Appendicular Skeleton

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Appendicular Skeleton. Appendicular Skeleton. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs and bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton. Pectoral girdle: scapula, clavicle. Upper limbs: humerus, radium, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Appendicular Skeleton

  • Appendicular Skeleton

  • Appendicular SkeletonThe appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs and bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton.Pectoral girdle: scapula, clavicle.Upper limbs: humerus, radium, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges.Pelvic girdle: coxal bones.Lower limbs: femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.

  • Figure 7.42

  • Pectoral GirdleClavicles: collar bones that attach the sternum to the shoulder anteriorly.

    Scapulae: shoulder blades with two processes.Acromion process: tip of the shoulder.Coracoid process: attaches to the clavicle and provides attachments for muscles.Glenoid fossa articulates with the humerus.

  • Upper limbHumerus: upper arm bone, articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula

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  • Upper limb cont.Radius: thumb side of the forearm, articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and the radial notch of the ulna

    Ulna: longer bone of the forearm, olecranon and coronoid processes articulate with the humerus

  • HandCarpal bones: eight small bones of the wrist.

    Metacarpal bones: five bones, the framework of the palm.

    Phalanges: finger bones, three in each finger (proximal, middle, distal phalanx), two in the thumb.

  • Figure 7.47

  • Pelvic GirdleCoxal bones: two hips bones composed of three fused bones.

    Ilium: superior part of the coxal bone.

    Ischium: lowest portion of the coxal bone.

    Pubis: anterior part of the coxal bone. The two pubic bones joint at the symphysis pubis.

  • Figure 7.49Obturator foramen(bone) PubisIliac crest

  • Figure 7.49

  • Lesser sciatic notch

    Inferior iliac notchPubic tubercleSuperior iliac notch

  • Male and Female PelvisFemale iliac bones are more flared. Hips are widefemale pubic arch angle is greater.The sacral curvature is shorter and flatter.

  • greater distance between the ischial spines and tuberosities in the female.The differences create a wider pelvic cavity in all diametersLarger pelvic brim

  • WHY???

  • Figure 7.51

  • Lower LimbFemur: thigh bone, longest bonePatella: kneecap, located in a tendon, femur, tibia, and patella form the knee jointTibia: shinbone, lateral malleolus forms the ankleFibula: slender bone lateral to the tibia, not part of the knee joint

  • Figure 7.52

  • Popliteal surfaceLinea aspera (posterior)

  • Osgood schlatter diseaseSwelling of bony projection of tibia below kneeDue to over use of thigh muslcesMore common in teens b/c of rapid bone growth

  • FootTarsal bones: seven small bones in the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest, located below the talus.Metatarsal bones: elongated bones that form the arch of the foot.Phalanges: each toe has three except the great tow which has two.

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  • Figure 7.55

  • Tarsus and metatarsus: arranged and bound by ligaments to form archPlantar fascitis: flat foot fallen footWeakened tissue, constant or heavy weight applied to foot

  • Life-Span ChangesCalcium levels fall through life and the skeleton loses strength.Osteoclasts outnumber osteoblasts.

  • Life-Span ChangesBy age 35, everyone loses bone mass. Women lose bone mass faster between menopause and age seventy.Trabecular bone is lost before compact bone.