sector in Guyana arepoor service quality, a low level of cost recovery and lowlevels of access. A high-profile management contractwith the British company Severn Trent was cancelled bythe government in February 2007. In 2008 the publicutility Guyana Water Inc implemented a Turnaround Plan(TAP) to reduce non-revenue water and to financiallyconsolidate the utility. NRW reduction is expected to be5% per annum for the three-year period of the plan, Amid term review is now due to examine the success ofthe TAP. 19. Satellite Television Satellite television services are offered byDirecTV Caribbean. Internet system Internet country code: .gy Internet hosts: 6,218 (2008)[citation needed] Internet users: 225,129 (2010) 20. Delivery service Level I: Local Health Posts (166 in total) that providepreventive and simple curative care for commondiseases and attempt to promote proper healthpractices. Community health workers staff them. Level II: Health Centres (109 in total) that providepreventive and rehabilitative care and promotionactivities. These are ideally staffed with a medicalextension worker or public health nurse, along with anursing assistant, a dental nurse and a midwife. Level III: Nineteen District Hospitals (with 473 beds)that provide basic in-patient and outpatient care(although more the latter than the former) and selecteddiagnostic services. They are also meant to be equippedto provide simple radiological and laboratory services,and to be capable of gynecology, providing preventiveand curative dental care. They are designed to servegeographical areas with populations of 10,000 or more. 21. Delivery service Level IV: Four Regional Hospitals (with 620 beds) thatprovide emergency services, routine surgery and obstetrical and gynecological care, dental services, diagnostic servicesand specialist services in general medicine and pediatrics.They are designed to include the necessary support for thislevel of medical service in terms of laboratory and X-rayfacilities, pharmacies and dietetic expertise. These hospitalsare located in Regions 2, 3, 6 and 10. Level V: The National Referral Hospital (937 beds) inGeorgetown that provides a wider range of diagnostic andspecialist services, on both an in-patient and out-patientbasis; the Psychiatric Hospital in Canje; and the GeriatricHospital in Georgetown. There is also one childrensrehabilitation centre. 22. EDUCATIONGuyanas educational system is considered to be among thebest in the Caribbean, but it significantly deteriorated in the1980s because of the emigration of highly educated citizensand the lack of appropriate funding. Although the educationsystem has recovered somewhat in the 1990s, it still doesnot produce the quality of educated students necessary forGuyana to modernise its workforce. The country lacks acritical mass of expertise in many of the disciplines andactivities on which it depends. The educational system doesnot sufficiently focus on the training of Guyanese in scienceand technology, technical and vocational subjects,business management, nor computer sciences. TheGuyanese education system is modeled after the formerBritish education system. Students are expected to writeNGSA[National Grade Six Assessment] for entrance intoHigh School in grade 7. They write CXC at the end of highschool. Recently they have introduced the CAPE examswhich all other Caribbean countries have introduced. TheA-level system left over from the British era has all butdisappeared and is offered only in a few schools. 23. Guyana was inhabited by Arawak and Carib tribes ofNative Americans. Although Christopher ColumbussightedGuyana during his third voyage (in 1498), the Dutchwere the first to establish colonies: Essequibo(1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). TheBritishtook control in the late 18th century, andDutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 thethree separate colonies became a single colonyknown as British Guyana.