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Transcript of Appendicular Skeleton
Appendicular SkeletonThe appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs and bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton.Pectoral girdle: scapula, clavicle.Upper limbs: humerus, radium, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges.Pelvic girdle: coxal bones.Lower limbs: femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.
Pectoral GirdleClavicles: collar bones that attach the sternum to the shoulder anteriorly.
Scapulae: shoulder blades with two processes.Acromion process: tip of the shoulder.Coracoid process: attaches to the clavicle and provides attachments for muscles.Glenoid fossa articulates with the humerus.
Upper limbHumerus: upper arm bone, articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula
Upper limb cont.Radius: thumb side of the forearm, articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and the radial notch of the ulna
Ulna: longer bone of the forearm, olecranon and coronoid processes articulate with the humerus
HandCarpal bones: eight small bones of the wrist.
Metacarpal bones: five bones, the framework of the palm.
Phalanges: finger bones, three in each finger (proximal, middle, distal phalanx), two in the thumb.
Pelvic GirdleCoxal bones: two hips bones composed of three fused bones.
Ilium: superior part of the coxal bone.
Ischium: lowest portion of the coxal bone.
Pubis: anterior part of the coxal bone. The two pubic bones joint at the symphysis pubis.
Figure 7.49Obturator foramen(bone) PubisIliac crest
Lesser sciatic notch
Inferior iliac notchPubic tubercleSuperior iliac notch
Male and Female PelvisFemale iliac bones are more flared. Hips are widefemale pubic arch angle is greater.The sacral curvature is shorter and flatter.
greater distance between the ischial spines and tuberosities in the female.The differences create a wider pelvic cavity in all diametersLarger pelvic brim
Lower LimbFemur: thigh bone, longest bonePatella: kneecap, located in a tendon, femur, tibia, and patella form the knee jointTibia: shinbone, lateral malleolus forms the ankleFibula: slender bone lateral to the tibia, not part of the knee joint
Popliteal surfaceLinea aspera (posterior)
Osgood schlatter diseaseSwelling of bony projection of tibia below kneeDue to over use of thigh muslcesMore common in teens b/c of rapid bone growth
FootTarsal bones: seven small bones in the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest, located below the talus.Metatarsal bones: elongated bones that form the arch of the foot.Phalanges: each toe has three except the great tow which has two.
Tarsus and metatarsus: arranged and bound by ligaments to form archPlantar fascitis: flat foot fallen footWeakened tissue, constant or heavy weight applied to foot
Life-Span ChangesCalcium levels fall through life and the skeleton loses strength.Osteoclasts outnumber osteoblasts.
Life-Span ChangesBy age 35, everyone loses bone mass. Women lose bone mass faster between menopause and age seventy.Trabecular bone is lost before compact bone.