APF Issue 13



Reporting to the Asia Pacific Fire Protection and Fire Service Industry

Transcript of APF Issue 13

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An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 13 – March 2005



OFC Issue 13 16/11/06 4:01 pm Page ofc1

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2800 East Evans Avenue, Valparaiso, IN 46383-6940 USA

International +1.219.548.4000 • www.tft.com • [email protected]

1/10mm of Polyester Powdercoat (inside and out) has been melted onto the metal (UNS C8300 Brass)

at 200 Celsius; the perfect corrosion resistant

finish, smooth water way and years of reliable service.

90 grams of solid 304 Stainless Steel, 3 centimeters diameter capable of holding vertical weights up to 160kg. The biggest in the industry.

Knightfire MonitorMaster Foam Nozzle

QuadraFog Nozzle



Gaam Emergency Products-AUPhone : 61394661244Fax : [email protected]


PolyM ShanghaiPhone: 862164690107Fax: [email protected]


Universal Cars LimitedPhone: 85224140231Fax: 85224136063andrewplh@simedarby.com.hkwww.mitsubishi-motors.com.hk


Pt Palmas EntracoPhone: 6221384 1681Fax: 6221380 [email protected]


Yone CorporationPhone: 81758211185Fax: [email protected]


CME Technologies SDN BHDPhone: 60356331188Fax: [email protected]


Gaam Emergency Products-NZPhone: 6498270859Fax: [email protected]


Alliance Industrial SalesPhone: 6328908818Fax: [email protected]


S.K. Fire Pte. Ltd.Phone: 6568623155Fax : [email protected]


Shilla Fire Co., Ltd.Phone: 820236659011Fax: [email protected]


Young Ararat Enterprise Co. LtdPhone: 886 2 2772 3121Fax: 886 2 2721 9775


Anti-Fire Co, Ltd.Phone: 6622596899Fax: [email protected]




NFPA 1964

CompliantFor excellent quality fire fighting equipment visit www.tft.com and call your local distributor for a demonstration. Display equipment, literature and digital data can be obtained by contacting your trained TFT distributor.

Visit Task Force Tips in theUSA Pavilion Hall 27Stand K23 Booth 37

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3 NFPA Foreword

5-8 Flammable Liquids – ABurning Question

11-14 Remote Foam Systems –Just a Dream or a Reality?

15 Ecopol – Product Profile

17-22 Care & Maintenance forStructural Fire Fighting PPE

25-28 Understanding CombustibleSensor Performance

30 Kidde Fire Protection –Product Profile

32-33 3M Company Profile

35-39 Decontamination ShowersMarket Guide

40-43 Realistic And Safe Live FireTraining

45-48 Thermal Imaging Cameras inthe Asia Pacific

49 Professional ProtectionSystems – Product Profile

50-51 Selecting Outside TrainingProviders to Maximize YourIn-House Training Programs

53-55 Dedicated Cutter andSpreader or the NobleCombi-Tool?

56-58 The Cost of the Climb

59-61 Foam ProportioningTechnology Today

62-63 Product Update

64 Advertisers’ Index

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Front cover picture: Fireman cut SteelBarriers during a Rescue Drill in Seoul,South Korea. Picture courtesy ofREUTERS/Kim Kyung-Hoon

PublishersMark Seton & David Staddon

Editorial ContributorsChan Kai Foo, Mike Willson, Fire ChiefDavid Drainville, Robert Henderson, JakobSpiegel, Jim Moloney, Mitchell Baclawski,Brendon Morris, Torbjorn Lundmark,Dominic Colletti

APF is published quarterly by:MDM Publishing Ltd 18a, St James Street, South Petherton, Somerset TA13 5BWUnited KingdomTel: +44 (0) 1460 249199Fax: +44 (0) 1460 249292 e-mail: [email protected]: www.apfmag.com

©All rights reserved

Periodical Postage paid at Charnplain NewYork and additional officesPOSTMASTER: Send address changes toIMS of New York, P 0 Box 1518 Champlain NY 12919-1518USAUSPS No. (To be confirmed)

Subscription RatesSterling – £35.00 AUS Dollars – $100.00US Dollars – $70.00 (Prices include Postage and Packing)ISSN – 1476-1386

DISCLAIMER:The views and opinions expressed in ASIA PACIFIC FIREMAGAZINE are not necessarily those of MDM PublishingLtd. The magazine and publishers are in no way responsibleor legally liable for any errors or anomalies made within theeditorial by our authors. All articles are protected bycopyright and written permission must be sought from thepublishers for reprinting or any form of duplication of anyof the magazines content. Any queries should be addressedin writing to the publishers.Reprints of articles are available on request. Prices onapplication to the Publishers.

Page design by Dorchester Typesetting Group LtdPrinted by The Friary Press Ltd




Issue 13 – March 2005



March 2005 Issue 13


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TSUNAMI DISASTEROn behalf of all involved with APF Magazine we would like to express our sadness for all ofthose involved in the tragic events, which unfolded on the 26th December 2004. Ourthoughts are with all of those who lost family members, friends, livelihoods and posses-sions. We hope the worldwide effort currently underway can ease their suffering.

Jeff GodfredsonNFPA’s Asia-Pacific Operations Director

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


FOREWORDby Jeff GodfredsonNFPA’s Asia-Pacific Operations Director

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For industrial applications indoorsor outdoors where fire can spread out rapidly due to the presence of

highly inflammable materials,and where vast premises need an optical

detector with a great sensitivityand large field of view.


the fastest and most effective fire alarm devicefor industrial applications

BETTER TO KNOW IT BEFOREEye is faster than nose.

In the event of live fire the IR FLAME DETECTOR

responds immediately

Also forRS485 two-wire serial line

Sparks flyat high speed.

They travel at a hundred kilometresper hour along the ducts of the dustcollection system and reach the silo

in less than three seconds


is faster thanthe sparks themselves.

It detects them with its highlysensitive infrared sensor,

intercepts and extinguishesthem in a flash.

It needs no periodic inspection.

The CONTROL LOGIC system is designed for “total supervision”.

It verifies that sparks have been extinguished, gives prompt warning of

any malfunction and, if needed, cuts off the duct and stops the fan.

CONTROL LOGICSparkdetector

designed fordust collectionsystemsto protectstorage silosfrom the riskof fire.

20137 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - ItalyTel.: + 39 02 5410 0818 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764E-mail: [email protected] - Web: www.controllogic.it CONTROL LOGIC s.r.l.

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20137 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - ItalyTel.: + 39 02 5410 0818 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764E-mail: [email protected] - Web: www.controllogic.it CONTROL LOGIC s.r.l.

ISO 9001


For industrial applications indoorsor outdoors where is a risk of explosionand where the explosionproof protection is required.One detector can monitor a vast areaand responds immediately to the fire, yet of small size.

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com



Flammable liquids can present a partic-ularly dangerous hazard. They havevapors that are not only invisible buteasy to ignite. Flammable liquids arenormally kept in closed containers ortransfer systems to prevent vaporrelease. If exposed to the atmosphere,some emit vapors at room temperaturewhile others have to be heated. If theyare put under pressure and thenreleased through leaks in a system, theycan atomize, lowering the temperatureneeded for ignition. If they spill byaccident, they cover a large area andcan be ignited by common ignitionsources like electrical sparks, static oropen flames such as pilot lights or evenhot work. In short, none of the aboveparameters are unusual. They are likelyto exist in many facilities.

Flammable liquids burn more quicklythan combustible solids because theyvaporize more readily. Flammable liq-uids usually have a high heat of com-

bustion, meaning they have the poten-tial to release a great deal of heat whenburned. Below is a comparison of theheat of combustion of some commonmaterials and some flammable liquids.

Even though some flammable liquidshave a lower heat of combustion thanplastic, they still present a greater firehazard due to the rate at which theyrelease energy in a fire. A fuel’s heatrelease rate is a function of its heat ofcombustion, the quantity of fuel con-sumed in a given time, and its exposedsurface area. Because flammable liquidsare fluid, they spread out, creating a

larger surface area for burning thanwould be available in a solid. This larg-er burning surface area generates heatat a faster rate, increasing the chancethe fire will ignite nearby combustiblesand produce a large, fast-growing fire.For example, a 30 litre gasoline spillcan create a 2.4 m diameter pool(assuming a 6 mm depth). A burningpool of this size can produce flames ashigh as 11.5 m. If a flammable liquid’sflash point is below ambient tempera-ture, the amount of water needed tocool the fuel to the point of extin-guishment is very high. Ordinary ceilingsprinklers alone will be ineffectivebecause water droplets will be vapor-ized by heat rising from the fire beforethey can reach the fuel surface andcool it.

If vapors from a flammable liquid arereleased from a container and areallowed to mix in the right concentra-tion with air within an enclosed space,such as a room, an explosion canoccur. A liquid’s flammable or explosiverange describes the concentration ofvapor and air required for a fire orexplosion.

Prevention and control measures canreduce the frequency of flammable

A cut-off room dedicated for flammableliquid dispensing

FlammableLiquids – A BurningQuestion

MANY FACILITIES HAVE FLAMMABLE liquids on site as part of their normaloperations. They are used to supply production needs such as heating processes,powering hydraulic equipment, feeding printing presses or lubricatingequipment. They are also used directly as a component of a manufacturingprocess. Flammable liquid is an everyday presence in today’s industry.

FlammableLiquids – A BurningQuestion By Chan Kai Foo

Materials Heat of Combustion(kJ/g)

Solids Wood 19Paper 19Plastic 28-47

Liquids Acetone 31Fuel oil 44Gasoline 48

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liquid operations losses and limitpotential damage. If equipment safe-guards and automatic sprinklers areprovided as needed and employeeshandle flammable liquids safely, lossestypically can be kept smaller and lessfrequent. One can reduce this facilityhazard to an acceptable level of risk.FM Global clients have experienced 707flammable liquid fires over a recent 10-year period, causing nearly US$700million in damages. These incidentsaveraged nearly US$1 million each.


The best protection against flammableliquid fires is to eliminate the fuelsource (for example, by substituting lessflammable liquids). If the fuel cannotbe eliminated, the following guidelinescan help prevent a potential fire:

● Process equipment should bedesigned to prevent liquid or vaporescape. As far as possible, tanks andvats should be designed to be closedduring normal operation and toresist failure when exposed to fire.

Open tanks should be provided withautomatic-closing covers. Personnelshould be provided with the equip-ment (e.g. safety cans and pumps)and training they need to safelyhandle flammable liquids.

● A properly designed low-level venti-lation system will sufficiently dilutethe flammable vapor with air toprevent the concentration fromreaching the lower explosive limit

● Ignition sources should be eliminated.This includes providing bonding andgrounding straps as well as usingintrinsically safe electrical equipment.


The following control measures canminimize damage in the event of aliquid release or fire.

● As far as possible locate flammableliquid storages and operations instructures detached from the mainbuilding. If unavoidable, locate themin well cut-off rooms (preferablyalong outside walls) using fire ratedmasonry construction. When there isan explosion potential, damage-limiting construction can limitdamage to other areas of the facility.

● Automatic sprinkler protection is thefirst line of defense for controllingtemperatures in a flammable liquidfire. Automatic sprinklers cool the areato prevent structural and equipmentdamage, and they extinguish fires thatinvolve high flash point liquids.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Failure to provide adequate protection for flammable liquids can result incatastrophic damage to a facility

FM Global clients haveexperienced 707 flammable liquid fires over a recent 10-yearperiod, causing nearly US$700million in damages. Theseincidents averaged nearly US$1million each.

FlammableLiquids – A BurningQuestion

FlammableLiquids – A BurningQuestion

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


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● Drainage and containment protectthe building by controlling andremoving the fuel, and protect the environment by controlling thereleased liquid and sprinkler dis-charge. Without drainage and/orcontainment, burning fuel spreadsinside the building and contam-inated water is released to theenvironment.


a) Flammable Liquid Classificationand High Flash Point LiquidsEveryone has different ways of dealingwith liquid that burns. The NationalFire Protection Association (NFPA) hasdeveloped an extensive classificationsystem based on a liquid’s flash point.The flash point of a flammable liquid isthe lowest temperature at which itignites in air when exposed to a flame.Liquids with a flash point of less than

100oF (38oC) are considered flammable.The US Department of Transportation(DOT), on the other hand, defines aflammable liquid at less than 141oF(61oC). As a result, these differences inflammability classifications make it verydifficult for end users (Property & Busi-ness Owners, Design Consultants,Building Inspectors, Fire Service Person-nel etc) to define the liquid on handand how to properly manage them. Forexample the DOT does not require con-tainers with liquids that have flashpoint of more than 141oF (38oC) to belabeled. So it is possible for someone tonot know he has a liquid that can burndown a building because this liquid hasbeen classified as combustible ratherthan flammable.

The loss experience of FM Globalclients points to many large lossesinvolving materials with high flashpoints, such as heat transfer fluids, cut-ting oils and mineral oil-basedhydraulic fluids. When heated abovetheir flash points or pressurized, thesematerials can be just as dangerous asthose with low flash points and addi-tional protection measures are needed.

From a storage stand point, all liq-uids consisting of non-polar hydrocar-bon burns about the same and wouldrequire the same protection unlessthere are properties associated with theliquid that would make the fire protec-tion more effective. Liquids with flashpoints of more than 200oF (93oC) canbe extinguished by using ceiling onlysprinklers. If the flash point is under200oF (93oC), the sprinkler will notextinguish the fire.

There is still a lot that no one knowsabout protecting flammable liquids.The industry’s traditional classificationsystem often confuses more than theyinform. FM Global recommends to theirclients to not just rely on classificationschemes to guide them in storing andhandling flammable liquids. If theyhave a liquid that will burn, theyshould consider it flammable and pro-tect accordingly.

b) Impact on ProductionSome people feel that safe handlingprocedures “slow down” operations. Butnothing slows down operations as muchas a major loss. Well-designed safe-guards, combined with training, shouldnot significantly decrease productivity.

c) ‘Small’ Amounts of FlammableLiquidsIf a 20 litre container of flammableliquid spills, there is a chance it can beignited by a spark or another ignitionsource. But, the size of the fire is notlimited to the size of the spill. As theburning liquid spreads, it can ignitenearby combustibles, creating an evenlarger fire.

d) Sprinkler Protection of TankSupportsTanks or vats of flammable liquids sup-ported on steel beams or legs requiresprinkler protection below the tank orvat to protect the supports. Heat froma fire could weaken the exposed steel,and may lead to the collapse of thetank, spreading fire far beyond theprotection limits of ceiling-levelsprinklers. If the tank is wider than90 cm, ceiling-level sprinklers will havea very hard time reaching the shieldedfire below it. Another solution is toencase the leg in concrete or other fire-proofing material to allow it towithstand fire exposure.

e) Automatic shutoffsIf a fire develops in a flammable liquid-handling area, one of the most impor-tant control measures is to eliminateadditional fuel for the fire. Automaticshutoffs tied into water flow alarms orheat detectors ensure the fuel will beshut off without the risk of employeestrying to re-enter the area to do somanually.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


From a storage stand point, allliquids consisting of non-polarhydrocarbon burns about thesame and would require the sameprotection unless there areproperties associated with theliquid that would make the fireprotection more effective.

FlammableLiquids – A BurningQuestion

FlammableLiquids – A BurningQuestion

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Foam fire fighting systems - we’ve got it covered

Skum 70 years of exceptional reliability

When quick reactions under extreme stress are needed, it

matters that the tools to deliver are both unquestionably

reliable and specifically designed for the task. If you fight fire

fast with the right combination of product and delivery system,

you can save lives, critical assets and scarce resources.

Skum brings over 70 years of invaluable expertise to fire

fighting. Backed by a programme of continuous research

and development, Skum has an enviable reputation at the

forefront of fire fighting technology and is renowned

worldwide for its quality and innovation. Innovations such

as Hot Foam™ systems for enclosed spaces or the unique

FJM corrosion free monitor.

In short, Skum has it covered.

Typical high risk applications

• Petro-chemicalOil terminal; Storage tank protection; Bund protection

• MarineTankers; Machinery spaces; Ferries; Offshore support and Fire fighting vessels

• AviationHangars; Helidecks; Crash vehicles

• Power Generating PlantsTransformers; Cable tunnels; Conveyors; Coal bunkers

• IndustrySprinkler systems; Foam spray deluge systems; Medium/high expansion foam systems

For further information, please contact:Tyco Safety Products,

Le Pooleweg 5, 2314 XT Leiden, Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71 5419 415 Fax: +31 (0)71 5417 330Email: [email protected] Web: www.skum.com

HotFoam™ systems forenclosed areas

Systems for high risk sitesSystems for aircraft hangars

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Rarely do such small sites have anypressurised water supplies or elec-trical connections that could be

used in a fire emergency to minimiseescalation or damage to the whole instal-lation, particularly in more remote areas.

The cost of providing such an infra-structure on these small sites is quitehigh and generally outweighs the bene-fits of providing the required levels offire detection and protection. On top ofthis are the additional costs of the spe-cialised equipment needed and theirinstallation into a reliable fixed system.As a consequence many of these sitesare not protected against fire when theyreally should be.


If fire strikes on a remote site and thereis no detection, alarm or fire protectionready to take action the whole site islikely to be lost or severely disabled.Many operators choose to rely on ruralfire departments to respond quickly andextinguish any fire that may occur.Trouble is, those rural fire departmentresponse times are generally slower. This can be due in part to volunteerfire-fighters who have to get to the firetruck from other jobs before they leavethe fire station, and longer distances to travel to the incident often alongnarrow roads or tracks where navigationcan also be more difficult, so valuabletime can be inadvertently lost in takingcontrol of the fire.

As with any fire, action taken whenstill small usually allows control to beachieved – but the longer it goes onburning unchecked, the harder it gets.

Also the longer it takes to control andextinguish the consequential lossesescalate dramatically with every minutethat no action is taken, and can quitequickly run out of control. This is nevertruer than with remoter locations andthe inherent difficulties of gaining rapidand effective action onto the fire.

As a consequence small fires canmore easily spread out of control andcause greater damage and disruptionthan an equivalent sized fire on a largerand more complex site in an industrialpark or major chemicals productionarea.

RELIABLE PNEUMATIC DETECTION AND CONTROLWhat is needed is a cost-effective self-contained foam fire detection andprotection system. This can now beachieved by using specialised self-con-tained systems. Round the clock pneu-matic detection uses special UVstabilised tubing draped around and

Picture courtesy of Angus Fire

RemoteFoamSystems:HOW OFTEN DO WE find smallflammable liquid hazards lurkingon remote sites where there are nowater or power supplies connected?The answer is more often than youthink with so many hazards inremoter areas like diesel drivengenerators; fuel, water and wastepumping stations; fuel driven refrig-eration units; remote distributionwarehouses; workshops and labor-atories; flammable liquid stores;boiler rooms; transformers andsubstations; even light aircraft,executive jets and their hangars;not to mention landing strips andtemporary or rented military sites –the list just goes on!

Just a Dream or a Reality?

By Mike Willson of Angus Fire


Just a Dream or a Reality?

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over the main hazard areas like motors,generators or boilers. This tubing con-tains Nitrogen gas under pressure, sothat when fire starts the tubing softensin the heat or melts, releasing the pentup pressure, which is connected to apneumatic valve. As the pressure dropsso the valve opens to allow the bulk ofthe gas in the nitrogen cylinder to entera pressure vessel. These pneumatic con-trol systems have an important additionalbenefit – they will operate without anyelectrical power requirements.

FLEXIBLE FOAM DELIVERS FAST KNOCKDOWN AND MINIMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTA premixed multipurpose foam solutioninside the vessel is simply expelled

through a discharge pipe to twocompact aspirating K20 foam nozzlesstrategically located over the hazard to deliver a fan shaped spray of lowexpansion foam to control the resultingflammable liquid pool fire. Choosing an organic foam that will handlehydrocarbons and polar solvent fuelsincreases the versatility of the unit andminimises the environmental impactwhen the foam discharges and may run outside any bunded containmentareas.

Although such a self-contained foamsystem will not deal with any pres-surised fuel jets or atomised sprays, itwill effectively cover, control and extin-guish the biggest problem, which is apool fire on the ground. This will takethe bulk of the radiant heat and flameout of the incident, greatly reducing the risk of escalation and minimisingthe damage to drive motors and otherexpensive equipment, so the remotestation can be brought back into opera-tion more quickly with the minimum ofdisruption.

HIGH VALUE ASSETS NEED MORE SOPHISTICATED PROTECTIONHowever this is not generally sophisti-cated enough for short-term protectionof particularly high valued and move-able assets like executive jets andsensitive military equipment. How wouldyou handle protection of militaryhelicopters coming in for urgent main-tenance while fuelled or for short pilot changeover periods, when there are no fire trucks available and thelocation is essentially unmanned? Apneumatic detection method may beimpractical to install or insufficientlysensitive to react to flames which could cause the plane to be perma-nently grounded within a few secondsunless detected and foam is swiftlyapplied.

ANSWER LIES IN UV/IR2 DETECTION AND REMOTE ALARM ALONG TELEPHONE LINETo overcome this potential limitation, afaster and more sensitive detectionsystem is needed. The ideal solution is a combined ultra violet and twin infrared (UV/IR2) detector which can activatea pair of pressure vessels to attack thefire from both sides of a small aircraft or helicopter at the same time. Alterna-tively both units can be positionedalong the same side of a larger aircraftand a second pair deployed on the otherside for maximum protection. Havingsuch units mounted on wheels enables

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com



as G


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Ein umfassendes Programm leistungsstarker und umweltver-träglicher Schaumlöschmittel für den Brandschutzexperten, z.B:

alkoholbeständige MOUSSOL-APS LVUniversalschaummittel MOUSSOL-APS 3 %


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We offer a complete range of highperformance and environmentally friendlyfoam liquids to the fire professional e.g.Alcohol resistant MOUSSOL – APS LVUniversal MOUSSOL – APS 3%AFFF foam liquids MOUSSOL – APS f-15Aqueous film forming

foam liquids STHAMEX – AFFF 1%, 3%, 6%Synthetic foam liquids STHAMEX f-6, f-15, f-20, f-25Protein foam liquids FOAMOUSSE 3%, 6%Fluor Protein foam

liquid FLUOR FOAMOUSSE 3%, 6%Training foams

RemoteFoamSystems:Just a Dream or a Reality?

RemoteFoamSystems:Just a Dream or a Reality?

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


The Environmentally-friendlyFlame Generator

A wide range of accessories topersonalize your training sessions.PYROS

GROUPE LEADER FRANCE - Tel. : +33 235 530 575 - Fax : +33 235 531 632 - [email protected]





The Environmentally-friendlyFlame Generator

A wide range of accessories topersonalize your training sessions.

Hale Products EuropeA Unit of IDEX CorporationCharles Street, WarwickCV34 5LR England

Tel: +44 (0)1926 623600Fax: +44 (0)1926 623666Email: [email protected]

World Series Pumpwith integrated CAFSCAFS output directfrom the main vehiclepump dischargeState-of-the-arttechnology

CAFS Range - a solution for every need

MiniCAFS - Retro-fittable unitOperates from any pumpEasily fits into side lockers

Compressed Air Foam (CAFS) is increasingly seen as the solution formore efficient and more effective firefighting. Whatever your operationalrequirements HALE have the right CAFS configuration for you.

Also available as separate componentsfor installation at vehicle build stage -models MCP50, CAFS90 and CAFS200


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Hale Products EuropeA Unit of IDEX CorporationCharles Street, WarwickCV34 5LR England

Compressed Air Foam (CAFS) is increasingly seen as the solution formore efficient and more effective firefighting. Whatever your operationalrequirements HALE have the right CAFS configuration for you.


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them to be quickly and easily movedinto the correct position for fastdeployment. They can also be quicklytransported with the aircraft to providea high level of protection wherever andwhenever the aircraft lands. This sophis-ticated type of detector will distinguishbetween real flames and solar reflec-tions, flare or welding by sensing theunique flicker frequency of the flame tominimise the risk of false alarms. Suchsensitive detection can sense fire andactivate the foam discharge within 7seconds. It can also be set up to give both audible and visual alarmslocally to the hazard as well as a remotealarm down a telephone line to amanned control station. This willreliably indicate when the system hasbeen activated.

RAPID DISCHARGE OF FOAM ESSENTIALClearly rapid foam discharge is neededto control the fire quickly and minimisedamage to the high value assets andminimise the risk of spread. Foam dis-charge within 60 seconds through ahigh and low level aspirating foamnozzle ensures effective foam applica-tion to control the pool fire whilst otheremergency personnel can arrive at thescene.

Use of the same high performance,film forming, multipurpose natural pro-tein based premixed foam solutionwhich is readily biodegradable with lowaquatic toxicity, increases flexibility andmakes such a unit suitable to a widevariety of high performance fuels andancillary solvent based materials. It alsominimises the environmental impactwhen the foam is discharged onto openareas without containment basins.

FIELD TESTED FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONSExtensive field-testing of such a highlyeffective unit with the UK Ministry ofDefence has shown it meets the diverserange of their stringent requirements.

Units have recently been developed tomeet the needs of both these hazardscenarios as affordable remote self-contained foam systems.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Fire protection is too serious a subject to be taken lightly. You don’t buysomething as vital as fire fighting foam hoping that it’ll work when and if it hasto. You have to be sure. Which means selecting high performance foamconcentrates from a specialist source – like Total Walther.

Reliable Total Walther products have been safeguarding life and property forover 100 years. Our complete range of environmentally sustainable, syntheticfire fighting foams is used worldwide, protecting critical assets in high-riskenvironments.

Part of the global family of Tyco Fire & Security foam agents, Total Walthersynthetic foams provide cost-effective, high performance solutions. We do itso well because we do nothing else. Don’t play at fire protection. Choose TotalWalther for total peace of mind. We concentrate on foam - so you don’t have to.

www. tw f l . com

For further information, please contact:Tyco Safety Products, Le Pooleweg 5, 2314 XT Leiden,Netherlands. Tel: +31 (0)71 5419 415 Fax: +31 (0)71 5417 330 E-mail [email protected]

Concentrate on foam; we do.

Synthetic Fire Fighting Foams

Picture courtesy of Angus Fire

Picture courtesy of Angus Fire

Perhaps it is time to reassess yourremote station and high value assetprotection requirements, before firestrikes!

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


BIO-EX is dedicated to create specificfire fighting foams to answer to anever-growing demand from its

customers for environmentally friendlyalternatives. First BIO FOR, the ultimatetechnology for forest and urban fires, thencame ECOPOL, the new fluorine-Free Alco-hol-Resistant Foam.

TRADITIONAL FOAMSThe first task for foams will be to extinguishthe fire as fire itself can have a devastatingeffect on environment. It is true to say thatAFFF enables a fast extinction, butunfortunately they all contain a high levelof fluorinated compounds having adetrimental effect on environment.

A few of them are already banned, butstill many others are questioned and scruti-nized by scientists to evaluate their toxicity.They are all persistent; they are notbiodegradable and accumulate in ground-water without any possible path for naturalelimination. Plants, animals and humanscould be contaminated for numerous years.Who could say today that these compoundsare safe?

THE STANDARDSBearing in mind that international stan-dards were made on the performance ofexisting products at the time of their writ-ing. Today standards are made to evaluateand compare foams against the relative

efficiency of AFFF. As a result, foams arequalified depending on their extinctionspeed following a rule – application rate andmethod – designed on AFFF characteristics.

APPLICATION RULES: STUDYBIO-EX undertook a full study on the rela-tive performance of two foams: ECOPOLand FILMOPOL (AFFF-AR)

At an application rate of 2.5 l/sqm.mn,ECOPOL is the fastest to extinguish ingentle application, burnback time exceed15 minutes for both products, making themtop level according to EN 1568-3 standard.

In gentle application, ECOPOL extin-guishes ALWAYS faster than the AFFF AR,whatever the application rate is.

Let us compare these two foams● AFFF-AR, applied according to the

standard method for this type of foam:forceful application, application rate 2.5 l/sqm.mn.

● ECOPOL, applied in the most efficientmethod: gentle application, applicationrate 3.5 l/sqm.mn.

Say that the fuel pan is a tray of 10 sqmfilled with heptane.AFFF-AR extinguishes in 160 seconds.(Table 1)Foam solution consumption is: 2.5 x160/60 x 10 = 66.7 litres and makes 2 litresof foam concentrate 3%. ECOPOL extinguishes in 52 seconds. (Table 2) Foam solution use is: 3.5 x 52/60 x 10 =30.3 litres, making 0.9 litres of ECOPOL at3%.

This quick calculation proves that, whenusing the best available technique, ECOPOLextinguishes a fire at least twice as fastand with two times less product than theAFFF-AR.

ECOPOL: the BIO-FOAMWilling to offer the cleanest solution to itsclients, BIO-EX innovates with ECOPOL, theFLUORINE-FREE FOAM.

ECOPOL: Efficiency & QualityECOPOL meets EN 1568 §1-2-3-4 and iscertified by the German Laboratory InstitutDer FeuerWehr, following full testing onreal fires. It can be used at Low, Mediumand High expansion at 3% on all class Bfires.ECOPOL is warranted 10 years and can bestored between –30°C and +60°C.

ECOPOL: Health & EnvironmentECOPOL is formulated on a vegetal surface-active agent.ECOPOL is totally free of any fluorinatedmaterial and is not Persistent, Bio accumu-lative or Toxic (PBT). ECOPOL is none irritating for skin and eyes.ECOPOL is formulated using compoundsthat are easily and totally biodegradable innaturally occurring materials after dilutionin water.ECOPOL leads the way to the future. Itcopes with modern problems and providesan answer to all firemen keen on health,safety and environment. Already ECOPOLhas been picked up by prestigious clients,confident in our technology.

ECOPOL will not damage our envi-ronment: contrarily to fluorine-containingfoams, ECOPOL does not pollute ground andwater, and does not threaten to introducepersistent compounds in alimentary links.


For more information, please contact:

BIO-EX S.A.ZI La Petite Oliviere69770 Montrottier

FranceTel: +33 474 702 381Fax: +33 474 702 394E-mail: [email protected]

Website: www.bio-ex.com

Tests in EN 1568-3Heptane fire 4.5 m2

Application rate 2.5 l/sqm.mnExtinction time in seconds


ECOPOL 3% 120 s 240 s

AFFF-AR 3% 225 s 160 s

Test models on heptane fireGentle applicationExtinction time in seconds

Application rate 3,5 7 10 15 20

ECOPOL 3% 52 s 28 s 17 s 14 s 10 s

AFFF-AR 3% 76 s 36 s 23 s 18 s 14 s

Table 1

Table 2

ECOPOLThe efficient, eco-friendly Fluorine-Free Foam

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PROTECTIVE COATS – STRUCTURALIntended Use: Protective coats aredesigned and configured to providelimited thermal and physical protectionto the upper torso and arms, excludingthe hands and head.Components: Protective coats consistof many components. The following are referenced in this document: outershell, moisture barrier, thermal barrier,reflective trim, closure systems, andwristlets. All components must be usedin accordance with the manufacturer’sinstructions to provide the designedlevel of protection.Limitations of Use: Protective coatsmust not be kept in direct contact withopen flame or molten metal. These pro-tective coats are not designed to provideprotection for proximity or fire entryapplications, nor from radiological, bio-logical or chemical hazards. Specific,specialized protective clothing (e.g.proximity or impervious chemical suits)should be provided to those firefighterswho are expected to operate in situa-tions requiring protection from specialhazards.Donning and Doffing: Manufactur-er’s instructions should be followed indonning and doffing protective coats.Interface: Protective coats must inter-face effectively with protective pants,hoods, SCBA, helmets, and gloves forcontinuous protection.

PROTECTIVE PANTS – STRUCTURALIntended Use: Protective pants aredesigned and configured to provide limitedthermal and physical protection to thelower torso and legs, excluding the feet.Components: Protectivepants consist of manycomponents. The follow-ing are referenced in thisdocument: outer shell,moisture barrier, thermalbarrier, reflective trim, andclosure systems. For thepurpose of this document,suspenders are included asaccessories of pants. Allcomponents must be usedin accordance with themanufacturer’s instructionsto provide the designedlevel of protection.Limitations of Use:Protective pants must notbe kept in direct contactwith flame or moltenmetal. Protective pants arenot designed to provideprotection for proximity orfire entry applications, norfrom radiological, biologi-cal or chemical hazards.Specific, specialized protec-tive clothing (e.g. proximityor impervious chemicalsuits) should be providedto those firefighters whoare expected to operated in

situations requiring protection fromspecial hazards.Donning and Doffing: Manufactur-er’s instructions should be followed indonning and doffing protective pants.Interface: Protective pants must inter-face effectively with protective coatsand footwear to provided continuousprotection.


HEALTH RISKS OF CONTAMINATEDPPE: Soiled PPE systems can exposefirefighters to toxins and carcinogensthat enter the body through ingestion,

Care and Maintenancefor Structural FireFighting PPE By Fire Chief David Drainville

SCOPETHIS DOCUMENT ESTABLISHES USE, care, maintenance and replacementcriteria for fire service personal protective equipment worn for structuralfirefighting but does not apply to specialized protective clothing for proximityfirefighting, hazardous material emergencies, or emergency medicaloperations.

Picture courtesy of Lion Apparel

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inhalation, and/or absorption. Repeatedsmall exposures to some contaminantscan add up over time and/or cause asynergistic effect resulting in healthproblems. Only frequent, appropriatecleaning can reduce the amount ofcontamination in PPE.

Although great emphasis is placed onsafety to avoid injury or inhalation haz-ards while working on the fireground,many of the toxins which lead to healthrisks are being carried away from the firescene on personal protective equipmentused by the firefighter. The procedures inthis chapter are provided so that thehealth risks experienced away from thefireground can be minimized through theproper and special handling of soiled,contaminated, and/or damaged PPE.

Toxins that a firefighter will come incontact with are found in the soottrapped within the fibers of soiled PPEor absorbed into the PPE materialsthemselves. Contact with the soiled PPEincreases the risk of the toxic contami-nants being introduced into the body.Clothing may also be contaminated with significant levels of hazardous

chemicals without visible evidence ofthat contamination.

Clothing contaminated with blood orother body fluids presents a potentialrisk of communicable disease beingtransmitted to the person coming incontact with the contaminated clothingsystem. This chapter also providesguidelines for the handling and care ofPPE having been subjected to this typeof contamination.

PROTECTING THE PUBLIC FROM CON-TAMINATION: The public should not beexposed at any time to soiled and/orcontaminated protective equipment usedby emergency response personnel. Extracaution should be practiced to avoidexposing children to soiled protectiveequipment since they are usually moreinterested in actually touching and han-dling the equipment than adults. Chil-dren are also less likely to wash off anydirt or soot that they may have pickedup from handling the PPE. Under no cir-cumstances should soiled or contaminat-ed personal protective equipment bebrought into the home, washed in homelaundries, or washed in ‘public laundries’.

Reduced Performance Hazards ofContaminated PPE: When clothing orequipment becomes laden with particlesand chemicals, other problems are facedin addition to exposure to toxins:

I. Soiled PPE reflects less radiant heat.After materials are saturated with hydro-carbons, they will tend to absorb ratherthan reflect the radiant heat from thesurrounding fire.2. PPE heavily contaminated withhydrocarbons are more likely to conductelectricity. Thereby increasing the dan-ger when entering a building or vehiclewhere wiring may still be live.3. Clothing materials impregnated withoil, grease and hydrocarbon depositsfrom soot and smoke can ignite andcause sever burns and injuries, even if thematerials are normally flame resistant.

Firefighters encounter various chemi-cals in their normal fire fighting activi-ties even though the number ofspecialized hazardous materials responseteams is growing. Exposures to oils,gasoline, and lubricants may occuraround fire station vehicles. Duringresponses, exposures to liquids rangingfrom pesticides to acids to chemical sol-vents may occur, knowingly or unknow-ingly. These contaminants, in addition to

being hazardous, can also degrade pro-tective clothing material. For example:

● clothing fabrics may become weak-ened and tear more easily.

● thread or seam sealing tape maybecome loose.

● flame retarding or water repellingtreatments may be removed.

● reflective trim can become lessvisible.

● helmet shells/face shields or SCBAmasks/visors may pit or craze.

● PPE hardware may become corroded.

CLEANING FREQUENCYPersonal Protective Equipment shouldbe cleaned at least every six months.

PPE should be cleaned as soon aspossible after an incident where theequipment has been soiled or exposed toblood or body fluids, tars, resins, paints,acids, or any other hazardous materials.

In normal everyday use, personal pro-tective equipment becomes dirty byabsorbing sweat from the wearer and“soils” from the outside environment.General cleaning of PPE removes thesesubstances. PPE can also become conta-minated with other substances, principal-ly chemicals, particulates, and biologicalagents. The removal of these substancesis most often referred to as decontamina-tion. In structural fire fighting, bothgeneral cleaning and decontamination ofPPE are needed on a frequent basis.

PPE should be cleaned regularly toremove the fire ground contaminantsbefore they build up to dangerous levels.Only similar items of PPE should bewashed together, and additionally, flameresistant and non-flame resistant gar-ments must be cleaned or decontaminat-ed separately. Further, PPE must bedecontaminated when directly exposedto chemicals, blood and body fluids, andother known hazardous contaminants. Inmany cases, the cleaning and decontami-nation process can be one and the same.

A cleaning and decontamination Deci-sion Tree is provided (Figure 1) to guidethe user on handling contaminated per-sonal protective equipment. Personalprotective equipment contaminated byknown hazardous materials may requirespecial attention as recommended in theDECONTAMINATION section. It is impor-tant to realize that the service life ofPPE can potentially be reduced ifcleaning is done improperly.

After identifying the type of contami-

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Care and Maintenance for Structural

Picture courtesy of Lion Apparel

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nants encountered, follow the steps outline by the decision tree.There are three different types of contamination listed on thedecision tree: Contamination Requiring General Cleaning, Conta-mination Involving Body Fluids, and Contamination InvolvingHazardous Materials. The general cleaning guidelines for each ofthese types of contamination follows.

CONTAMINATION REQUIRING GENERAL CLEANINGHose down at the fire scene. Scrub gently with a soft bristlebrush using a mild detergent and rinse thoroughly. Hosingdown immediately after the termination of an emergency canremove substantial amounts of surface contaminants beforethey have a chance to set in. Avoid unnecessary direct skin con-tact with contaminated clothing or equipment and washexposed skin areas as soon as possible to remove contaminantsand to prevent spreading to other body parts and/or personnel.

While wearing protective gloves, inspect the PPE for damageand the level of soiling. (Refer to inspection chapter).

Determine the proper cleaning procedure for the protectiveequipment. Procedures for the following methods aredescribed under Cleaning Instructions: In-house cleaning byUtility Sink or Out of House or Contract Cleaning.

CONTAMINATION INVOLVING BODY FLUIDSRemove the personal protective equipment from the body.

Isolate and bag the equipment. Observance of universalprecautions is recommended.

Determine what type of cleaning procedure is necessary. If acceptable, several cleaning methods are outline undercontamination requiring general cleaning.


If possible, identify the contaminant for future reference.Refer to MSDS, HAZMAT RESPONSE GUIDE, and/or PROD-

UCT MANUFACTURER to determine proper decontaminationprocedures.


IN-HOUSE CLEANING: UTILITY SINKWhen using utility sinks, it is expected that the cleaning/agita-tion will be accomplished by hand. Therefore, hot water tem-peratures should be set so as not to cause burns to the skin;the recommended hot water temperatures under each utilitysink cleaning instruction is 105-115°F. For additional skinprotection, especially from contaminants, it is important towear protective gloves during the cleaning procedure.

The appendices of NFPA 1581, “Fire Department InfectionControl Program”, and NFPA 1971, “Protective Clothing forStructural Fire Fighting”, offer information on cleaning anddecontamination.


● Chlorine Bleach● Water temperatures greater than 115°F● Heavy abrasion and/or scrubbing● High pH (greater than 10.5)● Mixing flame resistant and non-flame resistant items● Mixing non-similar PPE items (e.g. turnouts and station


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Trelleborg Protective Products ABP.O. Box 1520,

SE-271 00 YstadPhone: +46 411 67940

Fax: +46 411 15285www.trelleborg.com/protective

[email protected]

Trelleborg S.E.A. Pte Ltd10 Toh Guan Road #03-06

International TradeparkSingapore 608838

Phone: +65 6 8989 332Fax: +65 6 8989 303

www.trelleborg.com/[email protected]

al Fire Fighting PPE

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CLEANING INSTRUCTIONS –UTILITY SINKRemove, per the manufacturer’s instruc-tions, any helmet components that needto be cleaned separately and/or do notneed cleaning. Component examplesinclude: ear covers, winter liners, head-bands, suspension straps, and foam-typeimpact caps. (Foam impact caps shouldbe kept dry and, therefore, should beremoved from the helmet shell prior toimmersion in water)

Physically remove large encrustmentsfrom the outside of the helmet. Consultthe helmet manufacturer for approvedmethods and/or solvents that will notdamage the shell material or finish.

Helmet FaceshieldsFollow the instructions for helmet shellsexcept use a soft clean cloth in place ofa soft bristle brush for scrubbing. Nosolvents are to be used.

Helmet Impact CapsPlace the impact cap in the sink. Do notsubmerge in water.

Wipe the inner and outer surfaceswith a squeezed sponge using hot 105-115°F water and detergent.

Rinse sparingly with clean water orwith rinsed sponge.

Wipe and blot dry all surfaces with adry clean cloth.

Helmet Suspensions, Headbands,Ear Covers, Etc.If heavily soiled, pre-treat and soak thedesired components per the detergentmanufacturer’s instructions. Allow time forcomplete air-drying before re-assembly.

GARMENTS – TURNOUTS, HOODSDo not overload the utility sink.

If liners are detachable, remove fromshell and launder separately.

Pre-treat heavily soiled and/orspotted areas of the garment, ifnecessary. Soak the garments perthe detergent manufacturer’sinstructions. Remove the garmentand drain the soak water.

GLOVESPre-treat heavily soiled and/or spottedareas of the gloves, if necessary. Soakthe gloves per the detergent manufac-turer’s instructions. Remove the glovesand drain the soak water. If needed,condition the leather per the glovemanufacturer’s recommendations.

STORAGEProper storage of PPE can extend thelife of the equipment, maintain perfor-mance, and reduce potential healthrisks. Improper storage will result indamage to the PPE and can compromisethe firefighter’s safety. NOTE: UV lightdegradation, especially from sunlight, isthe prime cause of “unknown” personalprotective equipment failures.

The following conditions may resultin the deterioration of PPE performanceand/or create potential health hazards:

● Storage in direct sunlight will causedegradation of fibers in protectivegarments causing fabric strength lossand will accelerate aging of otherequipment.

● Storage of wet or moist equipmentwill promote the growth of mildewand bacteria which can lead to skinirritation, rashes, or more seriousmedical conditions. Mildew andbacteria growth may also affect thestrength of some materials.

● Storage in extreme temperatures forprolonged periods will acceleratedeterioration of PPE.

● Storage conditions in abrasive envi-ronments and/or in contact withsharp objects will cause mechanicaldamage.

● Storage in contact with hydraulic flu-ids, solvents, hydrocarbons, hydrocar-bon vapors, or other contaminantscan cause material degradation,transfer toxins to the individuals, andreduce the non-burning or self-extin-

guishing properties of the thermallyprotective fabrics.

● Storage of PPE in personal livingquarters or passenger compartmentsof vehicles presents a risk to individu-als who come into contact withsoiled PPE.

● Storage of turnout pants in thecollapsed position (on firefighter’sday off) can lead to the garmentacquiring a “memory” in the fabricwhich can lead to premature wearing.Such storage also prohibits air flowto the garment which can aid indrying and release of particulates inthe fabric.

The following proper storage practicesshould be used regardless of storage loca-tion which includes warehouses, station,apparatus, and privately owned vehicles.Use of gear bags is highly recommended.

● PPE should be clean and dry beforestorage.

● The storage area should be clean, dryand well ventilated.

● Keep PPE out of direct sunlight orother sources of UV radiation.

● Avoid exposure to temperatureextremes for extended periods.

● Avoid sharp objects during storage.● Avoid contact with tools, chemicals,

and other equipment when storingPPE in compartments.

● Avoid contact of soiled PPE withpersonal belongings.

● Avoid storage of soiled PPE insideliving quarters.

● Avoid storage of soiled PPE within thepassenger compartment of vehicles.

INSPECTIONInspection programs serve two primarypurposes. They help to ensure that thefirefighter’s Personal Protective Equip-ment will provide its designed protec-tion and it provides a means todocument the service and wear lifecharacteristics of the department’s PPE.This information is vital in determiningthe causes (and future prevention) ofpremature PPE failures and is a power-ful tool in developing budget needs andassociated justifications.

A systematic and routine top-to-bot-tom inspection should be made, whilewearing protective gloves, on all PPE toconfirm its serviceability.

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Care and Maintenance for S

Picture courtesy of Lion Apparel

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Damaged PPE should be immediatelyremoved from use and replaced withserviceable equipment. The decision torepair or retire the damaged PPE shouldbe made by trained personnel. RepairedPPE should be thoroughly inspectedbefore returning it to service.

Inspection Frequency. Inspectionsshould be performed upon receipt ofnew PPE, at least once a month, aftereach cleaning, and/or following anyapplication where PPE has been dam-aged or contaminated. In the event ofexposure to hazardous materials, PPEshould be isolated and inspected inaccordance with the decontaminationguidelines.

Inspection Grading Scale. The grad-ing scale is designed to assist firedepartment personnel in identifying anddocumenting the condition of all PPE.It helps in evaluating the overall condi-tion of the equipment. Grade definitionsare:■ NEW OR AS-NEW CONDITION:

Newly purchased equipment orequipment that is in like newcondition.

■ GOOD CONDITION: Equipment is ingood serviceable condition. Theequipment may show wear butreplacement is not necessary.

■ IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT: Equip-ment is unsafe and should beremoved from service.

PPE may be repaired or retiredafter further inspection by trainedpersonnel.

■ GENERAL AREAS OF INSPECTION:Inspect every article of personalprotective equipment for the follow-ing types of wear or damage. SoiledPPE should be cleaned before in-spection to ensure proper detectionof damage such as discolorationand/or heat damage that may bemasked. Each of these damage typesindicate a potential problem with the protective features of the PPE andapply to all PPE including helmets,boots, gloves, and protective garments.Cleanliness. Or lack thereof, canindicate contamination of the PPEwith foreign substances that may beflammable, toxic, and/or carcino-genic. Soiled PPE should be cleanedand restored to “good” condition.Char, Heat Damage. Or burned areasindicate excessive exposure to heatand/or flame impingement. These

areas are damaged and need to bethoroughly checked for strength lossor other signs of degradation. Inprotective clothing, all three layersshould be examined for damage ifthe outer shell is charred.Fabric and/or Material Damage. Isevidenced by rips, tears, cuts, abradedor worn areas, fraying, weak or easilytorn areas, and others. This type ofdamage has many possible causesand can often be repaired. To checkfor weakening of fabric, flex, attemptto tear, and attempt to push a finger

or thumb through the material. Theextent and complexity of the damageshould be used to determine theappropriate follow-up action. Largeareas where quilt stitching is brokenor missing may indicate the need toreplace the liner.Thread and/or Seam Damage. Isevidenced by skipped, broken, ormissing stitches. All layers of the PPEmust be checked for any type ofstitch or seam failure.Discolouration. Can indicate manytypes of possible damage including:

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Structural Fire Fighting PPE

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dye loss, frosting, heat degradation,ultraviolet (UV) damage, chemicalcontamination, and others. Theseareas should be thoroughly checkedfor strength and integrity. Any loss ofstrength or weakening or the materi-al(s) is a sign of damage and groundsfor removal from service for repair orretirement.Dye Loss. Resulting from heat orchemical contamination (as opposedto general fabric fading) should bethoroughly checked as to the severityof the damage.Reflective Trim. May be missing,loose, burned, melted, or have lost itsretro-reflective properties. Trim mayappear to be undamaged to thehuman eye when it has actually lostmuch of the ability to reflect. Asimple “flashlight” test in a darkenedarea should suffice for checkingretro-reflective properties of reflectivetrim. Replace trim if the reflectedlight is substantially less than thatwhich would be seen with new trim.

REPAIRSFor the purpose of this section, the term“repair” will include any and allalterations, modifications, additions,deletions or any other change made tothe as-manufactured PPE articles. PPEmust be thoroughly cleaned before anyrepair work is undertaken.

Repairs must be completed on anyand all components of PPE, which havebeen damaged or are affected by therepair.

Repairs must be made using materialsand methods in accordance with theapplicable standard under which thearticle was produced (e.g. manufacturer’sinstructions, CGSB, NFPA, etc.) Thisshould not restrict upgrades approvedby the original manufacturer.

Structural Clothing Repairs. In aneffort to make this guide as useful aspossible, structural clothing is dividedinto the component layers.

OUTER SHELLMinor field repairs can be made to theouter shell. The type of repairs that canbe accomplished in the field are: minortears, char marks and ember burns,minor trim repairs, abrasion damage,minor hardware replacement, skipped,broken and missing stitches, and minorclosure system repairs.

All repairs and alterations should bedone in the same manner and using the

same materials as the original manufac-turer including: fabric, thread type,stitch construction, hardware and hard-ware backing.

Major repairs to the outer shell shouldonly be done by the manufacturer or bya repair facility capable of making theneeded repairs consistent with the man-ufacturer’s methods and with applicablestandards.

MOISTURE BARRIERSField repairs to moisture barriers are notacceptable because the steps necessaryto ensure that the applicable require-ments for hydrostatic testing of themoisture barrier fabric and of the seamsis maintained. Moisture barrier materialsare found in collars, collar closure sys-tems, and may also be found in otherassemblies, including but not limited tostorm flaps and sleevewells. Contact theoriginal manufacturer if unsure as towhether an are to be repaired contains amoisture barrier.

All repairs to the moisture barriermust be done by the manufacturer or bya repair facility capable of making theneeded repairs consistent with the man-ufacturer’s methods and with applicablestandards.

THERMAL LINERSMinor field repairs can be made to ther-mal liners providing there is no stitchingthrough the moisture barrier and themanufacturer’s materials and methodsof construction are maintained. Thetype of repairs that can be made are:minor tears, char marks and emberburns, skipped, broken or missingstitches, and minor hardware repairs.

FOOTWEAR & GLOVE REPAIRBecause of the complexity of construc-tion, all repairs to rubber boots shouldbe referred to the manufacturer. Allrepairs and alterations to glove shouldbe referred to the manufacturer or to arepair facility capable of making therepairs consistent with the originalmanufacturer.

HOOD REPAIRRepair is generally not practical consid-ering the cost of new hoods.

HELMET REPAIRIt is generally accepted that damagedcomponents be replaced. When the costof replacement parts exceeds 50% ofthe cost of a new helmet, the damagedhelmet should be replaced.

REPLACEMENTPersonal protective equipment is one ofthe most important tools that enablesfirefighters to perform their jobs in asafe and effective manner. Fire depart-ments need to recognize that theseitems do not have an indefinite life spanand that routine periodic inspections area necessary part of any personal protec-tive equipment program. The costs ofcleaning, maintaining, and replacingprotective clothing and equipment mustbe weighed against the potential highcosts of injuries to firefighters andliabilities to fire departments.

Personal protective equipment, whichis damaged to the extent where it is noteconomical to repair should be replaced.It is no longer true that dirty and wornout firefighting equipment is a sign ofan experienced firefighter. It is now asign of an uneducated firefighter andpotential liability to the employer.

Replacement criteria are based on anumber of factors: the age and condi-tion of the item, exposures to productsof combustion, hazardous materials, andother contaminants. Physical damagefrom use and improper cleaning areother factors that may affect when anitem should be retired.

When evaluating protective clothingand equipment for repair or replace-ment, it is recommended that whenrepair costs will exceed 50% of thereplacement costs of the item should bereplaced. Additional considerations forretirement include:

● Exposure to extreme heat can causethe outer shell material and or linermaterials to become brittle or weak.

● Discoloration to the point where theouter shell and or liner materialsbecome brittle or weak.

● Items exposed to hazardous materialsto the point that decontamination isnot practical or the cost of cleaningand/or decontamination exceeds 50%of the replacement cost.

● Non-compliance with accepted stan-dards.

● Items showing excessive exposure toUV radiation (sunlight) resulting insignificant loss of tensile strengthshould be retired.

● Replaced items such as gloves andhoods should be destroyed or dis-posed of in a manner assuring thatthey will not be used in any “liveburn” application.

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Care and Maintenance for Structural Fire Fighting PPE

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Helmet Integrated Systems Ltd.Commerce Road · Stranraer · DG9 7DX Scotland.

Tel: +44 (0) 1776 704421 Fax: +44 (0) 1776 706342 E-mail: [email protected]





Cromwell is a registered trademark of Helmet Integrated Systems Limited

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In order for an atmosphere to be capa-ble of burning explosively, four condi-tions must be met. The atmospheremust contain adequate oxygen, ade-quate fuel, a source of ignition, andsufficient molecular energy to sustainthe fire chain reaction. These four con-ditions are frequently diagrammed asthe “Fire Tetrahedron”. If any side of thetetrahedron is missing, incomplete orinsubstantial, combustion will not occur.

The minimum concentration of gas orvapor in air that will ignite and explo-sively burn if a source of ignition ispresent is the Lower Explosive Limit.Different gases and vapors have differ-ent LEL concentrations. Below the LEL,the ratio of combustible gas molecules

to oxygen is too low for combustion tooccur. In other words, the mixture is“too lean” to burn.

Most (but not all) combustible gasesand vapors also have an upper limit ofconcentration beyond which ignitionwill not occur. The Upper ExplosionLimit or UEL is the maximum concen-tration of combustible gas or vapor inair that will support combustion. Abovethe UEL, the ratio of gas to oxygen istoo high for the fire reaction to propa-gate. In other words, the mixture is “toorich” to burn. The difference in concen-tration between the LEL and UEL iscommonly referred to as the Flammabil-ity Range. Combustible gas concentra-tions within the flammability range will burn or explode provided that the other conditions required in the firetetrahedron are met.

Because the flammability range varieswidely between individual gases andvapors, most regulatory standardsexpress hazardous condition thresholdsfor combustible gas in air in percent LELconcentrations. The most commonlycited hazardous condition thresholdconcentrations are 5 or 10% LEL. Tenpercent LEL is the default alarm setpoint on many instruments. Most com-bustible gas instruments read from 0 to100% LEL. For this reason, most com-bustible gas reading instruments alsodisplay readings in percent LEL incre-ments, with a full range of 0–100% LEL.Typically, these sensors are used to pro-vide a hazardous condition thresholdalarm set to 5% or 10% of the LEL con-centration of the gases or vapors beingmeasured. Readings are usually dis-played in increments of +1% LEL.

A fire hazard should always bedeemed to exist whenever readingsexceed 10% LEL. This is the least con-servative (or highest acceptable) alarmset point for instruments used for moni-toring combustible gases and vapors inconfined spaces. An important con-sideration is that many circumstanceswarrant a more conservative, lower alarm set point. The presence of anydetectable concentration of flammable/combustible gas in the confined spaceindicates the existence of an abnormalcondition. The only completely safe

Picture courtesy of BW Technologies



THE POTENTIAL PRESENCE OF combustible gases and vapors is one of themost common of all categories of atmospheric hazards. It stands to reason thatthe sensors used to measure combustible gases are the most widely used typeof sensor included in portable atmospheric monitors; especially those used inconfined space atmospheric monitoring procedures. In spite of the millions ofcombustible sensor equipped atmospheric monitors in service in the world,there is still a lot of misinformation and misunderstanding when it comes to theperformance characteristics and limitations of this very important type ofsensor. Understanding how combustible sensors detect gas is critical tocorrectly interpreting readings, and avoiding misuse of instruments thatinclude this type of sensor.

By Robert E. Henderson

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concentration of combustible gas in aconfined space is 0% LEL. In addition,specific procedures or activities mayrequire taking action at a lower concen-tration.

HOW COMBUSTIBLE SENSORS DETECT GASMost commonly used combustible gassensors detect gas by catalytically oxi-dizing or “burning” the gas on an activebead or “pellistor” located within thesensor. While there are numerous varia-tions, the underlying detection principlehas not changed for the better part of a

century. The catalytic-bead sensor con-tains two coils of fine platinum wire,which are coated with a ceramic orporous alumina material to form beads.The beads are wired into opposing armsof a balanced Wheatstone Bridge elec-trical circuit. One bead is additionallytreated with a platinum or palladium-based material that allows catalyzedcombustion to occur on the “active” (ordetector) bead. The catalyst is not con-sumed during combustion. Combustionoccurs at concentrations far below theLEL concentration. Even trace amountsof gas or vapor in the air surroundingthe sensor can oxidize catalytically onthe active bead. The “reference” bead inthe circuit lacks the catalyst material,but in other respects exactly resemblesthe active bead.

A voltage applied across the activeand reference beads causes them toheat. Heating is necessary for catalyticoxidation to occur. The temperaturerequired may be as high as 500°C, or insome cases, even higher. In fresh air the Wheatstone Bridge circuit is bal-anced; that is, the voltage output iszero. If combustible gas is present,oxidation heats the active bead to aneven higher temperature. The tempera-ture of the untreated reference bead isunaffected by the presence of gas.Because the two beads are strung onopposite arms of the Wheatstone Bridgecircuit, the difference in temperaturebetween the beads is registered by theinstrument as a change in electricalresistance.

Heating the beads to normal operat-ing temperature requires power from theinstrument battery. The amount of

power required is a serious constraint onthe battery life of the instrument.Recent sensor designs have attemptedto reduce the amount of power requiredby operating the sensor at a lower tem-perature. While this approach may resultin longer battery life, it may also resultin the sensor being easier to poison orinhibit, since contaminants, whichmight have been volatilized at a highertemperature, can more easily accumu-late on the bead. It is particularlyimportant to verify the calibration oflow power combustible sensors by expo-sure to known concentration test gas ona regular basis. The combustible sensorelements are usually enclosed in arobust stainless-steel housing. Gasenters the sensor by first passingthrough a sintered, stainless steel flamearrestor. The sintered flame arrestortends to act as a physical barrier thatslows or inhibits the free diffusion ofgas molecules into the sensor. Thesmaller the molecule, the more readily itis able to diffuse through the flamearrestor, penetrate the sintered surfaceof the bead, and interact with thecatalyst in the oxidation reaction.

Catalytic-bead sensors respond to awide range of ignitable gases andvapors. The amount of heat producedby the combustion of a particulargas/vapor on the active bead reflects theheat of combustion for that substance.The heat of combustion varies from onesubstance to another. For this reasonreadings may vary between equivalentconcentrations of different combustiblegases. As an example, a 50% LEL con-centration of pentane provides onlyabout one-half of the heating effect onthe active bead of the sensor as a 50%LEL concentration of methane on thesame sensor. Another way of expressingthis relationship is as a “relativeresponse” of the sensor to pentane.When the instrument is calibrated tomethane, the relative response of thesensor to pentane is only 50%. Thismeans that the readings for pentane willbe only 50% of the true concentration.

Hot-bead pellistor combustible gassensors are unable to differentiatebetween different combustible gases.They provide one signal based on thetotal heating effects of all the gasescapable of being oxidized that arepresent in the vicinity of the sensor.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Picture courtesy of BW Technologies

Understanding Combusti

Catalytic-bead sensors respond toa wide range of ignitable gasesand vapors. The amount of heatproduced by the combustion of aparticular gas/vapor on the activebead reflects the heat ofcombustion for that substance.

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ROLE OF FLASH POINT IN MONITORING OF IGNITABLE GASES AND VAPORSIn order for combustion to occur, thevapor of the substance must be presentin the atmosphere. As a general rule, it’sthe vapor, not the liquid that burns.Vaporization is a function of tempera-ture. Increasing the temperature of theliquid increases the rate and amount ofvapor that is produced. The flashpointtemperature is the minimum temperatureat which a liquid gives off enough vaporto form an ignitable concentration.

Catalytic-bead sensors, at least whenoperated in the percent LEL range, maynot adequately detect “heavy” or long-chain hydrocarbons, or the vapors fromhigh flashpoint temperature liquids suchas turpentine’s, diesel fuel or jet fuel.Use of alternative types of gas detectors,such as a photoionization detector (PID)may be a better approach if you need tomonitor for the presence of these typesof hydrocarbon vapors. Some manufac-turers suggest that their percent LELsensors should not be used measurevolatile aromatic compounds (VOCs) orcombustible liquids with flashpoint tem-peratures higher than 100°F (38°C).Consult the Operator’s Manual, or con-tact the manufacturer directly to verifythe capabilities of the instrument designwhen using a catalytic-bead LEL sensorto monitor for the presence of thesetypes of contaminants.

CATALYTIC-BEAD COMBUSTIBLE SENSORS NEED OXYGEN TO DETECT GASCatalytic-bead sensors require at leasteight to ten percent oxygen by volumeto detect accurately. A combustiblesensor in a 100 percent gas or vaporenvironment will produce a reading ofzero percent LEL. This is the reason thattesting protocols for evaluating confinedspaces specify measuring oxygen firstand then combustible gases and vapors.For this reason confined space instru-ments that contain catalytic-beadsensors should also include a sensor formeasuring oxygen. If the instrumentbeing used does not include an oxygensensor, be especially cautious wheninterpreting results. A rapid up-scalereading followed by a declining or erraticreading may indicate that the environ-ment contains insufficient oxygen forthe sensor to read accurately. (It may

also indicate a gas concentration beyondthe upper scale limit for the sensor, thepresence of a contaminant, which hascaused a sudden inhibition, or loss ofsensitivity in the sensor, or other con-dition, which prevents the sensor orinstrument from obtaining proper read-ings.) The minimum amount of oxygenthat must be present for the sensor todetect accurately is a function of design.Capabilities vary from one manufacturerto another. Users who anticipate usingtheir instruments in potentially oxygendeficient environments should contactthe manufacturer for assistance.

CALIBRATION AND RELATIVE RESPONSE OF COMBUSTIBLE SENSORSA combustible gas sensor may be cali-brated to any number of different gasesor vapors. Where possible, the usershould calibrate the instrument toachieve the level of sensitivity requiredfor the substances to be measured.

Calibration is a two-step procedure. Inthe first step the instrument is exposedto contaminant free “fresh” air (that is,air which contains 20.9% oxygen and nocombustible gas), turned on, and allowedto warm-up fully. The combustible sensorshould read zero. If necessary, the com-bustible sensor is adjusted to read zero.Instrument manuals and other supportmaterials usually refer to this step as the“fresh air zero.”

The second step is to expose thesensor to known concentration calibra-tion gas, and (if necessary) adjust thereadings to match the concentration.This is called making a “span adjust-ment”. A “span adjustment” sets thesensitivity of the sensor to a specific

gas. Always follow the manufacturer’sinstructions when calibrating or adjust-ing the instrument.

Instruments used only for a monitor-ing a single gas should be calibratedwith that particular gas. Calibrationchoices are more difficult when theinstrument may be exposed to a varietyof different combustible gases because,as noted previously, equivalent concen-trations of different combustible gasesmay produce different readings. Gasesthat produce lower relative readingsthan the gas used to calibrate theinstrument can create a potentiallydangerous error.

CATALYTIC-BEAD POISONS AND INHIBITORSThe atmosphere in which an instrumentis used can have an effect on catalytic-bead sensors. Poisoning or degradedperformance can occur when com-bustible sensors are exposed to certainsubstances. Commonly encounteredsubstances that degrade LEL sensorperformance include silicones; lead con-taining compounds (especially tetraethyllead), sulfur containing compounds,substances containing phosphorus andhalogenated hydrocarbons. Combustiblesensors can also be affected by exposureto high concentrations of ignitablemixtures.

Any conditions, incidents, experi-ences, or exposure to contaminants thatmight adversely affect the combustiblesensor should trigger immediate verifi-cation of the proper performance of thesensor before continued use. This can bedone very simply by flowing knownconcentration test gas over the sensor,and noting the response. If the readings

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


tible Sensor Performance

The atmosphere in which aninstrument is used can have aneffect on catalytic-bead sensors.Poisoning or degradedperformance can occur whencombustible sensors are exposedto certain substances.

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are accurate, the sensor is safe to use. Ifthe readings are inaccurate or out ofcalibration, the sensor must be recali-brated before further use.

POTENTIAL FOR LOSS OF SENSITIVITY TO METHANEAge and usage can affect the sensitivityof combustible sensors. Chronic expo-sure to low levels of poisons orinhibitors acts cumulatively. This usuallymeans that the sensitivity must beincreased when calibration occurs. Inthe extreme, the sensor may requirereplacement. This again demonstratesthat regular calibration is essential tothe safe use of combustible sensors.

For many combustible sensors, ifsensitivity is lost due to poisoning, ittends to be lost first with regards tomethane. This means that a partiallypoisoned sensor might still respondaccurately to other combustible gaseswhile showing a significantly reducedresponse to methane. This is a partic-ularly important concern for instru-ments used to monitor atmospheresassociated with confined spaces, wheremethane is by far the most commonly

encountered combustible gas. There are several calibration strategies

used by manufacturers to guard againstincorrect readings due loss of sensitivityto methane. The first is to calibrate theinstrument using the calibration gas,which provides the best level of sensitiv-ity (for instance propane or pentane)and then expose the sensor to a knownconcentration of methane. The relativeresponse factor for methane can then beused to verify whether there has beenloss of sensitivity. This approach increas-es the time needed to calibrate theinstrument and complicates the logis-tics. Another problem is what to do ifthere has been a loss of sensitivity tomethane.

The second approach is to calibratethe instrument directly to methane. Aninstrument “spanned” to methane willcontinue to detect methane accuratelyeven when loss of sensitivity develops.Spanning the instrument during calibra-tion simply makes up for any loss insensitivity. However, when the sensor iscalibrated with methane, readings formost other substances tend to be lowerthan actual.

The third approach is to calibrateusing methane at a concentration thatproduces a level of sensitivity equivalentto that provided by the gas of greatestinterest. Several manufacturers offer“equivalent” or “simulant” calibrationmixtures based on methane, but in con-centrations that provide the same spansensitivity as direct calibration usingpropane, pentane or hexane calibrationgas. As previously discussed, 50% LELpentane produces one-half the heatingeffect on the active bead in a normallyfunctioning sensor as a 50% LEL con-centration of methane. This also meansthat if you use a 25% LEL concentrationof methane, but “span” adjust the read-ings to equal 50% LEL while the sensoris exposed to this gas, you wind up with a pentane level of span sensitivity,but since you have used methane tocalibrate the instrument, you know thatthe sensor is still responsive to methane.

The fourth approach now offered bymany manufacturers is to include a userselectable library of correction factors inthe instrument design. In this case, theuser simply calibrates using methane,then selects “pentane” or any othercorrection factor in the library, and theinstrument automatically recalculatesreadings according to the selected rela-tive response. The benefit of thismethod, once again, is that sincemethane is used as the calibration gas,incremental loss of sensitivity tomethane simply results in the instru-ment being “over-spanned”, or produc-ing higher than actual readings for the gas selected from the library ofcorrection factors.

Calibration verifies that sensorsremain accurate. If exposure to test gasindicates a loss of sensitivity, the instru-ment needs adjustment. If the sensorscannot be properly adjusted, they mustbe replaced before any further use ofthe instrument. This is an essential partof ownership.

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Robert Henderson is Vice President,Business Development for BWTechnologies. Mr. Henderson hasbeen a member of the AmericanIndustrial Hygiene Associationsince 1992. He is a currently theVice Chair of the AIHA Gas andVapor Detection Systems TechnicalCommittee. He is also a currentmember and past chair of the AIHAConfined Spaces Committee. He isalso a past chair of the InstrumentProducts Group of the InternationalSafety Equipment Association.

Picture courtesy of BW Technologies

Age and usage can affect thesensitivity of combustible sensors.Chronic exposure to low levels ofpoisons or inhibitors actscumulatively.

P. 25-28 Understanding Combust 17/11/06 7:20 am Page 28

Page 31: APF Issue 13

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With a bewildering array of firesuppression products availabletoday, it is hard to know which

system to use for any specific application.Therefore, it is essential to obtain guid-ance from an unbiased source with accessto a wide range of products, rather thanfrom a single product supplier.

Kidde Fire Protection has a total capa-bility approach to fire suppression. Kiddemanufactures all major fire suppressiontechnologies with systems having inter-national third party approvals andcertification, and is therefore able toprovide unbiased guidance on selectingthe right suppression solution.

The main product groups are CarbonDioxide, Water mist, Inert gas such asArgonite, plus Chemical agents FM-200®and 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire ProtectionFluid. Other generic suppression agentsare available but these are in the minorityand often have associated restrictionsthat limit their uses.

Carbon DioxideCO2 has been part of the Kidde rangesince the 1930s. Suitable for “total flood”or “local application” systems it has longbeen established as a cost effective andversatile solution for industrial applica-tions. Naturally occurring in the atmos-phere, CO2 has no environmentalrestrictions on fire fighting use. Although

an asphyxiant, it is used widely inunmanned applications. It can be used inmanned areas, providing appropriaterestrictions and safety measures areadhered to. Evidence from over 100,000CO2 systems installed in the past 50 yearsshows that CO2 can be used safely.

AquaSafe This “water mist” technology uses water,the most natural of substances, deployedas a fine mist made up from droplets inthe range of 40 to 400 micron in diameter.It works by a combination of cooling andinerting and has the added advantage ofremoving airborne smoke particles andabsorbing water-soluble toxic and irritantgases. However, water mist is not a totalflooding agent and is transient in nature.It must be recognised that permanentextinguishing may not be attained if re-ignition sources are present.

ArgoniteArgonite is an “inert gas blend”, 50%Argon and 50% Nitrogen. With zeroOzone Depletion Potential and GlobalWarming Potential, it has no atmosphericlifetime. When Argonite is discharged intoan enclosed space it displaces oxygen,reducing it from the normal 21% to alevel at which fires will be effectivelyextinguished. A typical design concentra-tion of 40% will reduce the oxygen level

to 12.5% within 60 seconds. In occupiedareas, personnel can continue to breathesafely at this level for short periods oftime. Although the space requirement forstorage cylinders may be greater thanthat for chemical agents, with cylinderstorage pressures of 300bar it can protectlarge volumes with cylinder storageremote from the risk.


FM-200 (HFC227ea) is a hydroflouro-carbon with wide global acceptance. Witha zero Ozone Depletion Potential and ashort atmospheric lifetime, it has provedto be the most widely used Halonreplacement, and an excellent fire sup-pression agent in its own right, with tensof thousands of systems installed world-wide. It works by absorbing heat fromboth the flame and the fuel, reducing thetemperature to a point where the flamecannot sustain itself and the fire isextinguished. Short discharge times oftypically 6 to 10 seconds provide rapidextinguishing. It’s safe for use inoccupied areas within prescribed concen-trations and exposure times. With arelatively small cylinder storage footprintFM-200 is ideally suited to use in areaswere space is at a premium or weightrestrictions apply.

3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fluid3M Novec 1230 fluid is utilised by Kiddein its latest clean agent offering KD-1230®.

This Fluoroketone is stored as a liquidbut thanks to advanced nozzle tech-nology is discharged as a colourless, non-conductive and non-corrosive gas.Novec1230 fluid has the highest heatcapacity of any commercially availablechemical suppression agent, giving lowextinguishing concentrations and safetymargins of up to 100%. With zero OzoneDepletion Potential and an atmosphericlifetime of 5 days it meets demands forsafety, extinguishing performance andthe environment.


For more information, please contact:


ThameOxfordshire OX9 3RT UK

Tel: +44 1844 265003Fax: +44 1844 265156E-mail: [email protected]: www.kfp.co.uk

KD-1230 Novec system

Fire Suppression Solutions from


P. 30 Kidde Product Profile 17/11/06 7:22 am Page 30

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Further Information: Hannover Associates, Mr David F. Sansom, Hannover House, 4 Hurst View Road, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 7 AG, Tel.: (+44) 20 86 88 95 41, Fax: (+44) 20 86 8100 69, www. hannoverfair.co.uk

BURNING ISSUESHannover6 – 11 JUNE 2005


Together with INTERPOLICE

apf13 p31 17/11/06 7:23 am Page 1

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


In recent years, however, increasingpublic interest in the long-term envi-ronmental, health and safety effects

of all chemical products has greatlyexpanded the scope and definition ofrisk management. Business decisionsnow must take into considerationwhether the use or mis-use of a particu-lar product will increase the risk of fines,litigation and damage to corporatereputations.

One clear example of this trend hasplayed out over the past few years in thearea of providing fire protection forhazards involving flammable liquids.Here, a number of related technologies(in the form of synthetic and semi-synthetic foams, most of which employfluorine-based surfactants) had been

developed and used with great successover several decades to mitigate risksfrom fires and fuel spills.

Today, however, increased regulatoryscrutiny of the long-term environmentalcharacteristics of conventional fire fight-ing foams has resulted in a growinginterest in alternative technologies thatcan not only provide effective extin-guishment or vapour suppression offlammable liquid hazards, but that alsohave minimal effect on the environmentand human health, and offer the addedbenefit of significantly reduced cost ofclean-up after use.

Recent efforts by foam manufacturersto achieve this ideal balance of proper-ties have met with limited success.However, in 2003, 3M Australia formally

introduced a unique new foam technol-ogy, 3M™ RF-Series Fire FightingFoams, that uses no fluorochemicals inits formulation, while offering com-parable performance to commerciallyavailable AFFFs.

According to Chizzy Nnamchi, Busi-ness Development Manager, Oil & GasBusiness, 3M Asia Pacific, the wide-spread acceptance of 3M RF foamtechnology by professional firefightersaround the world is directly attributableto industry’s need for better ways tomanage today’s expanded definitions ofrisk.

“Fire professionals have been underincreasing pressure to consider the envi-ronmental issues surrounding their useof firefighting foams,” he said. “That’swhy there has been so much interestsurrounding our new 3M RF-Seriesfoams, which contain no fluoro-chemicals in their formulations, and canbe successfully treated in biologicalwastewater treatment systems.”

Nnamchi is quick to point out,however, that extinguishing and sealingperformance is still the primary con-sideration used to evaluate any firefighting foam. This is the critical area,he says, where 3M RF-Series foams leaveother so-called “green” foam technolo-gies far behind.

“3M RF-Series foams have beendemonstrated to meet and exceed anumber of critical international stan-dards, including the rigid ICAO Level-Bspecification and meeting CEN/EN-1568requirements for extinguishing andsecuring performance,” he says. “And itis the only non-fluorocarbon-basedfoam concentrate to meet the ICAOLevel-B fire performance rating, withtest results witnessed by Det NorskeVeritas (DNV).”

Successful performance under con-trolled test conditions is important; butthe real measure of a foam’s ability toreduce risk can only be judged by its per-formance in real-world emergencies. Inthe short time since their introduction,3M RF-Series foams have played a criticalrole in the successful extinguishment of a

3M RF-Series foams have played a critical role in the successful extinguishment of large-scale fire emergencies in the Middle East, Japan and other areas around the world

Re-defining risk managementin a “green” world

3 M C O M P A

MANAGING RISK IS AN overriding concern that cuts across all businesssectors, from manufacturing and transportation to oil/gas exploration,production and refining. Technologies used to mitigate risks – such as firefighting foams – have traditionally been evaluated primarily on their ability topromote personnel safety, continuity of operations and property protection.

P. 32-33 3M Company Profile 17/11/06 7:24 am Page 32

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number of large-scale fire emergencies inthe Middle East, Japan and other areasaround the world. Ted Schaefer, achemist with 3M Australia who led theteam that developed the new 3M RFfoam technology, explains that althoughthese foams use a different extinguishingand securing mechanism than AFFFs orfluoroprotein foams, firefighters shouldnotice little difference in their applicationor performance.

“The new 3M RF-Series foams moverapidly over the surface of hydrocarbonliquids, providing fast extinguishmentand effective vapour suppression. Thelong-lasting, self-healing foam blanketproduced has excellent heat resistance,and will stick to hot metal surfaces.” Hewent on to say that 3M RF-Series foamsare effective in most conventional fixedand portable foam equipment andsystems, and are compatible with drychemical agents.

This unique combination of perfor-mance and environmental attributes isthe reason why a growing number ofrefineries, airports, shipowners and otheremergency responders are making 3MRF-Series foams their “weapon ofchoice” for flammable liquid fire protec-tion. Nor has their use been confined toindustrial firefighters. According toMarino Mystegniotis, Oil and Gas Mar-ket Business Manager with 3M Australia,municipal and rural fire brigades in NewZealand, Tasmania, Queensland andelsewhere in Australia have adopted orare evaluating 3M RF-3 foam for use against transportation emergencies,bush fires and even for trainingpurposes. “By improving the wettingand penetrating properties of water, 3MRF-3 foam provides outstanding extin-guishment of Class-A fires involvingfurnishings, wood, rubbers and plastics,”he explains. “And it can be successfullytreated in biological wastewatertreatment systems.”

The growing market acceptance of3M RF-Series foams among firefighters,insurers, equipment manufacturers andend users comes as no surprise to 3M’sNnamchi, who points out that 3M has along tradition of innovation in flammableliquid fire protection. In fact, he says,this tradition dates back to the 1960s,when the company worked with the U.S.Navy to develop the first aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs), and continuesto this day.

“Since the year 2000, when 3Mannounced it was discontinuing themanufacture of perfluorooctanyl chem-istry – a chemistry that was used informulating 3M™ Light Water™ Foamproducts – we have been working hardto develop alternative chemistries that would offer our customers animproved balance of performance and

environmental properties,” he explains. Nnamchi goes on to say, however,

that there is a third key factor – beyondperformance and environmental proper-ties – that determines a foam product’sability to reduce risk. Specifically thequestion is, in the event of a large-scaleemergency, can sufficient supplies ofthat foam be marshaled to the scene, inorder to mount a quick, decisive attack?And, can that be accomplished, no mat-ter where or how remote the location?

“3M™ Light Water™ FirefightingFoam became one of the world’s best-selling brand of foam products, not onlybecause of its performance, but becauseof the extensive emergency responsenetwork that was developed to supportits users in the oil and gas, aviation,marine and other industries. Today, weare committed to providing that samelevel of support to users of 3M RF-Series products.” He explains that thissupport is manifested in a variety ofways, including rapid deployment ofemergency foam stocks; coordinatingresponse efforts with partnering com-panies such as ALERT Disaster Control;regular foam quality testing; technicalsupport; and training.

3M RF-Series foams are available inboth 3% and 6% concentrate form, forhydrocarbons, gasohols and Class Ahazards, and as a new alcohol-type con-centrate, designed for both hydrocarbonand polar solvent hazards. This latestproduct, 3M™ RF-ATC Foam Concen-trate, will be introduced to the marketin March this year.

Other 3M fire protection productsinclude 3M™ Fire-Brake Bushfire Fight-ing Foam; 3M™ Super ConcentrateTraining Foam; 3M™ Hi-Ex Foam, foruse in confined spaces such as mineshafts and ship holds; and 3M™ Novec™1230 Fire Protection Fluid, a low global-warming clean extinguishing agenthalon replacement alternative to HFCs.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


3M’s newest RF-Series product, 3M™RF-ATC Foam Concentrate, is designedfor use against both hydrocarbon andpolar solvent hazards


For more information on 3M RF-Series foams, contact:

3M TECHNOLOGIES (S) PTE LTD.Fire Fighting Foam Products

+65 6450 [email protected]

3M AUSTRALIA PTY LTDPerformance Material Division

Toll Free: 136 136

Successful performance undercontrolled test conditions isimportant; but the real measure ofa foam’s ability to reduce risk canonly be judged by its performancein real-world emergencies.

P. 32-33 3M Company Profile 17/11/06 7:24 am Page 33

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DECONTAMINATIONSHOWERS MARKET GUIDEThe Aire GroupWoodlandsDale StreetLongwoodHuddersfieldWest Yorkshire HD3 4TDEnglandTel: +44 1484 646 559Fax: +44 1484 644 450E-mail: [email protected]: www.airegroup.com

MODEL AireshowerORIGIN UKCONSTRUCTION InflatableMODULAR (Y or N) YesOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 2.4 L x 2.1 W x 2.3 HWEIGHT 70kgMATERIAL USED 1300gm/m HypalonINTERNAL LAYOUT Single StageACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) YesINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) YesDEPLOYMENT TIME Less than 5 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) 120 WalkingMAIN USAGE Mass DecontaminationADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Yes


AUTOFLUG INFLATABLE STRUCTURES GmbHMODEL DK 04 DK 08 DK 10 DK 15 DK 30ORIGIN GERMANY GERMANY GERMANY GERMANY GERMANYCONSTRUCTION I I I I IRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) N N Y Y YOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 2 x 2 x 2,4 2 x 3,8 x 2,4 3,1 x 3,7 x 2,4 5 x 3 x 2,8 6 x 6 x 2,9WEIGHT 30kg 50kg 50kg 70kg 115kgMATERIAL USED PVC cabin PVC cabin Tent with inside showercabinINTERNAL LAYOUT S S S S MSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = M Reconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) Y Y Y Y YINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) Y Y Y Y YDEPLOYMENT TIME 3 – 5 minutes 3 – 5 minutes 3 – 5 minutes 5 – 7 minutes 5 – 7 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) 10 – 12 10 – 20 40 – 60 40 – 60 40 – 60 MAIN USAGE Emergency Service Personnel = P P/E P/E P/E/M P/E/M P/E/MEquipment = E Mass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) N N Y Y Y

FSI FIRE SAFETY INTERNATIONAL, INC.™MODEL DAT™2020S DAT™2525S DAT™2626S DAT™3030S DAT™3535SORIGIN USA USA USA USA USACONSTRUCTION I I I I IRigid = R Inflatable = I Demountable Body = DB Trailer = T MODULAR (Y or N) N N N N NOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 2.12 W x 2.12 L x 2.12 H 2.12 W x 4 L x 2.4 H 2.12 W x 4 L x 2.4 H 3.03 W x 3.03 L x 2.4 H 3.03 W x 4.5 L x 2.4 H WEIGHT (Kg) 36 42 42 43 63MATERIALS all FSI units are UV/Chem. Resist. & Fire retardant 1100 Dtex plastomer coated polyester berms 420 denier poly coated nylonINTERNAL LAYOUT S/R M/R S/R M/R M/RSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = M Reconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) N Y Y Y x 2 Y x 2INTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) N N N N NDEPLOYMENT TIME in minutes 30 seconds 30 seconds 30 seconds 30 seconds 40 secondsTHROUGHPUT (No./hour) Based on what criteria? 6-30 18-90 6 to 12 12 to 24 24-130 amb/12-24 non ambMAIN USAGE P/E P/E/M P/E/M P/E/M P/E/MEmergency Service Personnel = P Equipment = E Mass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y Y

Autoflug inflatable Structures GmbHIndustriestrasse 10D-25462 Rellingen/GermanyTel: +49 4101 307-312Fax: +49 4101 307-316E-mail: [email protected]: www.autoflug.com

FSI North AmericaA division of Fire Safety International, Inc.311 Abbe Road, Sheffield LakeOH 44054, USATel: +1 440 949 2400 Fax: +1 440 949 2900E-mail: [email protected]: www.fsinorth.com

No picture available

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MODEL HM1001 HM3000 HM4000 HM2000ORIGIN USA USA USA USACONSTRUCTION R R R RRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) Y N Y NOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) .68 L x .68 W x 1.87 H 1.09 L x 1.18 W x 2.25 H 3.04 L x .91 W x 2.13 H 1.44 L x .66 W x 2.20 HWEIGHT 43.09kg 20.41kg 81.64kg 7.25kgMATERIAL USED PVC PVC PVC PVCINTERNAL LAYOUT S S M SSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = M Reconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) Y Y Y NINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) N N N NDEPLOYMENT TIME 3-4 minutes 2 minutes 10 minutes 2 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) 20 20 80 15MAIN USAGE P P M PEmergency Service Personnel = P Equipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y


DQE, Inc.5732 West 71st StreetIndianapolis, IN 46278, USATel: +1 317 295 9770Fax: +1 317 295 9822E-mail: [email protected]: www.dqeready.com

MODEL PORTAflex 75 PORTAflex 200 PORTAflex 300 PORTAflex 500ORIGIN UK UK UK UKCONSTRUCTION R R R RRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) N N N NOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 1.04 L x 0.76 W x 2.5 H 1.28 L x 0.52 W x 2.5 H 0.77 L x 0.5 W x 2.5 H 1.4 L x 0.4 W x 2.5 HWEIGHT 17kg 29.5kg 25kg 85kgMATERIAL USED Stainless Steel/Aluminium/ Stainless Steel/Aluminium/ Aluminium Aluminium

Duraline lay flat hosing Duraline lay flat hosingINTERNAL LAYOUT S S S SSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = MReconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) N N N NINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) N N N NDEPLOYMENT TIME 30 seconds 30 seconds 45 seconds 5 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) N/A N/A N/A N/AMAIN USAGE P/E P/E P/E PEmergency Service Personnel = PEquipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y


HUGHES SAFETY SHOWERS LTD.MODEL CUPOLAdecon 1 CUPOLAdecon 2 CUPOLAdecon 3 CUPOLAdecon 4 CUPOLAdecon 5ORIGIN UK UK UK UK UKCONSTRUCTION I I I I IRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) Y Y Y Y YOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 4.05 L x 3.45 W x 2.94 H 3.4 L x 2.8 W x 2.65 H 3.5 L x 4.3 W x 3.0 H 4.5 L x 4.3 W x 3.0 H 5.5 L x 4.3 W x 3.0 H

4.4 L x 2.8 W x 2.65 H (with sump extension)

WEIGHT 75kg 85kg 100kg 125kg 150kgMATERIAL USED Neoprene coated polyester/ Neoprene coated polyester/ Neoprene coated polyester/ Neoprene coated polyester/ Neoprene coated polyester/Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane PolyurethaneINTERNAL LAYOUT M/R S M/R M/R M/RSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = MReconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) Y Y Y Y YINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) Y Y Y Y YDEPLOYMENT TIME 8 minutes 7 minutes 8 minutes 8 minutes 8 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) 500 – 800 100 200 – 300 250 – 350 350 – 450MAIN USAGE M P/E M M MEmergency Service Personnel = PEquipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y Y

Hughes Safety Showers Ltd.Whitefield Road, Bredbury, StockportCheshire SK6 2SS, EnglandTel: +44 161 430 6618Fax: +44 161 430 7928E-mail: [email protected]: www.hughes-safety-showers.co.uk

No picture available

No picture available

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Hughes Safety Showers Ltd.Whitefield Road Bredbury Stockport Cheshire SK6 2SS England

Telephone: +44 (0)161 430 6618 Fax: +44 (0)161 430 7928Email: [email protected] Web: www.hughes-safety-showers.co.uk


Selected by HM Government as the frontline general purpose decontamination showerfor chemical spillages and accidents…also chosen for decontaminating the emergency services in case of CBRN incidents

• Designed for rapid deployment• Built to the highest standards• Robust and reliable• Proven track record

For effective and efficient decontaminationcall the experts now on:

+44(0)161 430 6618







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nd D58

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The DATTM 4099S 5-line Mass Casualty Decon Shower Systemdecontaminates 5 and/or up to 10 non-ambulatory, 5 and/or upto 10 ambulatory personnel or any combination in a 5’ L undress

area/ 13’ L shower area/ 5’ redress area configuration.

This is a one piece, 15’ W x 23’ L x 9’ H, fully integrated Mass Casualty unit with built-in decon shower pool

area complete with all shower heads, trigger guns, 4 center and 15 –1/5th cross divider privacy curtains, windows,

skylights, inflator/deflator, ropes/stakes, repair kit, manual, highpressure SCBA compressed air fill valve, air vents.

Simply supply water and commence decon in less than 3 minutes.

Multiple Optional Accessories Available

DATTM 4099S5-line Mass Casualty Decon Shower System



FSI North AmericaTM

A Division of Fire Safety International, Inc.TM

311 Abbe Road • Sheffield Lake, OH USA 44054440/949-2400 Fax: 440/949-2900 • Email: [email protected]

Visit us at www.fsinorth.com to see our full range of mobile, portable,

and fixed hazmat decon showers, shelters and accessories.FSI now offers a wide range of Negative and Positive Pressure Isolation

Shower and Shelter Systems.

For advertising and editorial enquiries please contact:

Mark BathardSales & Editorial Manager

International Fire Fighter (IFF) MagazineTel: +44 (0) 1460 249199Fax: +44 (0) 1460 249292

E-mail: [email protected]


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MODEL Decas V10 Custom Fire Service Custom Built DPI DPI x2ORIGIN UK USA UK UKCONSTRUCTION I R /T I IRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) Y N Y YOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) Custom Built Custom Built 1.9 L x 1.9 W x 2.3 H 2.9 L x 1.9 W x 2.3 HWEIGHT Custom Built Custom Built 35kg 42kgMATERIAL USED Custom Built Custom Built PU PUINTERNAL LAYOUT Custom Built Custom Built SSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = M S/M/R S/M/R Reconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) Y Y N YINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) Y Y Y YDEPLOYMENT TIME Variable Variable 2 minutes 2 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) Variable Variable Variable VariableMAIN USAGE P/E/M P/E/M P/E P/EEmergency Service Personnel = PEquipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y


MODEL DPI NBC DECAS NBC DECAS W DECAS V2ORIGIN UK UK UK UKCONSTRUCTION I I I IRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) Y Y Y YOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) Custom Built Custom Built 2.9 M L x 1.9 M W x 2.3 M H 2.9 M L 1.9 M W x 2.3 M HWEIGHT Custom Built Custom Built 40kg 40kgMATERIAL USED PU PU PU PUINTERNAL LAYOUT Custom Built Custom Built Custom Built Custom BuiltSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = MReconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) Y Y Y YINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) Y Y Y YDEPLOYMENT TIME 2 minutes 2 minutes 2 minutes 2 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) Variable Variable Variable VariableMAIN USAGE P/E P/E P/E P/EEmergency Service Personnel = PEquipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y

PPS cont.

PPS LtdProtection House, Sherbourne Drive,Tilbrook, Milton Keynes MK7 8AP, EnglandTel: +44 1908 272 240Fax: +44 1908 371 605E-mail: [email protected]: www.ppsgb.com

MODEL PORTAflex CUPOLA PORTAdec 1000 PORTAdec 2000 Emergency Response anddecontamination Unit (ERDU)

ORIGIN UK UK UK UKCONSTRUCTION I R R DBRigid = R – Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB – Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) N N N NOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 2.2 L x 2.2 W x 2.6 H 1.1 L x 1.1 W x 2.7 H 2.2 L x 1.1 W x 2.55 H Standard body pod 6.0 L x 2.2 W x

2.82 H – other sizes to order WEIGHT 45kg 40kg 100kg Depends on designMATERIAL USED Neoprene coated polyester/ PVC coated nylon/ PVC coated Nylon/ GRP faced panels/Aluminium frame

Polyurethane Aluminium AluminiumINTERNAL LAYOUT S S S M/RSingle Stage = S – Multi-Stage = MReconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) N N Y YINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) Y Y Y YDEPLOYMENT TIME 2 minutes 4 minutes 3 minutes 5 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) N/A N/A N/A 150 – 250MAIN USAGE P P/E P/E P/MEmergency Service Personnel = P P/MEquipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y


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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


MODEL DECAS V3 DECAS X2 T NHS NBC UNIT MP DECON SYSTEMORIGIN UK UK UK USACONSTRUCTION I I I RRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) Y Y Y NOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 5.5 L x 2.9 W x 2.3 H 2.9 L x 2.9 W x 2.3 H 2.9 L x 2.9 W x 2.3 H Qty 4 off – 4 L x 3.5 W x 2.75 HWEIGHT 120kg 75kg 65kg 82kgMATERIAL USED PU PU PU Custom BuiltINTERNAL LAYOUT Custom Built Custom Built Custom Built Custom BuiltSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = M S M RReconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) Y Y Y YINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) Y Y Y YDEPLOYMENT TIME 4 minutes 4 minutes 4 minutes 15 minutes all 4 sectionsTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) Variable Variable Variable VariableMAIN USAGE P/E/M P/E/M P/E/M P/E/MEmergency Service Personnel = PEquipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y

PPS cont.

MODEL 3 LINE DECON SYSTEM 2 LINE DECON SYSTEM INDIVIDUAL DECON SYSTEM FIRST RESPONSEORIGIN USA USA USA UKCONSTRUCTION R R R IRigid = R Inflatable = IDemountable Body = DB Trailer = TMODULAR (Y or N) N N N YOUTSIDE DIMENSIONS (Metres) 6 L 3.35 W x 2.75 H 6.9 L x 3.35 W x 2.75 H 1.52 L x 1.83 W x 2.75 H VariableWEIGHT 98kg 98kg 25kg VariableMATERIAL USED Custom Built Custom Built Custom BuiltINTERNAL LAYOUT Custom Built Custom Built Custom BuiltSingle Stage = S Multi-Stage = M S/M/R S S/M/RReconfigurable = RACCEPTS STRETCHER (Y or N) Y Y N YINTEGRAL SUMP (Y or N) Y Y Y YDEPLOYMENT TIME Variable Variable 3 minutes 15 minutesTHROUGHPUT (Number per hour) Variable Variable VariableMAIN USAGE P/E/M P/E P/E/MEmergency Service Personnel = PEquipment = EMass Decontamination = MADAPTABLE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATES (Y or N) Y Y Y Y

PPS cont.

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Modern systems provide a levelof safety that far exceeds con-cepts previously experienced

in fire training. A “state-of-the-art”control system, instructor pendants anda wide range of automatic and manualsafety features provide 100% safety andsecurity at all times during training.

The new range of PLC- or computercontrolled, gas fuelled hot fire trainingsystems offer the optimal training plat-forms for any kind of fire trainingallowing fire-fighters to effectivelyachieve all hot-fire training objectives.

Previous live fire training systemsused Class A combustible materials ordiesel fuel for live fire training. Missing

safety features caused many injuries totrainees as these fires were out of con-trol, without any safety features. Insidea building such fires were ignited with-in a conventional building, without anyspecial protection for the structure ofthe building and thus with a high safe-ty risk for the training fire fighters.

In addition, these conventional com-bustibles caused high pollution towater, air and soil of the trainingground. Nowadays, environmental rulesand regulations do not allow live firetraining facilities to use materials thatare likely to pollute the environment.

Gas fuelled, PLC- and computer-controlled systems are reliable, realistic

and safe solutions for the modern typeof live hot fire training systems. Thesesystems replicate safely and realisticallyany kind of fire, fully controlled for theutmost safety for both trainees andinstructors.

These systems are available for:

● Structural Fire Fighting in buildings● Industrial Fire Fighting● Military Fire Fighting● Aircraft Fire Fighting● Crew Training● Special Applications like Tunnel Fires,

Forest Fires, Offshore platforms etc.


Safety is a key focus when consideringlive fire training, including fires insideburn buildings, modular systems, andfires inside fully encapsulated rooms,DIN 14097 part 2 is the world leadingstandard for gas fuelled, live and hotfire training systems:

■ Gas Monitoring Systems are usedfor each burn room with at least 2redundantly operating gas sensors orgas sampling systems. Typically 2alarm settings are configured: At10% LEL, automatically causing theventilation system to provide freshair; At 25% LEL (or in some areas at35% LEL) all gas and smoke produc-tion is stopped immediately and the

Picture courtesy of Draeger Safety

THEORY AND DRY TRAINING do not adequately prepare the emergencyresponder to be able to meet and effectively deal with the dangerousconditions that occur during fire fighting operations. During training, thetrainees must be exposed to live fire under safe and controlled conditions inorder to gain the required confidence and skills.

Realistic andFire Tra

The new range of PLC- orcomputer controlled, gas fuelledhot fire training systems offer theoptimal training platforms for anykind of fire training allowing fire-fighters to effectively achieveall hot-fire training objectives.

By Jakob SpiegelConsultant, Fire Training

SystemsChairman, Fire Brigade

Association of Kaiserslauten, Germany

Realistic andFire Tra

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ventilation system runs on fullpurge.

In all adjacent rooms to the activeburn room or in the technical rooms,at least one gas sensor is alsoinstalled to further enhance safety.

■ Ventilation System, which providescold combustion air for the fire,places and fire rooms, and whichprovides in case of an emergencyfull purge of the relevant fire room,with a purge rate of at least 80times the room volume.

■ Temperature Monitoring System,which automatically shuts down thesystem at temperatures of 250°C inone metre room height. This figurewas taken into the standard to pro-tect trainees during a live fire traineefrom injuries in case they panic andstand up. In such a case, tempera-tures above 250°C would melt thefacemask and/or face shield.

■ Pilot Flame Management System,which continuously monitors thepilot flame. In case of a failure, allgas supplies will be shut downautomatically from the operatingsystem.

■ Pilot Gas Supply and Pilot Com-bustion Air Supply are separatefrom Main Gas Supply and MainCombustion Air supply, meaningthat we have independent systems.

■ Smoke Production must be createdby non-toxic and environmentallysafe smoke fluids, which are alsobiologically degradable. The smokeand the smoke fluid should notinterfere with the operating system,nor cause any harm to the system’soperational parts.

■ Emergency Stop Buttons areinstalled in each fire room at specificlocations, so that even collapsed

people who fall down can reach thebutton. Also each pendant and onthe control console in the controlroom an emergency button isinstalled. Pushing a button causesthe system to immediately stop allgas and smoke supplies and run theventilation system on full purge. Allsystems include local and remotesafety shutdowns.

■ Refractory Material. Each burnroom of the construction has to beprotected against heat and flamesand the thermal shock, which iscaused when applying cold water tothe heated up surfaces. Moderncladding is either made of Cot-Ten-Steel, a steel type, which absorbsbest the thermal shock, or specialfirebricks.

■ Certified System. All modern livefire-training systems have to be

approved by an internationallyrecognized testing institute orlaboratory, such as TÜV etc. Acertificate from this authority mustbe an initial part of the documents,delivered with the system.

■ Training and Trouble-Shooting. Themanufacturer must provide a train-ing to the instructors of the end-user which contains of instructionsfor use and operation, trouble-shooting and the special behaviourof gas fires simulating all fire classes,A, B and C.The previously mentioned standard

DIN 14097, part 2, the standard DIN14097, part 1 – the construction of firehouses – local standards for gas andelectrical installations and NFPA regu-lations NFPA 1402, 2002 edition –guide to building Fire Service TrainingCentres, NFPA 54 and NFPA 58 and

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Picture courtesy of Draeger Safety

nd Safe Liveraining

Safety is a key focus whenconsidering live fire training,including fires inside burn buildings,modular systems, and fires insidefully encapsulated rooms, DIN14097 part 2 is the world leadingstandard for gas fuelled, live andhot fire training systems

nd Safe Liveraining

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NFPA 86 used in combination provideutmost safety and reliability of thedelivered system.


With a PLC-controlled system, alloperations of the system are handledby a PLC. The integrated safety features are automatically controlled bythe system. The smoke production, thechoice of the fire places and the firesizes, however, are manually controlledand operated by the instructor. Hedecides whether the trainees havefought the fire in a correct and proper way, whether they have used the right tactical strategies and whether they have applied the rightagent and the right amount of agent. With his manual controls, theinstructor can increase and decreasethe flames, he can set up single- andmultiple-fire scenarios and he canreduce smoke or he can increase theopacity level.


Such a system is an upgrade of a PLC-controlled system. Fire Scenarios andFire Scenario Parameters can be pre-setto run on automatic modes. Thesefunctions are available for single andmulti-fire scenarios.

The computer workstation and oper-ating software inside a control roomallows the pre-setting of the followingvariable parameters:● Flame height above the prop: from

0–100%. Depending on the educa-tion level and experience of thetrainees this feature can be set up.Together with the client, the suppliersets up these features during thecommissioning and training phase.Besides the flame size in per centalso the duration of the burningflame can be pre-selected.

● Flame developing time in seconds,by steps from 1 to X seconds.According to the experience level ofthe trainees performing such anexercise, for the first time they mayrequire a longer time to preparethemselves compared to those whohave already been in a fire room.The duration of fires and exercisescan be adjusted individually.

● Flame spread in seconds by stepsfrom 1 to X seconds.

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Choosing the right foam concentrate for your particularapplication can be a bewildering process due to the widevariety of products available in the market. So how canyou be certain to make the right choice? You buy from areputable manufacturer with the experience and expertiseto deliver reliable fire protection products to a market thatdemands the best. You can be certain if, when you need aprotein based foam agent, you choose Sabo Foam.

Sabo Foam provides professional fire fighters with a fullrange of protein based fire fighting agents, includingdurable, film-forming products for use with polar solventfires. Cost effectiveness is finely balanced with fire fightingperformance to ensure quality is not compromised.

Part of the global family of Tyco Fire & Security foamagents, Sabo Foams are designed to safeguard life andproperty when it counts – in a crisis. We concentrate onfoam – so you don’t have to.

Protein Fire Fighting Foams

Concentrate on foam; we do.

For further information, please contact:Tyco Safety Products, Le Pooleweg 5, 2314 XT Leiden, Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71 5419 415 Fax: +31 (0)71 5417 330 E-mail: [email protected]

Picture courtesy of Draeger Safety

Realistic and Safe Live Fire TrainingRealistic and Safe Live Fire Training

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● Extinguishing method, time and tem-perature dependent. However, thisfeature the supplier configures withinthe software within a value of multi-ple features. It makes no sense todetect a successful session just byone of these figures. Reality tells thatonly if a certain temperature dropwithin a certain time and with theapplication of a certain amount ofextinguishing media is detected, arealistic detection is given. Otherwise,if only temperature drop or amountof agent or time is detected, nonrealistic data will conclude a trainingsession as successful when it was not.

● Extinguishing temperature, as thechapter before, set up from min. X°Celsius to max. °C above the propand within the room.

● Watering time after fire is extin-guished, as above.

● Re-ignition time in seconds from 1to x seconds in steps.

● Smoke status, as shown previouslyon the smoke pre-selection screen,with the effect of a smouldering fireand smouldering time.

● Chain reaction, operation of variousfire places in a row.

● Time delay from one fireplace toanother fireplace.

● Touch screens on control console forimmediate demands for the system.

● Simple symbols for repeated demandsand for alarm signals and messages.

● Acoustic warning system in case ofwrong operation, message flashing.

Storage of other operating data:

● Which operator was where at whichtime and for how long on duty.

● Record of operating faults, to bevisual only with key lock for certainpersons.

● Instructor at site, duration of train-ing sessions.

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Hot Fire TrainingSystems & CentresStructural · Outdoor & Industrial · MaritimeMobile & Modular · Aircraft - ARFF · Military

Kidde Fire Trainers is the leading provider of hot firetraining systems and centers and offers the broadestarray of products to meet your fire training needs.

Symtron Systems Inc., Symtron GmbH, ICSInternational Code Services, and IFTE InternationalFire Training Equipment Ltd. are excited toannounce that they are now part of the Kidde group.

For more information, contact Kidde Fire Trainerstoday:www.kiddeft.com

ICSInternational CodeServices

International FireTraining Equipment

UK: +44 (0) 1246 242700 US: +1 201-794-0200Germany: +49 (0) 241.18058.11


As a conclusion, gas fuelled, PLCand computer controlled hot live firetraining systems offer various advan-tages compared to conventionaltraining methods, including safetyand environmental compliance.

The main goal: effective trainingunder the highest safety conditionsfor trainees and instructors, realisticscenarios and reliable trainingstrategies that can be tailored toeach customer’s needs.

The main goal: effective trainingunder the highest safetyconditions for trainees andinstructors, realistic scenarios andreliable training strategies that can be tailored to each customer’sneeds.

P. 40-43 Realistic and Safe 17/11/06 7:32 am Page 43

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Does anyone know how many camerasend up in Asia/Pacific region? Onethousand is probably a safe guess,maybe a little on the high side. So, whois buying the thermal imaging camerasin this region? Well, we can probablyaccount for about 20% of units in thediagnostic marketplace and maybeanother 5% in the thermal mappingmarket, leaving about 750 cameras forthe fire fighting sector. This probablyrepresents a dollar value of aboutUS$10,000,000.

Traditionally, civilian fire brigades inthe more sophisticated markets such asAustralia, New Zealand, Singapore,Taiwan and Malaysia have accountedfor the majority of sales, but that seemsto be changing. Chinese provincial firedepartments have been on a spending

spree in 2003/2004, intent on equip-ping their fire departments with thelatest technology.

WHAT DOES THE END-USER CUSTOMER WANT?In a competitive market, China isfocused on value for money and the lowend, no-frills basic camera specificationhas performed well in the last two tothree years. However, China’s firedepartments have become more awareof the benefits of advanced featuressuch as hands-free cameras, lightenough to be worn attached to the fire-fighter’s face mask, but with all the fea-tures of the more established high-endcameras, including colour displays andspot temperature – but at no pricepremium either.

Features such as these allow thethermal imaging camera to be used as a

tactical fire-fighting tool rather than asan evaluation tool or a “sweep anddrop” cameraman tool.

The use of thermal imaging cameraswill increase as fire-fighters becomeconfident in the camera’s ability to a)allow them to work faster and b) to res-cue more victims in a limited amount oftime. There are a number of fully fea-tured cameras on the market that cancapture images for post-incident inves-tigation, provide sensational colourimages and interface with PCs for de-briefing analysis and evidence gathering.Other cameras can provide very sophisti-cated temperature gradients and a hostof features presented on the camera’sdisplay. But, at the end of the day, thesefeatures add weight to the camera andthe question has to be asked – does the

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Picture courtesy of GB Solo

ThermalImagingCameras inAsia/PacificRegion

DEPENDING ON WHOM YOU believe, the worldwidemarket for non-military/security thermal imagingcameras is about 7,000 units annually. The supposedbreakdown is approximately 4,500 cameras in Northand South America, with North America accounting forthe vast majority of sales. The rest of the world accountsfor about 2,500 units. If we assume, for the sake ofargument, that Europe takes up about 1,000 units thenthis leaves 1,500 to be divided up among the rest of theworld outside America and Europe.

By James Moloney, Manager, Sales & Marketing

Asia/Pacific RegionGB Solo Ltd.

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fire-fighter really use these featuresother than on the trainingground?

The reaction of most fire-fighters to being in asmoke-filled environment,unsure of what they willencounter, heart racing,breathing accelerated sothat air is used veryquickly, is to think “howfast can I do my job andget out of here alive?”Whether trying to locate theseat of a fire or a victim indanger of death from smoke inhalation,the fire-fighter wants to be able to seethe target, be aware of any threats tosafety in his immediate environment,and find his way out once he hasfinished his task.

The ability to use both of his hands,while still having a clear view of hisenvironment and his intended target,means he can work at least twice as fastas he could if using only one hand,while holding a thermal imaging cam-era in the other hand. This means hegets himself and his victim out of dan-ger faster. If you give him the option ofa fully-featured camera that he has tohold in one hand, or a camera withenough information to get the job donequickly, with both hands free to work,he will invariably choose the latter.

Face-mask mounted thermal imagingcameras and helmet-integrated camerashave enjoyed significant success in thelast two years in the Asia/Pacific marketand this success looks set to be repeatedagain in future years.

China’s fire departments and Military,the Malaysian Navy, Singapore’s SCDFand D.A.R.T. and, very recently theSingapore Navy, have all invested inthese types of camera. Korea’s civil andprivate industrial fire brigades have beenusing these types of camera for morethan three years now.

A number of the more establishedthermal imaging camera suppliers arebeing forced to cut margins significantlyto compete with the new breed of

camera and fire brigades that boughtcameras five years ago are now comingaround with replacement and upgraderequirements, such that 2005 will see asignificant number of users evaluate theperformance of their older camerasagainst the latest technology available.

The question suppliers must ask iswill the end-user be satisfied with a“stripped down” version of the tradi-tional thermal imaging camera just tosave money, when, for only a few dollarsmore he can equip his fire-fighters withthe latest, hands-free technology?

REQUIREMENTS UNIQUE TO ASIA/PACIFIC?Is the Asia/Pacific market producing anyrequirements that are unique to theregion and where is the end-user hopingto go with this technology?

Apart from the obvious issue of highambient temperatures and moisturelevels there is not much difference in

how the thermal imaging camera isbeing used in Asia compared withAmerica or Europe.

Obvious concerns are the use ofcameras in fighting fires in high-risestructures. The tallest buildings in theworld are in Asia and fighting fires inthese structures calls for a high degreeof sophistication.

Increasingly, thermal imagingcameras are being used with

wireless transmitters to sendreal-time images of the fire

scene to the IncidentCommander.

However, mostthermal camerasemploy only smallin-built transmit-ters capable of

sending a clear pic-ture about 100m-200m

with line of sight between the transmit-ter and receiver. What happens to yourpicture transmission when the fire-fighter is 40 floors above ground leveltrying to locate victims of smokeinhalation? Or when he is in a train tun-nel? These in-built transmitters do nothave the power to provide reliableimages to the Incident Commander. Toprovide greater transmission power thecamera’s transmitter must be largerthan the in-built variety.

Manufacturers are moving to belt-worn transmitters powerful enough tosend a clear picture up to 1Km line-of-sight. This technology will allow thermalimaging cameras to send crystal clear,rock-solid pictures from as deep as fivefloors underground to as high as thetop floor of the Petronas Twin Towers –something never dreamed possible usinganalogue transmission technology.

SCBA manufacturers are also interest-ed in this technology for their owntelemetry transmission and those withvision can see the day when the BA setwill be provided with full digital trans-mission of the distress signal along withall other telemetry functions. Interspiroof Sweden was the first BA manufactur-er to provide electronic telemetry on itsBA equipment and Andy Morrison,Regional Manager of Asia Pacific forInterspiro believes “the day will comewhen every function of the BA set willbe available to the fire-fighter on aheads-up display, combined with a ther-mal image – and all of the data will beavailable to the Incident Commander,and using digital transmission technolo-gy distance or interference will not bean issue”.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Picture courtesy of GB Solo

Thermal ImagingCameras inAsia/Pacific Region

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We live in hope that no fire-fighter in Asia, or anywhere elsefor that matter, will find himself fighting fires 40 floors aboveground or five floors below ground, but, because there aremany, many buildings in Asia where this is a possibility theequipment manufacturers must continue striving to providehigh technology solutions to these events. Combining thermalimaging and digital wireless transmission with SCBA telemetryseems an obvious route to providing the fire-fighter with asafer working environment.

With all of these sophisticated solutions emerging, how arethe manufacturers supporting their products in the field in thisregion?

HOW COMMITTED ARE THE MANUFACTURERS TO THE ASIA/PACIFIC MARKET?Most thermal imaging camera manufacturers are based in theUSA and/or the United Kingdom. Doing business in Asia fromeither of these manufacturing bases is difficult. There aredifferences in business culture, not to mention significant time differences, to be overcome.

One often wonders how serious the manufacturers are aboutthe Asia/Pacific market, especially when it comes to providingwarranty support for the cameras they sell. Thermal imagingcameras are too costly for fire brigades to purchase an extraone or two to provide back-up in case of a warranty failure.However, it is vital that the user is not left without cover if acamera needs to be repaired.

The British manufacturer, GB Solo Ltd., has had anAsia/Pacific base for three years now, in Kuala Lumpur. Thisbase provides sales support to the regional distributor networkand also stocks spare cameras and integrated thermal imaginghelmets to provide 24-hour turnaround of warranty repaircameras. A replacement camera can be shipped to any locationin the Asia/Pacific Region within 24 hours, thus ensuring the

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Argus®—Trademark licensed from Argus Industries Inc.

• 26 image captureand download

• choice of sensor cores (BST and ASi microbolometer)

• x2 digital zoom facility

• 8 screen colour settings - from monochrome to full colour

• integrated wirelessvideo output

• spot and ambient temperature measurement

Capture the imagewith Argus®3the world's most advanced thermal imaging camera:

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Picture courtesy of GB Solo

P. 45-48 Thermal Imaging 17/11/06 7:34 am Page 47

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minimum down time for its end-users.Another manufacturer, Bullard Inc. of

the USA, established a regional salesoffice in Singapore in 2004 providingsales support locally.

Apart from these two manufacturers,the remainder are all represented insome form or other only by distributorsor agents with in-country responsibility.The distributor and end-user needs torely on the home manufacturing basefor support, which can often lead tologistical problems with warranty andrepair issues.

In this increasingly competitive mar-ket the manufacturer needs to employevery tactical advantage possible to winthe confidence of the end-user. Apartfrom competitive prices, the end-userwants a reliable, fully featured productwith a good support network.

Very few manufacturers are provid-ing this level of service in Asia/Pacific Region.

Developers in Europe and Ameri-ca are re-considering the appeal ofhigh-rise structures and sentimentis moving towards lower risk smallerbuildings.

The Asia Pacific region, however,is expanding again at a significant rate.Malaysia’s Twin Towers are no longer

the highest buildings in the world, hav-ing been surpassed by a new singletower in Taipei, which in turn will soonbe overtaken by another in Shanghai, ifnot Dubai. More and more high-risestructures are being built; longer anddeeper SMART tunnels are being built;the regions sea ports and airports areexpanding at unprecedented rates tocope with increases in traffic. An Asian

airline, Singapore Airlines, will be thelaunch customer for the world’sbiggest airliner, the Airbus A380, in2006. With the increasing scale ofstructures and facilities, so alsoincreases the risk of a catastrophic

fire in one of these structures. The regions fire depart-

ments must equip them-selves with the latest proventechnologies to help tacklefire in these new buildingsand so the equipment man-

ufacturers must also movewith the times.Thermal imaging as a fire-

fighting and rescue tool mustcontinue to evolve to meet the

demands of the region’s fire depart-ments – and maybe, just maybe, Asiawill also end up leading the way in theuse of this technology.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com







SOLOvision is a fully operational thermal imagingcamera with Virtual Reality Viewing Optics. The lightweight and unique ergonomic design enables ‘handsfree’ operation.

The image is picked up through a centrally mountedcamera. Even in the thickest smoke and with theface visor entirely covered, the image seen by thewearer remains undiminished in quality.

Thermal image is displayed to the wearer throughaugmented viewing lenses.

Suitable for use with all knownbreathing apparatus sets.

SOLOvision’s outer shell comes with a lifetimewarranty. Subject to terms and conditions.

Thermal Image displayed through VR Viewing optics Solotic Imaging Camera

For information on all our fire fighting products or to arrange a demonstration, visit:www.gbsolo.co.uk | www.gbsolo.com | Tel: +44 1609 881855 | Fax: +44 1609 881103 | Email: [email protected]

Picture courtesy of GB Solo

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“Surge capacity” has nothing to dowith flood control or electricitygeneration. It is the latest preoc-

cupation of emergency planners con-cerned with planning for the massdecontamination and treatment ofcasualties after a CBRN incident. Thechallenge is to ensure that in the imme-diate aftermath of an incident theresponse has the potential to dealimmediately with large numbers ofcasualties, pre and post decontamina-tion, whilst keeping contaminationlocalised. This capability is known as“surge capacity”.

Already established as one of theworld’s leading manufacturers of decon-tamination technology, supplying emer-gency services in 65 countries,Professional Protection Systems claimthat their success is based upon listen-ing to the needs of both the manage-ments and practitioners of those servicesand then addressing those needs. Thesurge capacity factor is the latest issuethat PPS has addressed and the result isa new product, complimenting the com-pany’s existing mass decontaminationshowers, both inflatable and metalframed, a range of isolation shelters

varying in configuration and size.The new range is based upon the

same articulated metal frame technolo-gy as the mass-decon units supplied byPPS to the UK government’s terroristresponse programme, with the big dif-ference that these new units are all self-contained isolation chambers. Theirfabric covering is chemical resistant andfeatures an integral zippered five-footairlock with a specimen pass throughport. These units also offer double zip-pered pass through slots. The interiorsalso incorporate sidewall and overheadattachment points for monitoringequipment and incorporate snorkelledductwork for the filtration unit. Choiceis one of the key features of the wholePPS portfolio and the filtration unit isno exception. There is a choice of fourparticulate filtration and chemical/bio-logical filtration systems that deliver at400 CFM (cubic feet per minute) and1,500 respectively. Both compare wellwith the recommended minimum flowrate of 300 CFM.

Standard windows on each side anddouble end viewing portals mean that ifnecessary patients can be monitoredexternally at all times. The new PPS

isolation shelter is suitable for a widerange of applications- from triagechamber to intensive care unit. Like allPPS products it deploys easily and canbe erected and ready for action by atwo-man team in minutes. Also like allother PPS products these new surgecapacity units come accompanied by avast range of accessories, some familiarbut some completely new, like acasualty transport pod that is in effectan isolation shelter on wheels. This iscapable of moving a contaminatedsubject from one isolation unit toanother without risk of cross contami-nation en route. The point about thevast range of accessories is that itensures that by specifying PPS equip-ment it is possible to enjoy a degree ofcustomisation impossible from any othermanufacturers.

According to PPS Managing Director,Mark Whitcher, every incident planshould now recognise surge capacityand factor it into the equation. “To failto do so” he says, “could not only meanleaving casualties untreated for too longbut could lead to, at least a localised,break-down in civic order. This couldthen only be restored in that kind ofcrisis situation by resorting to the mostdraconian measures”.

In addition to its metal-framed prod-ucts PPS also offer a range of inflatableunits, making it the only manufacturerin the world offering the choicebetween the two systems. This plus acomprehensive range of high class PPE,ranging from chemical splash suits toparticularly high spec units made for theworld’s nuclear industries, assures anobjective assessment for every customerrelated to both needs and budget.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com



For more information, please contact:


TilbrookMilton Keynes MK7 8ADTel: +44 1908 272 240Fax: +44 1908 371 605E-mail: [email protected]: www.ppsgb.com

How a new Professional ProtectionSystems’ Range is meeting the newchallenge of surge capacity

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


One of the perceived solutions toincreasing responder safety andperformance is to spend money on

equipment. Monitors, power saws, liftingbags and other specialty appliances arefound in the apparatus of most respond-ing organizations. Often what is notfound is recurrent training to use thesetools effectively. How does this happen?Normally the customer receives initialtraining on equipment from the vendor,provided free to an organization’straining specialists along with the OEMmanual(s). Training specialists then trainthe ranks to an acceptable level, butoccasionally the full advantage of thenew equipment is not fully realized.

Another problem is that equipmentmay be thought of as independent ofother more primary equipment on anapparatus. Consequently, not until aresponse drives the need to use multiplepieces of equipment does the need fortraining on all components of theapparatus become apparent.


There are benefits to having an outsidetraining provider involved with yourprogram. We are creatures of habit andwe develop distinct habits, good and bad, over the years. By incorporating and infusing new and different ideas andpushing our goals we are able to growand advance.

Some training providers are adept atidentifying program strengths as well asareas to improve. This can be valuablewhen seeking a challenge for seasonedresponders. This is also of value whendeveloping more complex programs that

require using your resources, appliancesand apparatus to their fullest capacity.Instruction-driven training is much moreeffective and desirable than the outcomeof a response-driven incident.

Outside training providers also may beable to introduce new methods for usingyour present equipment. Without adoubt, training with the equipment youactually use is a benefit of in-houseprograms. You may learn a new way ofusing the tools you have, and you mayalso recognize deficiencies in yourinventories.

Training providers also can introducenew equipment and suppliers to yourorganization, and equipment and productsuppliers can be a valuable trainingresource. Some of these suppliers maywork with training providers who canintroduce new and advancing technolo-gies to your group. Some trainingproviders may also have fixed facilitieswhere suppliers test and evaluate theirproducts. This can be an excellent oppor-tunity for response organizations to givetheir input into refining current appli-ances as well as emerging technologies.

A few large, institutional trainingproviders offer programs and consultingto sanction and certify existing in-houseprograms. These providers examine acompany’s goals, existing training plansand in-house training teams to evaluatetheir overall training program. The resultsof this evaluation can form the basis ofan organization’s new written trainingplan, which can then be sanctioned,including an implementation strategyand control measures established by thesanctioning institution. Control measuresmonitor the new written training plan

and, along with program documentation,validate the in-house program to theinstitutional standards of the academy orinstitution. This third-party validationprovides different benefits in differentlocations and may include valuable con-tinuing education units or CEUs grantedby the sanctioning university or academy.


To contract effectively with a trainingprovider to augment and complement anin-house training program, it is essentialto take the time to understand yourtraining program and then to devise aplan. Are there long term goals; are thereenabling objectives or short-term goals;does your tactical training plan comple-ment these goals; who is currently pro-viding the training and who recognizesthese efforts? After you have a breakoutof your program place a value on thecomponents identified and prioritize theneeds. This work should show which partof the in-house program needs attention.

When investing in a training provider itis important to research potentialproviders and to determine what servicesyou want them to provide based on yourneeds. Characteristics in a qualifiedprovider are no different from what youwould want in your in-house trainingprogram; look for qualified, certified,experienced and reputable providers.

When you are investing in a trainingprovider ask what particular providers canadd to your program. How do they serveyour needs? What qualities do they havethat complement your in-house programand its goals? If your in-house programonly seeks to achieve compliance withrequired standards and legislation youwill probably want a certain kind ofprovider different from one who providestraining to establish the new standard.

Also consider a provider’s technicalqualifications; never assume and always

By Mitchell Baclawski,Assistant Director for

Off-Site and ConsultingServices, University of

Nevada, Reno Fire Science AcademyPic courtesy of Fire Science Academy

Selecting Outside TraiMaximize Your In-House

Selecting Outside TraiMaximize Your In-House

MANY EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAMS, whether they are volunteer, paid,industrial or municipal, can improve their state of readiness by expandingtheir in-house training programs through the use of outside training providers,a strategy which offers benefits and some risks to the hiring organization.

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check. The most personable hazardousmaterials instructor may not be qualifiedto assist you in developing an annualtraining plan. Find the provider with thebest ability to meet your needs.

Be sure the provider is staffed to alevel that will accomplish your goals.Training is an investment and it ispreferable to have a quick return on your training dollars. As you look at yourpriorities be certain providers can work atyour schedule, not theirs.

Providers should be accredited orapproved to supply the services request-ed. Check to see whether the provider hascertification from recognized boards suchas the National Board on Fire ServiceProfessional Qualifications (Pro Board) orInternational Fire Service AccreditationCongress (IFSAC). Approvals may alsocome from technical committees, advisoryor review boards and trade organizations.Also consider whether the programs are inline with accepted consensus standards orpractices. Consensus standards are set by many entities. In the United Statesthey are established nationwide and/orstatewide by federal and state bodiessuch as the Occupational Safety andHealth Administration (OSHA), the MineSafety and Health Administration(MSHA), the Federal Aviation Administra-tion (FAA), the U.S. Department ofTransportation (USDOT), the National FireProtection Association (NFPA), and yourown state’s Fire Marshall. The bottomline is that you work under the scrutinyof outside agencies and regulations andyour training provider should too.

Take the time to ensure your trainingprovider is reputable. You can start byasking the provider for references and rec-ommendations from others. A little seriouschecking on your part should quickly givea fair indication. Is this provider highly

regarded by, well thought of and in goodstanding with others within the field?Have words such as trustworthy, sound,honest and reliable been used to describethe provider? No doubt you have foundthat emergency services are usually atight-knit group, and word-of-mouthreferences are often available.


In-house training programs represent thelargest number of student contact hoursin emergency response training. At timesthese training hours may not be investedto their full potential. Outside trainingproviders can often increase the value ofthis investment. Training providers can bea benefit by assisting in the evaluation ofyour current in-house program and pro-viding services that advance that program.There is a risk from not carefully choosingthe outside provider right for your needs.The risk can be minimized by:

● Fully understanding your currenttraining goals and plan

● Defining and prioritizing your needs● Researching and reviewing provider

qualifications● Evaluating the provider’s staffing

levels and availabilities

● Checking for third-party accreditationand approvals

● Conducting thorough reference checks

By following these steps, defining yourneeds effectively and investing the timeand resources necessary to enhance andmaximize your training program, youroutside training provider and your in-house training program will mostcertainly become a great team.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Mitchell Baclawskiis the assistantdirector for off-siteand consulting ser-vices at the Univer-sity of Nevada,Reno Fire ScienceAcademy (FSA),

which provides training to hundredsof companies and organizations atits state-of-the-art campus in Carlin,Nevada, as well as worldwide. Formore information about the FSA,visit: www.fireacademy.unr.edu, call1-800-233-8928 or (775) 754-6003, or email: [email protected]

Pic courtesy of Fire Science Academy

aining Providers to se Training Programsaining Providers to se Training Programs

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


LUKAS Hydraulik GmbHA Unit of IDEX Corporation

Weinstraße 39 · 91058 Erlangen · Germany

Tel. +49 (0) 91 31/698-0

Fax +49 (0) 91 31/69 83 94

Internet: www.lukas.de

e-mail: [email protected]

Double Power and Double Spreading – LUKAS Telescopic Ram LTR 12

The sum of all advantages: Unsurpassed performance

Double power – 24 t in the fi rst stage Double spreading

– two pistons at a time (1505 mm total lenght) Only one ram can do the job of two standard rams Compact lightmetal design saves

weight and storage space

With the innovative LUKAS solutions you are excellently pepared for the challenges of the future.

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


The first thing worth mentioningis that in the last few yearsthings out on the road have

changed. The era of new car technolo-gy is upon us and this dramaticallyaffects our decisions regardinghydraulic capacity. I do still believethere is a place for the noble combi-tool in the extrication arena. I just feelthat this has changed slightly. Theadvent of new car technology meansthat it is likely that the cars we comeacross in daily extrication incidents willbe of a construction that challengesthe cutting ability of the combi-tool.This is not because a combi-tool isflawed in design; on the contrary,combi-tools are a great combination of

cutting and spreading equipment inone. The reason combi-tools will notnecessarily perform well on new tech-

nology vehicles is for example due tothe shape of their blades. In the sameway that a more general purpose cutterwith its long straight blades does notalways do so well on the strong con-struction found in new cars, so toodoes the blade design of a combi-toolnot always allow for the best cuttingperformance. In comparison specialisedNCT (New Car Technology) cutters withtheir characteristic 90° angle U-shapedblade design are more effective atcutting this sort of construction.

THERE IS MUCH CHOICE in the market of hydraulic rescue tools and this isnot a bad thing. The variety of equipment available allows one to make thebest choice for your given environment. Just as every rescue scene is differentso too are the needs of different rescue services. While the core requirementsmay be the same there are other factors that make every rescue service’sneeds unique. These factors include, but are not limited to, geographicalenvironment, nature of risk prevalent in your area and of course budget. Onedecision that will have to be made is whether to go the route of the dedicatedcutter and spreader and/or the combi-tool. In this article I will take a closerlook at some of the issues to consider while making this decision.

Cutting a C-post with a CU 3040 NCTHolmatro® cutter

Dedicatedcutter andspreader or the noblecombi-tool

By Brendon Morris, Instructor Technical Rescue atHolmatro Rescue Equipment,

the Netherlands

Dedicatedcutter andspreader or the noblecombi-tool

The advent of new car technologymeans that it is likely that thecars we come across in dailyextrication incidents will be of aconstruction that challenges thecutting ability of the combi-tool.

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In terms of spreading we need toconsider the following issue. Thehydraulic mechanism of combi-toolsmeans that they are more effective atdirecting their hydraulic force towardscutting or squeezing and less so forspreading. This is due to the fact thatcombi-tools make use of a central boltconstruction. This does not mean thatcombi-tools are no good for spreading.They are very effective at spreading butnot as effective as a dedicated spreader.In many vehicle rescues this will not bea major concern and is certainly not asmuch a limitation as the decreased cut-ting ability of a combi. However, whenyou do need that added capacity orability of a dedicated spreader youbetter hope you will have one available.Good spreading capacity is also veryimportant for other rescue disciplinessuch as USAR.

Combi-tools may seem to be inferiorto a dedicated cutter and spreader butthis is not the case. Combi-tools simplyhave other advantages that make thema great addition to the rescue equip-ment you are carrying. One factor toconsider is the availability of carryingcapacity. We would all like to haveevery piece of equipment we could everimagine needing. This is however notpossible as we have to get it all ontothe rescue unit. New advances inequipment technology mean that wecan carry equipment that weighs lessyet does more. A perfect example ofthis is what I would carry in myoperational days as opposed to what Iwould have to carry nowadays for the same rescue capacity. For examplein my one-man unit I used to carry a small combi-tool, a length of hydraulic hose and a foot pump forextrication. Together this would prob-ably weigh approximately 25 kg.Nowadays I could replace this with oneextremely compact yet full-capacitybattery-operated combi-tool weighingless than 15 kg, battery and allincluded. This is beneficial for limitedspace on the rescue truck and for anymeans of transport where space islimited like motorbike rescue units, but it also helps when you have tocarry the equipment long distances onfoot.

In conclusion the equipment youchoose should meet the needs of your

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Spreader 3240 for spreading, pulling, squeezing and cutting with well-serrated tipsfor perfect grip during spreading and squeezing

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rescue squad and be as flexible as pos-sible in terms of multiple applications.Equipment should not be too compli-cated and lead to extensive training toensure safe operation. Rememberalways choose an over-spec. tool forthat “other job” rather then an under-spec one. This is the safer approach.Professional tools of the trade arealways a large investment. Mosthydraulic rescue equipment that youwill buy is also going to be a largeinvestment so it is essential that theright choices be made to ensure thatevery valuable cent of your rescue toolbudget is well invested. This will ensurethat your team is as effective andefficient as possible. Unfortunately, noideal list of the perfect set of equip-ment to have on your rescue truckexists. As mentioned earlier, dependingon what the bulk of the risk is in your

area this will heavily influence whatequipment you will carry. Further tothis, different rescue teams or organ-isations have different responsibilities in one geographic area. This also leads one to need different equipment.All in all the best choice is the choicethat provides you with the flexibilityyou need while having the capacityrequired.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Brendon Morris is Instructor Tech-nical Rescue at Holmatro RescueEquipment, based in the Nether-lands. His responsibilities includetraining Holmatro® users anddealers worldwide on best rescuepractices, as well as researchingrescue disciplines to ensure thatHolmatro keeps pace with futurerescue needs.

Ph. 630.515.1800 Fax: 630.515.8866

2700 Wisconsin Ave. Downers Grove, IL 60515 USA

www.amkus.com email:[email protected]

Use of a battery-operated combi-tool on a motorbike

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The research projects also revealthat many respirators – althoughthey comply with various Stan-

dards – are simply incapable of satisfy-ing users’ actual demands for air. Suchdevices do not allow a wearer to breathenormally at work.

The tests, conducted in Australia overtwo years, were prompted by the eventsfollowing the September 11 disaster atthe World Trade Center in New York.Rescue and recovery personnel, issuedwith industrial respirators, could not per-form their required tasks, chiefly becausethey could not draw enough air throughthe filters to satisfy the body’s need foroxygen during hard manual labour.

Even more worrying, human breathingmakes it easy to out-breathe a filter res-pirator even during moderate work activ-ities. Potentially serious deficiencies werediscovered in many types of breathingprotection equipment, and it has beenestablished that it is not only fire-fight-ers working under extreme pressure andgreat workloads that experience inade-quate air supply: just about any workercan easily out-breathe the equipmentwhile performing normal routines.

SCBA v. AIR-PURIFYING DEVICESThe fire-fighter at the bottom of aburning high-rise building is often on

the horns of a dilemma. On one hand,air cylinders on your back mean a veryhigh protection factor in just about anytype of atmosphere. But then there’s the

weight and the limited duration ofoperation. Once you have climbed to thetop, will there be enough air left to doany work before it’s time to changecylinders or go back down?

On the other hand, efficient air-purifying respirators might give enoughprotection – but will the filter let youbreathe all the air you need during theclimb and the work?

UNADDRESSED ERRORS OF THE PASTThere are big differences between thevarious conditions a respirator is sub-jected to in the test laboratory and theperformance required of it in a real worksituation, and this has been known for along time. For instance, the air flow rateused in standards testing dates back asfar as the First World War, when it wasbelieved – wrongly – that humansbreathe on average a volume of 42.5litres/minute. Since our lungs spend halfof the time inhaling and half of thetime exhaling, the experts said, thespeed of the air as it travels through themouth must be twice the volume, thatis, 85 litres/minute. This has sinceproved to be far from true.

Only twenty years later, during WWII,the noted Dr Leslie Silverman from USAfound that people breathe at muchhigher flow rates, and that the speed ofthe air flow is not double the volumeinhaled, but more like 3.5 times greater.A respirator must be able to let thisgreat flow of air through; otherwise theuser will not get the required volume ofair. Either the wearer will have to stopworking, or the respirator will start toleak. He stated officially that the testflows were unrealistically low, andshould be lifted.

But this raising of the standard neverhappened.

The mystery that baffles many mod-ern researchers and manufacturers ofsuperior-performance respiratory equip-ment is why – now that we have the

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


By Torbjorn Lundmark

Picture courtesy of Safety Equipment Australia

The Cost of – fire-fighters often ‘out-

PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN ACTUAL work situations show that up to 70% of afire-fighter’s breathing requirements are well above the levels at whichrespirators are tested.

The studies serve to confirm a situation that has been known for some sixtyyears, but is rarely discussed or referred to.

The Cost of – fire-fighters often ‘out-

Picture courtesy of Safety EquipmentAustralia

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technology and know-how to makefilters and cartridges that can satisfyhuman breathing without cuttingcorners on efficiency – the Standardshave not changed enough to evenapproach any semblance of actualhuman breathing.

Numerous researchers complain thatthe testing is still done according tosixty-year-old methods. The result isthat many air purifying respirators arestill made and used today that will neverbe able to live up to the requirements ofreal life. This was “sorely and sadlydemonstrated on 9/11,” according toone respiratory protection specialist.

STAIRWAY TO THE TOPAfter the many stories of failing breath-ing protection after the World TradeCenter disaster, the Australian branch ofa respiratory protection manufacturer,The S.E.A. Group, became interested inestablishing the actual breathingrequirements of a fire-fighter hard atwork. It was decided to device a real-time, real-work method of plotting ormonitoring a fire-fighter’s breathingpattern during a climb similar to thatattempted on September 11, 2001. Forthis purpose, the company hired the firestairs of a Sydney high-rise building andconducted an experiment in which adozen people were required to dress infire-fighter’s turnout gear and climb thestairs of 25 floors, carrying customaryweights such as fully charged fireextinguishers.

Each climber’s breathing was mea-sured during the entire exercise, andlater processed to give a detailed pictureof the breathing pattern and air require-ments. This was done by using a devicecalled a data-logger; a device that madeit possible to measure the volume, speedand timing of every single breath, at a frequency of 50 times per second. This generated a massive amount ofinformation which was later analysed,compiled and plotted on graphs.

The results were surprising. All of thetest subjects reached peak breathingrates of four times the flow rate of

NIOSH-stipulated Standards testing. Theexperiment comprised both male andfemale test subjects of widely differingage, fitness level, and body weight.

When this information was presentedto various organisations, such as stan-dards authorities and other governmentbodies, it aroused more than casualinterest. However, it was generallybelieved that the results might not betruly representative, as “real” fire-fight-ers would presumably be fitter, moretrained, and more used to the workload, and the climb would be performedin a calmer, slower, more deliberate way.In short, sceptics opined that a fire-

fighter would breathe in a more profes-sional way, and therefore make betteruse of the available air.

In compliance with the comments,the entire exercise was repeated, thistime in cooperation with the city firedepartment, and using professional fire-fighters from the Sydney section of theNSW Fire Brigade.

Some were surprised to find that theresults concurred with the preliminarytest five months earlier. There was littledifference in the breathing patterns of the participants: the fire-fightersbreathed as much air, and as rapidly, as‘non-professionals’.

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A. The heart and lungs start to work hard very quickly. The breathing rate reaches itspeak already in the first 1.5–2 minutes of the climb.B. A brief rest stop has a quick and profound effect on the breathing. C. In the final thirty seconds of the climb, some participants reach peak inhalation airflows of 500 litres per minute or more.

Picture courtesy of Safety Equipment Australia

the Climb t-breathe’ their respirators the Climb t-breathe’ their respirators

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HUMAN BREATHINGClimbing 25 floors with around 25 kilograms of clothing andequipment is extremely taxing on the body. In addition to thephysical work itself, fire stairs are often hot and, perhaps, notvery well ventilated places.

One feature common in all participants was that the lungsreached their peak cycle very early in the climb. In less than aminute, all the climbers’ breathing became deep and rapid,reaching peak inhalation air flows (that is, the speed at whichthe air travels near the mouth) of around 400 litres/minute.After reaching the peak breathing rate, the lungs kept up thiswork for the rest of the climb, which amounted to anadditional five to seven minutes.

CALL FOR CHANGEMore and more people concerned with breathing protectionare becoming of the opinion that respiratory equipment is nottested at realistic levels. Even the doubters are starting to comearound when they see such results as on average, two-thirds ofa normal person’s breathing travels faster through the mouththan the usual air flow rate used in standards testing.

This, say some, means that it is impossible to tell whether astandards-approved respirator will actually be able to do whatit is supposed to do during real work.

Further laboratory testing has uncovered some disturbingnews; for instance, that many respirators seem to have beenmanufactured just to pass the standard – not to be used inreal life. When tested at flow rates higher than 85litres/minute, these respirators failed miserably. The breathingresistance became so high that no hard-working person – fire-fighter or not – would be able to breathe through the mask.

REACTIONSThe response and interest from both American and Europeanstandards organisations, fire organisations, defence forces andother operations concerned with fire fighting and the difficultworking conditions of fire professionals have been very posi-tive overall. Of late, some American standards have beenadjusted, and new standards are on the way for homelandsecurity and domestic preparedness equipment.

However, it seems a long while before we will see a standardanywhere in the world whose testing methods better reflectthe way a fire-fighter at work actually breathes. The mostpromising prospect, perhaps, might come in the form of ISO’s‘fit-for-purpose’ way of thinking.


Åstrand, P.O., Rodahl, K., 1986 (1970), Textbook of Work Physiology:Physiological Bases of Exercise, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co.International Series, New York

Hlastala, M.P, Berger, A. J., 1996, Physiology of Respiration, School ofMedicine, University of Washington, Oxford University Press.

Jackson, B. A., Peterson, D. J., Bartis, J. T., LaTourette, T., Brahmakulam,I., Houser, A., Sollinger, J., 2001, Protecting Emergency Responders:Lessons Leaned from Terrorist Attacks, [Conference Proceedings –NIOSH/RAND Personal Protective Technology Conference Dec 9–11,2001], RAND Science and Technology Policy Institute, New York City

Nunn, J. F., 1993 (1969), Nunn’s Applied Respiratory Physiology, 4thed., Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford

Silverman, L., Lee, R. C., Lee, G., Drinker, K. R., Carpenter, T. M., 1943,Fundamental factors in the design of protective respiratory equip-ment, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Physiology andIndustrial Hygiene and the National Laboratory of the CarnegieInstitution, Washington, USA.

Vander, A., Sherman, J., Luciano, D., 2000, Human Physiology: the Mechanisms of Body Function, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co.,New York

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Picture courtesy of Safety Equipment Australia

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One tool that has arrived on thescene over the last two decades,Class A foam, has shown to have

positive impact in reducing fire losswhile increasing firefighter safety duringstructure fire suppression. Class A foamis a synthetic detergent foam concen-trate that is biodegradable and has beenshown to be environmentally friendly.

In this article we will take a look atwhat this technology can do for you,and the hardware required to efficientlydispense and apply Class A foam. Beforewe do that, an understanding of Class Afoam’s benefits is needed. Let us brieflylook at what fire brigades across theUnited States have to say about theirexperience with Class A foam applicationin real world fire conditions. The follow-ing is an excerpt from a firefighter-training textbook, Class A Foam — BestPractice For Structure Firefighters:

“. . . Please list and briefly explain thepositive effects you have found of usingClass A foam in fire operations.

● Quicker knockdown of structure fires. ● Quicker reduction of heat – cooler

environment. ● Much greater knockdown of fire, ideal

for exposure protection.

● Less overhaul mop-up. ● Gives us confidence in leaving the

scene. ● Less exposure for firefighters to haz-

ards of firefighting. ● Excellent exposure protection – long

and short term. ● Reduction in firefighter fatigue due to

reduced suppression time and effort. ● Less water needed . . .”

Summarizing the field results of ClassA foam application, flaming combustionis stopped more quickly, overhaul timesare reduced, and exposure protectionapplications have increased efficiency ascompared to plain water. Since fire isextinguished in less time, firefighterstress and property damage are reduced.And since less total water supply is used,water damage to unburned portions ofthe fire building is lessened.

Class A foam is important for the inci-dent commander at a working structurefire. It provides superior fire-stoppingpower during the window of opportuni-ty, those first few minutes after arrival ofthe initial, limited, firefighting resources— the personnel, equipment and watersupply on the first due engine. This isimportant to fireground command when

a “defend-in-place” strategy must betemporarily used to protect occupantstrapped inside a dwelling.

What about the expense involved inimplementing Class A foam? The initialinvestment of acquiring foam concen-trate, foam hardware, and firefightertraining is well worth cost. Class A foamis an investment for your department.When a cost, like Class A foam hardwareand concentrate, can be proven to turn ayield, it should no longer be considereda cost, but rather an investment. Thisfireground investment provides premiumvalue for the fire brigade and its cus-tomers, since it provides significantreturns in increased firefighter safety andreduced property damage.

How do most fire brigades becomeinvolved with implementing Class Afoam technology? One of the easiestways to implement Class A foam is theadoption of a Nozzle Aspirated FoamSystem (NAFS). A NAFS configurationtypically includes a direct-injection foamproportioning system normally installedin the fire pump discharge piping insidethe fire apparatus pump enclosure. Thisfoam proportioning system draws ClassA foam concentrate from an on-boardstorage reservoir. It then precisely injects

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This is a close-up look at the rotary-gearfoam pump found in the HaleFoamLogix direct-injection foamproportioning system. Notice that thegear set to the left is used to pump thefoam concentrate, while the pair ofgears on the right measure foam pumpoutput. Rotary gear pumps are keytechnology in pumping high-viscosityClass B foams used for flammable liquidfire suppression.

FoamProportioningTechnology TodayFOR MOST FIRE BRIGADES located across Europe, Asia and the Pacific, whenit comes to fire loss, Pareto’s Law – sometimes called The 80/20 Principle –holds true; a minority of inputs lead to the majority of outputs or results. Thusin many fire districts the majority of the fire loss (expressed in dollars) in agiven year is generated from a small percentage of the total number of fires.In most cases, structure fire makes up the majority of fire loss while alsocausing the most pain, suffering and disruption to the residents living andemployment conditions.

FoamProportioningTechnology Today By Dominic Colletti

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the concentrate into the fire pump’sdischarge water stream, creating foamsolution. The foam solution is dis-charged out of hoselines or monitorswhere, at the nozzle, it is agitated withair to create finished-foam. The finishedfoam is applied onto the fire.

Increasing numbers of new fireapparatus come equipped with electronicdischarge-side foam-injection systems.These systems provide accurate foaminjection with the push of a button, aredependable and require little maintenance.

If your brigade is planning to pur-chase a new structural fire engine anddoesn’t intend to install a Class A foamreservoir and electronic foam propor-tioner, you should revisit that decision.Review the facts and data, and performa risk/benefit analysis of using Class Afoam. Its application during a structuralfire attack has been shown to reduceflame knockdown times as compared tothe application of water alone. Class Afoam assists firefighters in getting frompoint A (an uncontrolled fire situation)to point B (a controlled fire scene).

When planning an installation on yourfire apparatus, a direct-injection propor-

tioner can be connected to virtually anynumber of fire pump discharges you want.New fire apparatus installations normallyinclude designated discharges that arepiped in as “foam capable.” These typi-cally include two pre-connected hoses orhose reels, a larger diameter discharge anda deck gun. The remaining fire pumpdischarges are “water capable” only.

How is NAFS-created Class A foamapplied? With a direct-injection propor-tioner installed on your apparatus, youcan use a variety of nozzles includingsmooth-bore, automatic or variable-gallon fog nozzles to apply Class Afoam. Smooth-bore nozzles create verylittle frothing action that produces a wetfinished-foam that’s excellent for deepseated fire, such as bales of compactedcardboard. Automatic nozzles create alow-expansion sloppy finished-foam thatprovides good foam adhesion on verticalsurfaces during a structure fire attack.

Direct-injection discharge-side foamproportioning systems are available inseveral foam pump volume ranges andprovide push-button foam injection con-trol. Easy push button control reducespump operator stress to help eliminate

error under the demands of fire groundpump operation conditions. Most direct-injection proportioners are engineered tohandle Class A and most Class B foamconcentrates made for ordinary com-bustible and flammable liquid fire combatcapabilities. They can be installed in newfire apparatus or retrofitted onto existing.

During training sessions, firefightersusually remember and discuss the manylimitations found using older style educ-tor foam systems and ask if direct-injection proportioners have the samelimitations, regarding operating pressures,hose lengths and excessive maintenance.The answer is “No.” Direct-injection pro-portioners are built to work with virtuallyany length and size hose-lay, water-flowdelivery rate, pump pressure, and nozzlecombination ordinarily found in day-to-day firefighting operations, within thewide window of system capacity.

Training officers like many of theadvantages direct-injection proportionersprovide — for example, existing brigadeprotocol for type of fire hose, water-flowdelivery rate, etc., typically need not bechanged after system installation. Inother words, training problems arereduced because little change to stan-dard operating procedures is required.Therefore, after installation, minimumeffort in re-training department person-nel to effectively put Class A foam towork in fire operations is required.

How do direct-injection proportionerswork? Typically a paddlewheel flowsensor is installed in the fire pump’sdischarge piping to measure water flowrate out of the foam capable discharges.The proportioner system uses rotary-gearpump technology to automatically injectfoam concentrate into the discharge sideof the fire pump. It injects an amount ofconcentrate in direct relationship to thewater movement past the paddlewheelflow sensor. A microprocessor inside anoperator digital display controls allsystem functions and maintains theoperator pre-set proportioning ratio overwide water flow discharge and pumppressure ranges.

What proportioning ratios should beused with Class A foam? When hoselinesand monitors are in a direct fire attackmode, pump operators using direct-injection proportioners typically set theoperator control display at either a 0.3%or 0.5% ratio. For exposure protectionscenarios, it is normally set in a 0.5% to1.0% ratio range. The ratio used is depen-dent upon the nozzle type being used andtype of finished-foam needing to be pro-duced for the tactical fire application.

What about flammable liquid fires? Ifyou decide to install a direct-injectionproportioner system primarily becauseyou are adopting Class A foam, you

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This electronic foam injection system dispenses foam on the discharge-side of themain fire pump, preventing undesirable contamination of the fire pump and boostertank with foam. The push button display also provides foam injection accuracy downto tenths of a percent.

When planning an installation onyour fire apparatus, a direct-injection proportioner can beconnected to virtually any numberof fire pump discharges you want.

Foam ProportioningTechnology TodayFoam ProportioningTechnology Today

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should also consider installing dual foamconcentrate reservoirs on your fireapparatus. Go ahead and add anotherconcentrate reservoir to hold Class Bfoam concentrate for suppressing flam-mable liquid fire (foam reservoirs arenormally built as an integral part of theapparatus booster tank in new appara-tus). An additional foam reservoir for

Class B foam and a dual tankchangeover valve will be a minor costincrease in the overall scheme of things.It will however, provide utility during aflammable liquid fire or spill emergency.

Remember that, while direct-injectionproportioners are designed to injectsmall amounts of Class A foam accurately,however, because they use rotary-gear

foam pump technology, it can alsopump a higher viscosity 3% AqueousFilm Forming Foam – Alcohol ResistantConcentrate (AFFF-ARC). Having analcohol resistant foam capability on yourapparatus is an important feature, espe-cially when trying to tackle a bulk fueltruck accident involving an unignitedgasoline spill containing an oxygenatedfuel additive like methyl tertiary butylether (MTBE).

Today’s electronic discharge-side foamproportioners represent a significantadvance in hardware technology over thelow-tech systems we have used in thepast. This is an important developmentsince the use of foam is playing an everincreasing role in today’s fire operationsworldwide.

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Fluorine Free Training FoamsThe world’s most gentle and advanced F3 foam technology

TF3 / TFAL3 mimics front-line products

Avoids environmental conflict

Advanced solutions to meet your needs

Thame Park Road, Thame, Oxfordshire OX9 3RT, UKTel: +44 (0) 1844 265000 Fax: +44 (0) 1844 265156E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.angusfire.co.uk

This pump panel has an electronic foam proportioner digital display (left) and an airproportioner digital display (right) that work together to provide compressed airfoam. A highly accurate foam proportioning is a typical and key component of acompressed air foam system (CAFS). The air proportioner display controls a high-volume rotary air compressor.

Dominic Colletti is the Global FoamSystems Product Manager for HaleProducts, Inc. and a fire instructor.Colletti is the author of Class AFoam—Best Practice For StructureFirefighters and co-author of FoamFirefighting Operations 1 and TheRural Firefighting Handbook withLarry Davis. He also offers a “Win-ning Strategies for the SuccessfulImplementation of Compressed AirFoam Systems” seminar.

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Today, putting out fires is only half the battleINTRODUCING3M™ RF-SERIES FIRE FIGHTING FOAMCONCENTRATESThe first sustainable alternative to AFFFs andfluoroprotein foamsConcerns about the long-term environmental effects of fluoro-chemicals have created a growing demand for alternative fireprotection solutions that are both effective and sustainable.

Now, after years of research and real-world testing, 3M is proudto announce a breakthrough in flammable liquid fire fightingtechnology: new 3M™ RF-Series Foam Concentrates, designed togive you AFFF-quality extinguishing performance in a readilybiodegradable, fluorosurfactant-free formulation!

3M RF-series foams are designed to meet or exceed the fireperformance standards of ICAO level B and CEN 1568, providingfast extinguishment, effective vapour suppression and excellentburn-back resistance. And they can be used with most conventionalfixed and portable foam application devices and systems.

Learn how 3M RF-series foams can help you win the battle forthe environment – without

compromising the safety of the people and property under yourcare.

HALE PRODUCTS EUROPE AT INTERSCHUTZHale Products Europe will be show-casing a number of innovative fireand rescue solutions at Interschutz2005 in Hannover this June throughthe leading brand names of Haleand Godiva. Exciting new productswill be on display in the vehiclemounted and portable pump cat-egories as well as the latest develop-ments in Foam Proportioning andCompressed Air Foam equipment.

Foam and CAFSFoamLogix is the latest electronic foam proportioning system –this computer controlled system provides automatic prime, a foamagent induction range of 0.1 – 9.9% and a display of foam andwater usage data all in a compact and cost-effective package.FoamLogix is the foam proportioning device for the Godiva WorldSeries Pump with Integrated CAFS and also the MCP50 CAFSpackage. World Series CAFS systems are in service with a numberof UK brigades, and Hale CAFS systems in general are very popularin Germany and throughout Europe.

Vehicle Mounted Pumps● World Series pump – various models showing the latest modu-

lar additions to this popular pump.● World Series pump with Flow Independent RTP system –

provides a guaranteed percentage of 3% or 6% Class B foamindependent of the water flow rate. This pump will also befitted with an integrated instrument panel.

● The top of the range World Series WT6010 pump with gearbox,and two single pressure pumps – WS2010 and the powerfulGV10000 will be available to view.

● Class1 Instrumentation – on display will be a World Seriespump with Class1 pump data and control instruments – Intelli-tank gauges and SPS panels.Also on display the World Series pump De-contamination

adaptor – designed to provide warm water for de-contaminationshower units.

Portable and Transportable models● Latest version of the Power-

flow 8/5 portable pumpwith the cooler, cleanerBriggs and Stratton engineand DIN exhaust connector.Both hand primer andexhaust gas primer modelswill be on display.

● The GP2300/15 is the latestversion of the mid-rangeGP2300, diesel enginedtransportable pump. Pow-ered by the Ford ZSG414engine, this unit delivers 2400L/min at 7 bar from a 3m suctionlift.

● Products from the American branch of the company willinclude the Qpak midship mounted vehicle pump, AP50 rearmounted pump and the latest version of the HP portable pumpwith a new Honda engine. The SMR-U is the stainless steelversion of the Godiva World Series pump aimed at the NorthAmerican market. Stainless steel provides a prolonged workinglife and guarantee against corrosion when using with seawateror contaminated water sources. Also on display a selection of Typhoon positive pressure ventila-

tion fans for effective control of smoke and fumes.Sales and Technical staff from the UK and USA will be on hand

to discuss any issues or questions visitors may have. The Halestand is linked with its sister companies in the Idex Corporation –Lukas and Vetter, specialists in rescue equipment supply. An idealopportunity to review a large proportion of your fire fightingneeds. We look forward to meeting you on our stand (Hall 12,Stand C30).


Another exciting addition to theArgus®3 product range, theRemote Receiver Station isdesigned to allow the remoteviewing of a thermal image froman Argus® camera, when fittedwith the remote wireless telemetryoption.

Gone are the days of portablemonitors and trailing cables, theArgus®3 Remote Receiver Stationis a compact carrying case com-prising of a two-channel receiverwith a built in 7-inch LCDcolour screen and integralantenna.

The Remote Receiver Station requires a 12V dc power input,either via a standard camcorder battery (used already to power theArgus®3 thermal imaging camera), a mains power supply or an on-truck charging connector (as used on and currently supplied withthe Argus®3 storage mount).

Additional functionality comes with the ability to record livevideo footage from an incident. Using a standard connection lead,the Remote Receiver Station can be connected to a remote videorecorder (not supplied), to capture thermal footage directly fromthe fire scene.

Product Update ● Product Update ● Product Update

For more information, please contact:Hale Products Europe

Email: [email protected] Website: www.haleeurope.com

For further information, please contact:3M Technologies (S) Pte Ltd.Fire Fighting Foam Products

Tel: +65 6450 8741Email: [email protected]

For more information, please contact:E2V Technologies

Email: [email protected]: www.e2vtechnologies.com

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Hughes Decon Systemshas delivered the firstof its new lightweight,walk-through deconta-mination showers tothe military and civildefence authorities inBelgium. They arecompact, multi-purposeunits designed forrapid response in theevent of CBRN inci-dents and industrialchemical spillages.

“The Cupola Lightweight Mk1 is the latest addition to our rangeof decontamination systems,” says Hughes Decon Sales Manager,Andy Whitehead. “Authorities now have even greater choice insourcing the most cost-effective solution.”

The unit is easily carried in its high visibility valise, which opensout to form a protective ground sheet under the unit. The base ofthe unit is permanently attached to the groundsheet, whichprovides protection against sharp objects when the unit is beingpositioned or when in use. Joints on the inflatable frame are gluedand taped rather than welded as this has proved to be a morereliable method.

An air cylinder, which comes with the kit, provides a low pres-sure supply to inflates the four legs and create a frame to supportthe removable liner. An additional air inlet is also available so thatthe shelter can be inflated using an independent cylinder. Apressure relief valve prevents over inflation of the frame.

Showering takes place within the removable translucent liner,which is hung from the inflated frame using Velcro sleeves.Entrance and exit flaps in the liner can be sealed to contain theover spray during showering. The wash-off is collected in a sumpin the base and can be pumped out through a waste connection inthe liner.

Support personnel can monitor the decontamination processthrough windows on both sides of the unit and offer assistance byusing the integral gloves fitted in the liner wall.

Seven nozzles at head and chest height ensure rapid and thor-ough showering. These can be supplemented using a hand-heldwash brush fitted to a coiled hose. To ensure stability in adverseconditions, the unit can be secured to the ground using guy linesand pegs. The design is based on Hughes extensive experience indeveloping inflatable decontamination shelters and is intended towithstand repeated use in the most demanding conditions. Despitethis, punctures can occur and to ensure the unit is returned toservice as quickly as possible, a repair kit is included.

A Mk2 version of the unit is also available with two separatelanes to double the throughput.

DECON SHOWER CLASSIC UNDERGOESREDESIGNAcknowledged as the mother of all portable inflatable decon-tamination showers Professional Protections Systems’ DPI(decontamination portable inflatable) unit has undergone its firstextensive redesign since its introduction in 1996 revolutionised thedecontamination shower scene.

Since then derivatives of this PPS unit have become, amongstother things, the standard decon shower for the NHS, HospitalTrusts and ambulance services in the UK as well as the decon-tamination mainstay of emergency services throughout everycontinent. Highly effective, relatively low cost to purchase andoperate, easy to transport and quick and easy to deploy, these areall factors that made the original DPI a classic.

They still apply to theredesigned DPI, but it isslightly larger. The inflatablesupporting pillars and crosssections are also more robustgiving the whole unit addi-tional rigidity. The new DPIalso incorporates raisedflooring. Made from recycledplastics this keeps contami-nant away from legs andfeet. The new unit has alsobeen designed to take prac-tically all of the vast rangeof accessories that PPSoffered to accompany theoriginal model without anyconversions being necessary.The idea is that customersswitching from old style DPIto new style don’t incurunnecessary extra costs.

According to PPS Managing Director Mark Whitcher the scope,quality and size of the accompanying accessory range is almost asimportant as the basic unit. “It’s the accessory range”, he says,“that enable us to customise every unit and the fact that we canproduce something to the customer’s precise specification is one ofthe main reasons for the continued success of the DPI concept,especially in overseas markets”. Just how far this process has comesince 1996 can be judged from the fact that whilst the originalDPI had no accessories the most basic unit mow can easily have17 or 18. This is the result says Whitcher not of commercial pres-sure but of emergency planning procedures being constantlyrehearsed, reviewed and updated on both a micro and macro level.

XENON PRODUCT RANGE RETIREMENT Service & Support Cease in July 2006 Vision Systems’ commitment to provide Xenon product range Endof Life (EOL) service and repair support will cease on 1 July 2006.This means that product replacements, repairs, refurbishment,support and spare parts will not be available after that date.

The intent to stop manufacturing of the Xenon range of smokedetectors was first announced in 1997. In June 1999, the sale ofXenon range of detectors including Xenon E700 (MKIII), E70D,Scanner and MiniVESDA, was officially discontinued.

Vision Systems would like to highlight to all customers and end-users with Xenon site installations, to strongly consider plans tophase out and replace these products with the new VESDA Laser-series range.

The Laser-series range of detectors which have been widelyspecified and installed worldwide today, provide an array ofbenefits: ● Product approval certification across all continents ● Absolute calibration laser chamber for maximum reliability and

repeatability ● One detector for all applications, 0.005 to 20% Obs/m ● Lower cost of ownership as regular calibration is not required ● Dual stage filtration provides clean air bleed to maintain optical

integrity of the chamber ● Flexible product range to ensure cost effective replacement of

old technology ● And the local support to provide the assistance you may


Product Update ● Product Update ● Product Update

For further information, please contact:Hughes Safety ShowersTel: +44 161 430 6618

Website: www.hughes-safety-showers.co.uk

For further information, please contact:Vision Systems – VESDA office and distributor

Website: www.vesda.com/xenon

For further information, please contact:Professional Protection Systems

Email: [email protected]: www.ppsgb.com

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3M Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC

Akron Brass Company, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Amkus Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

Angus Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61

Ansul, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC

Autoflug Inflatable Structures GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Bacou-Dalloz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

BW Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Chemetron Fire Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .09

Control Logi S.r.l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04

Dafo Fomtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

Draeger Safety Asia Pte Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

Dr. Sthamer Hamburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

E2V Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

FSI North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

GB Solo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

Groupe Leader France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Hale Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Haztech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Helmet Integrated Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Holmatro Industrial & Rescue Equipment . . . . . . . . . . .54

Hughes Safety Showers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

Interschutz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

Kidde Fire Trainers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

Lukas Hydraulik GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

NFPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

Nordic Systems Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

PPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

Rae Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Sabo Foam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

Securiton AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .07

Skum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Task Force Tips, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC

Texas A & M Emergency Services Training Institute . . . .52

The Fire Shop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .07

Total Walther Loschmittel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

Trelleborg Protective Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

Vision Fire & Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02





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MDM Publishing Ltd.18a, St. James Street, South Petherton, Somerset, TA13 5BW, UK




An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 13 – March 2005



✂ ✂


MDM Publishing Ltd.

P. 62-64 Product Update 17/11/06 7:45 am Page 64

Page 67: APF Issue 13

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Page 68: APF Issue 13

Society’s demands for increased environmental sensitivity have raised the standard by which

firefighting foams are judged.

It’s not enough to extinguish a fire quickly; it must also be done with minimal environmental

impact. That’s a challenging standard – a standard that 3M is ready to help you meet.

In major fire emergencies in the Middle East, Japan and other areas around the world,

3M™ RF-Series Fire Fighting Foams have proven their ability to deliver fast, effective

extinguishing and securing of Class A and B hazards – while helping meet today’s tough

environmental and regulatory demands.

This unique combination of performance and environmental attributes is the reason

why a growing number of refineries, airports, municipal

brigades and other emergency responders

have made RF-Series foams their

“weapon of choice” for

flammable liquid fire protection.

Learn how 3M RF-Series foams are setting a new world standard for sustainable fire protection. For more information, contact:

3M Technologies (S) Pte Ltd.Fire Fighting Foam Products(65) 6450 [email protected]

3M Australia Pty LtdPerformance Material DivisionToll Free: 136 136

After you’ve put out the fire,will you still be a hero?


Now available in an alcohol-type concentrate formulationfor hydrocarbons andpolar solvents!

Unlike fluoroprotein and otherconventional fluorochemical-based foams, 3M RF-Seriesfoams contain nofluorochemicalsin their formulations.

apf13 obc 17/11/06 7:47 am Page 1