APF Issue 05

APF ON-LINE www.apfmag.com An MDM PUBLICATION Issue 5 – March 2003 ASIA PACIFIC FIRE MAGAZINE REPORTING TO THE ASIA PACIFIC FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE SERVICE INDUSTRY Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles Storage Tank Protection Australia’s Firewise Programme BA Training for Fire Fighters also inside Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles Storage Tank Protection Australia’s Firewise Programme BA Training for Fire Fighters


Reporting to the Asia Pacific Fire Protection and Fire Service Industry

Transcript of APF Issue 05

Page 1: APF Issue 05



An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 5 – March 2003



Aeria l Ladder P lat form Vehic lesStorage Tank Protect ion

Austra l ia ’s F irewise Programme

BA Trainingfor FireFighters

also ins ideAeria l Ladder P lat form Vehic les

Storage Tank Protect ionAustra l ia ’s F irewise Programme

BA Trainingfor FireFighters

OFC IFC IBC OBC 2/11/06 10:06 am Page ofc1

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Who Protects the Protectors?

Lion Apparel, with over 100 years of experience is the world’spremium and largest manufacturer and supplier of firefighter’s protectiveclothing. Lion combines proven design features with leading edge globaltechnology, also adapting it to the unique climatic and firefightingrequirements of each country.

Lion Apparel – Asia PacificLevel 1/160 Sir Donald Bradman DriveHilton (Adelaide), South Australia, 5033

Tel: +61 8 8354 3766 Fax: +61 8 8354 3788Email: [email protected]

Web: www.lionapparel.comEnquiries: www.lionapparel.com

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3 Foreword from NFPA

5-8 Aerial Ladder PlatformVehicles – TheirDevelopment in Asia

10-15 BA Training for Fire Fighters

17-21 No Going Back – AnalogueAddressable Fire AlarmControl

23-24 Monitors Market Guide

27-33 Storage Tank Protection –Why do we need Fixed FoamSystems?

34-35 Fire Guangdong 2003Preview

37-40 Developing an EffectiveDecontamination Strategy

42-44 Protective Fabrics for Fire-Fighter Clothing

46 Product Profile – Hale CAFSSystems

49-53 Hydraulic Rescue Equipmentaway from the VehicleExtrication Rescue Scene

55-56 The replacement of Halon inthe Asia Pacific

58-59 Don’t Tell Me You Can’t Hearon the Fireground – FireFighter Communications

60 Product Profile – Simulation

62-65 Working Towards CommunitySafety – Australia’s FirewiseProgramme

66-67 Product Update

68 Advertisers’ Index

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Front cover picture: Courtesy of© Hermann Kollinger OÖLFV

PublishersMark Seton & David Staddon

Editorial ContributorsBob Houchin, Alistair Hornsby, Okay Barutcu, Mike Willson, Tony Hughes, Johnny Ho, Brendan Morris, Wendy Lee, David Ramsey, Anthea Bibby

General ManagerMaggie Evans

APF is published quarterly by:MDM Publishing Ltd 18a, St James Street, South Petherton, Somerset TA13 5BWUnited KingdomTel: +44 (0) 1460 249199Fax: +44 (0) 1460 249292 e-mail: [email protected]: www.apfmag.com

©All rights reserved

Periodical Postage paid at Charnplain NewYork and additional officesPOSTMASTER: Send address changes toIMS of New York, P 0 Box 1518 Champlain NY 12919-1518USAUSPS No. (To be confirmed)

Subscription RatesSterling – £35.00 AUS Dollars – $100.00US Dollars – $55.00 (Prices include Postage and Packing)ISSN – 1476-1386

DISCLAIMER:The views and opinions expressed in ASIA PACIFIC FIREMAGAZINE are not necessarily those of MDM PublishingLtd. The magazine and publishers are in no way responsibleor legally liable for any errors or anomalies made within theeditorial by our authors. All articles are protected bycopyright and written permission must be sought from thepublishers for reprinting or any form of duplication of anyof the magazines content. Any queries should be addressedin writing to the publishers.Reprints of articles are available on request. Prices onapplication to the Publishers.

Page design by Dorchester Typesetting Group LtdPrinted by The Friary Press Ltd




Issue 5 – March 2003



Aeria l Ladder P lat form Vehic les

Storage Tank Protect ion

Austra l ia ’s F irewise Programme

BA Trainingfor FireFighters

also ins ide

Aeria l Ladder P lat form Vehic les

Storage Tank Protect ion

Austra l ia ’s F irewise Programme

BA Trainingfor FireFighters

March 2003 Issue 5


AN APOLOGYIn the last issue of APF magazine, we ran an article written by Mr. Mark Gribble entitled “The lastline of defence”. We would like to make it clear that Mr. Gribble in no way promotes any single firefighter clothing manufacturer or its products and is completely neutral in all of his duties as SeniorVP and National OH&S Coordinator for the United Firefighters Union of Australia, QueenslandBranch and as a Member of the Emergency Services Advisory Council. The choices of photographsused in Mr Gribble’s article were ours and were not supplied by the author. We would like toapologise to Mr. Gribble and to our readers for any misrepresentation our choice of photographsmay have caused.

Mark Seton Publisher

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:17 am Page 1

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THE PAST FEW MONTHS have been filled with disastrous fire in theregion. The have been a number of incidents of tragic loss of life: thelargest was 33 killed in a restaurant fire in Harbin, China during LunarNew Year celebrations. There were also many deaths as a result of fireinvolving fireworks. It was also sad to see the loss of a priceless palace tofire, also in China.

It is interesting to observe the response to these events, primarily charg-ing the owners with various offences. I believe it would be more produc-tive for all concerned to prevent such incidents and to ensure that systemsare in place to minimize the impact. I believe this to be a self-evidenttruth.

In most of the recent events, the same issues of lack of exits, locked orblocked escape routes, lack of training and insufficient means of fightinga fire, were reported. Why is it that history keeps repeating itself? When Iask this question, I am told a number of reasons: “As a developingcountry, we cannot afford expensive fire protection systems.” The secondmost quoted reason is corruption. In my opinion any official who turns ablind eye to flagrant breaches of life safety is committing a far greateroffence than the building owner because they are fully aware of thepotential consequences of their actions.

In most of the tragic events, if all the existing exits had been clearlyindicated and clear, the number of deaths would have been reduced. Suchaction does not require expenditure, it require education and a desire topreserve public safety. Codes such as NFPA 101 (Life Safety Code) clearlyspell out what is required for safe egress from a building. NFPA 1 (FirePrevention Code) advises on requirements to prevent and minimize theimpact of fires. Using such codes for guidance would be a step in theright direction. An innovative approach would be to make sure the build-ing owners “self inspect” to guidelines provided by the authorities. It isbetter to hold the building owners/occupiers to account before the eventthan after.

I am not suggesting that tackling these problems is easy but there is aneed to be proactive NOW or we will continue to see unnecessary loss andsuffering.

Jeff GodfredsonNFPA’s Asia-Pacific Operations Director

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


FOREWORDby Jeff GodfredsonNFPA’s Asia-Pacific Operations Director

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Enquiries: www.vema.fi

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The principal manufacturers ofthese devises are Bronto Skyliftand Vema from Finland as well

as Magirus from Germany. Othersmaller players are in the market, butthey have little or no customers in Asia.Furthermore, there are now copy pro-ducts being produced in China, whichwill eventually hit at least the mainland China market.

First seen in a similar guise fromComet in Belgium, the concept wasreally developed and marketed initiallyby Bronto, who sold the first unit toSavonlinna, in Finland in 1985.Although started by Bronto in the mid80’s, the next to start a similar linewere Simon Engineering in UK, whosaw that Bronto were onto a goodthing. They developed the ST range tocompete with Bronto, taking their firstorder in 1987 and finally delivering theunit in 1990 to a regional UK brigade.

However the product had manyproblems, and was redesigned and“reissued” in 1993 as the ALP340.

Subsequently with the demise of theSimon Engineering facility, the designwas sold to Magirus, who now producethe product in Germany, with a totallyrevised design and control system andnow market them under the ALP range,which covers from 27 m up to 54 m.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Pic courtesy of Bronto Skylift

Pic courtesy of Vema Lift Oy

Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles

Their Development in Asia

Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles

Their Development in AsiaCPL or ALP, call it what you will but it is a combination of aturntable ladder and an aerial platform or Snorkel as theywere fondly known.

By Bob Houchin

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Although accurate figures are notavailable from Magirus, it is believedthat since the re-launch of the product,units have only been sold to China andTaiwan.

Vema entered the field in 1990, witha product to primarily compete withBronto. Data available seems to indi-cate that they have sold a total of 17units in Asia.

From currently available figures, Brontohave over 200 units operating in Asia.


All three manufacturers produce arange offering working heights from 23metres up to 55 metres.

A basic comparison of the availablemodels is given in the table above.

The initial products were heavy inconstruction, and needed a big chassisto carry the bulk, but Bronto intro-duced the MDT (now the RL range) in1996, which was a lighter weight ver-sion, and could be mounted on smallerchassis’ whilst achieving the sameresultant operating range.

The use of the ALP in Asia is growing.

The ladder is slowly replaced by theALP as the platform becomes moreuseful than the ladder in most cases.An example is shown here, that couldnot be tackled by a TTL. This can beseen in as much that both Singaporeand Hong Kong have replaced 53 mTTL’s with ALP’s.

It becomes apparent that the actualladder section is rarely used, and so farto my knowledge the use of the ladderposes the same problem as the TTL, ie,how to get people to use it.


In order to make some basic compar-isons, I have again made a table, below,

which will clearly show the advantagesof the ALP against the TTL at 53 metres.


Continuous rescue capability, by use ofthe boom ladders for high-densityevacuation emergencies. The boom lad-ders are wide with high handrails andrigid thus offering maximum confi-dence to those using them. A largeplatform for rescuing the elderly, infirmand children or anybody too frightenedor injured to go down a ladder.

The cage also provides the fire fighterwith a stable platform from which tofight all types of fires. With a watermonitor capacity of up to 4000 litresper minute, the appliance is also ideallysuited as a water tower, especially asthe monitor can be operated by remotecontrol from both the cage and theturntable or even from the ground byuse of a remote control.

The outreach can be increased byutilisation of a cage payload system,which permits an additional 2–3 m ofoutreach with a 180 kg cage capacity.This additional capability can be thedifference between life and death for,the quick snatch of one or two personsfrom a window, balcony, or roof of abadly burning building.

A long tip boom provides valuableadditional rescue and fire-fightingcapability including reaching positionsbehind obstacles e.g. parapets, far sidesof roofs etc.

The boom design permits the cage to

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Magirus Working Height Outreach Payload Operating WeightALP320L 32 20 325 18000ALP340 34 23 400 26000ALP420 42 20.5 400 33000ALP540 54 21.5 400 40000

Vema273TFL 27 17 400 17000323TFL 32 18 400 18000333TFL 33 23.5 400 25000383TFL 38 19 400 22000443TFL 45 24 400 32000

Bronto Skylift F23RL 23 13.7 270 12000F27RLH 27 21 400 16000F32RL 32 20.5 325 16000F37RL 37 18.5 325 18000F42RL 42 21.8 400 26000F53RL 53 25 400 32000

Topic ALP TTLCost 75% of TTL 100%Operating weight 30000 24000Length 12 metres 12 metresOutreach 25 metres 17 metresPayload 400 kg 180 kgTime to rescue a family of 5 from a flat 270 secs (1 platform load) 584 secs (5 lift loads)Up and over facility Yes NoLaser range finding Yes (Bronto Skylift only) NoCage protection Yes NoCollision guard Yes NoPermanent water way Yes NoWater flow 4000 lpm 2000 lpmBA facility Yes NoPower outlet Yes NoStretcher support Yes YesCan be used as observation tower Yes Maybe

Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles

Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles

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be positioned up to 5 m below groundlevel at an outreach of up to 18 m:This provides additional flexibility forrescues from rivers, embankments,canals, docksides etc.


One of the big advantages that the ALPhas over the TTL is the training. Mostoperators find that “learning” the ALPis easier than the ladder, and of courserescue training is more practical.

Fire Services are surprised at the easewith which their training departments areable to both “convert” existing Turntable

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Pic courtesy of Iveco Magirus GmbH

Pic courtesy of Bronto Skylift Enquiries: www.bronto.fi

Above allBronto Skyliftrescue vehicles

Bronto Skylift hascreated reliable rescuevehicles for the firebrigades over 30 years.The working height ofBronto units range from20 m to 88 m.

Bronto Skylift Oy Ab

Tel. +358 3 272 7111Fax +358 3 272 7300www.bronto.fi

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Ladder operators and Hydraulic Platformoperators to the ALP concept and to trainnew aerial operators in the use of thistype of equipment.

Training officers normally feel thatthe design of the equipment and thesimplicity of the control systems areparticularly “user friendly” and moreimportantly that the built-in safety sys-tems and interlocks prevented damageand possible accidents in the early daysof gaining operational experience.

Furthermore, Bronto have developeda Simulator training system that allowsfor the operators to get the feel of thecontrols in the classroom, before ven-turing out to the machine. This systemallows the instructor much more flexi-bility in training.


New developments in the market arebringing in the Octopus from Magirus,which is a revolutionary design, but notincorporating any ladder structure, andthe Bronto Skylift Allrounder, which isbeing supplied in large numbers toAthens for the Olympics. The Allrounderforms part of a Rosenbauer concept.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Pic courtesy of Vema Lift Oy

Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles

Aerial Ladder Platform Vehicles

In the next few years, I think we willsee the demise of the TTL at the higherlevel, but they still can work well atthe level up to 37m, and serve adifferent purpose at this height. Butfor work above this height, the ALPis in a world of its own, and willcontinue to dominate the needs ofhigh-level rescue in Asia.

Enquiries: www.skfire.com

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Enquiries: www.luxfercylinders.com

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BA Training at the FireService College

The Fire Service College, based atMoreton in Marsh, Gloucester-shire, England, offers a wide vari-

ety of fire-related courses. BA trainingforms a major part of these courses, inparticular BA Instructor, HazardousMaterial and Environmental Protectionand Fire Behaviour Training Instructor.In the past few years a large number ofstudents from the Asia and Pacificareas have attended the College forsuch courses. In addition, Collegeinstructors have visited countries toprovide on-site advice on how similarcourses can be prepared, accredited andmanaged at local training centres.

The facilities available at the Collegeare second to none within the UnitedKingdom and can provide realistictraining scenarios for a wide variety ofincidents: air, sea, rail, road, high rise,off-shore, commercial, domestic, indus-trial, domestic, environmental . . . toname just a few. College personnel aredrawn from Fire Brigades throughout

the United Kingdom and bring to theCollege a wealth of experience andknowledge. The learning environmentfostered by the College ensures thatthese personnel are able to developtheir chosen areas of expertise throughstudy and research. A number of areasrelating to the development of BAtraining are currently being investigat-ed. For the purpose of this article thesedevelopments will be tied into the FireBehaviour Training Instructors course.

FIRE BEHAVIOUR TRAINING INSTRUCTORS COURSEThe Fire Behaviour Training Instructorcourse lasts for two weeks and wasdeveloped five years ago, drawing uponexperience and expertise from through-out the world. The course is designedto ensure that a balance is struckbetween theoretical and practicalknowledge. In particular emphasis isplaced upon the ‘instructor’ element ofthe course. To this end the traineeinstructors are required to acquire ahigh degree of technical knowledgewhich they can combine with the ex-perience and competence gained in the

realistic conditions achieved on thecourse. Time is spent in the excellentlyequipped chemistry laboratories study-ing the science of combustion, pyroly-sis, limits of flammability, flashover,backdraughts and fire-gas explosions.As much use as possible is made ofsmall-scale demonstrations. Equipmentused includes ‘Aquariums’, ‘BangBoxes’ and ‘Wendy Houses’. Studentsare required to present a number oflectures on Fire Behaviour therebydemonstrating their grasp and under-standing of the theory and their abilityto successfully use the laboratoryequipment.

Another area of the course that hasbeen developed is the use of ‘casestudies’. There is concern throughoutthe UK Fire Service that Fire BehaviourTraining is not being effectively appliedto actual operational incidents. TheCollege library holds hundreds ofreports on fire incidents, which haveoccurred in the UK and the rest of theworld. College instructors and studentscan use these reports and the pho-tographs that they contain to try toascertain the likely fire development,it’s ultimate effects and any relevantlearning points that can be gleaned forfuture use. By this method the class-room and practical based learning canbe compared to and reinforced by such

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Backdraught/Window Unit

FBT student in BA

BA Training for

By Alistair Hornsby – Fire Service College

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studies. Students, acting within syndi-cates, are required to make a formalpresentation based on a ‘case study’,which they have selected, so that anylearning points can be highlighted. Partof the course requires students to sub-mit a two thousand five hundred wordassignment on any topic concerningfire behaviour. Individuals can select acase study of an incident, which hasoccurred within their Brigade, for thisassignment.

HEALTH AND SAFETYIn recent years more emphasis is beingplaced upon the command and controlof BA at operational incidents. This ismainly due to injuries caused to opera-tional personnel at incidents where thecontrol of BA wearers has been foundto be inadequate. The United KingdomTechnical Bulletin 1/97 on BACommand and Control provides guid-ance on the above. Training at theCollege emphasises, to student incidentcommanders and team leaders, theimportance of proper command andcontrol and the need for the correctcommand structure to be implementedat the earliest stages of any incidentinvolving the use of BA. Another toolavailable to the Incident Commander is Dynamic Risk Assessment. The use of a simple flow-chart can help theIncident Commander to continuouslydetermine the potential risks and bene-fits of their actions and so develop asuitable course of action and the nec-essary safety measures required toimplement it.

It is possible that some deaths at firerelated operational incidents have beendue to a lack of understanding and theinability to recognise the symptoms offire development. Understanding therisks imposed by fires and the possibleconsequences helps the Incident Com-mander to assess the safety controlmeasures required. For this reason FireBehaviour sessions have been devel-oped for inclusion in a number ofcourses undertaken by the College.These sessions are of particular rele-vance on the core development coursessuch as Crew and Watch Commanderand Junior Officer Advancement.

An area of increasing concern within

the British Fire Service, particularly inFire Behaviour Training is the healthmonitoring of instructors and students.Recently there has been a lot of med-ical research into the short and longterm health hazards of repeated expo-sures to high temperatures. The guid-ance that such research has producedsuggests that prior to BA training ofany type, students and instructorsshould be fit, sufficiently hydrated,adequately rested between training ses-sions, free from any illness and nottaking unsuitable medication. FireBehaviour Training instructors shouldalso complete weekly and monthlyhealth surveillance logs. These provideHealth Advisors with a clear indicationof the type and duration of any ‘hot’BA wears and give early warning of anyunusual health problems that theinstructor may be developing.


In recent years there has been a dra-matic change in the Personal ProtectiveEquipment available to fire fighters.The thermal protection afforded fromfire tunics and leggings, flash-hoodsand gloves has increased. Using tem-perature probes within the Fire Behav-iour Training units, it is not uncommonto record temperatures of approximate-ly 700, 500 and 250 degrees centigradeat head, chest and waist height respec-tively. Less than a decade ago it wouldhave been unimaginable for fire fight-ers to endure such conditions for morethan a few seconds without sufferingextreme discomfort or burns. Withmodern PPE the level of protectionafforded means that such temperaturescan be endured for several minutes at atime without immediate stress. One

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Aquarium backdraught demonstrator


Prior to BA training of any type,students and instructors should be fit,sufficiently hydrated, adequatelyrested between training sessions, freefrom any illness and not takingunsuitable medication.

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drawback of such superior protection isthat fire fighters may become moreisolated from their surrounding con-ditions. They can therefore, due togreater exposure, be at more risk ofinjury, should conditions rapidly deteri-orate. This is especially relevant opera-tionally where fire fighters can be lulledinto a false sense of security. Collegeinstructors therefore try to ensure thata correct balance is struck betweenexposure to realistic fire conditions and

the risk of injury, howeverminor. The old adage of ‘burnto learn’ should definitely be athing of the past. It is impor-tant that students learn,through theory and practicalexperience, to recognise thelikely outcome of fire develop-ment and learn to use theirsenses such as sight, soundand temperature to help gaugethis development and thereforeact accordingly.

Another drawback of greaterthermal protection is the riskof self-induced heat stresswhen working hard particularlywithin a BA environment. MostBritish Brigades only issue one

type of fire kit, which must be used forall types of incident. For the majorityof these incidents high thermal protec-tion is not required. Breathable fabricscan alleviate the problem of heat stresshowever, these can be quickly over-runif the individual is working hard or thefire kit is dirty. As mentioned above,heat stress can lead to a variety ofshort and long term health problemsand should be avoided where possible.The College is assisting in the evalua-tion of various pieces of PPE and isalso attempting to ascertain what is the

optimum level of PPE to be worn byFire Behaviour Training Instructors toprevent health problems. Areas underinvestigation include: the number oflayers of clothing being worn underPPE and the use of hoods on fire tunicsto protect the head.

FIRE BEHAVIOUR TRAINING UNITSThe College possesses six Fire BehaviourTraining units including two flashoverdemonstrators, two ‘attack’ units andtwo ‘window’ backdraught units. All theunits use carbonaceous fuel in the formof chipboard. The units have been con-verted locally using standard shippingcontainers as the base. It is felt at theCollege that only carbonaceous unitscan provide the real characteristics offire development and behaviour. Gastraining units have the advantage ofbeing environmentally friendly and ableto cope with a large through put ofstudents but do not provide the neces-sary realistic conditions. They are betterused for practising water applicationtechniques once students have hadample opportunity to observe firebehaviour and practice suppressiontechniques within the more realisticenvironment of a carbonaceous unit.

There are health concerns with thetype of carbonaceous fuels being used

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Pakistan students/foam blanket

Enquiries: www.fireservicecollege.ac.uk

Training to OPITO & OLF Standards & STCW 'as Regulations'HND, Fire Safety and ManagementHNC, Fire Safety and ManagementOffshore Integrated TrainingHelideck TeamsFPSO Vessels CourseHazardous Materials and Environmental ProtectionBreathing Apparatus and Confined Space TrainingFire Behaviour TrainingRisk AssessmentCompany and Platform Specific TrainingOutreach Training

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inside containers. Chipboard normallyconsists of wood particles containedwithin a plastic matrix. The combina-tion of wood and plastic provide agood mixture of fire gases and thicksmoke with which to demonstrate firedevelopment features such as the ‘neu-tral plane’, fire gas balloons, roll-oversetc. Unfortunately, the downside ofusing any plastic is the potentiallyadverse health effects that the productsof combustion can cause. Following areport, produced by a UK Fire Brigade,highlighting these concerns the Collegehas decided to monitor the situation.Some Brigades within the UK alreadyprohibit the use of chipboard and willonly allow untreated timber to be used.Others have adopted a variety of safetymeasures to reduce the risks posed.

PROGRESSING FROM SINGLE CONTAINERSWithin the UK there is growing concernthat the development of FBT is stag-nating and not moving forward fromsingle container units. Several Brigadeshave designed and developed multi-compartment fire training facilitiesusing containers. These give them theopportunity to reproduce and simulatea variety of scenarios for a low initialset up cost. The College already has a number of concrete structures,designed primarily for small carbona-ceous crib fires, which could be adapt-ed to provide realistic fire behaviourtraining. They have been used for suchin the past, but high fire loading andthe method of setting the fire wascausing unacceptable damage. CollegeFBT instructors are now investigatingmethods of building fires to give theright level of realism within thesebuildings without such damage.

TACTICAL VENTILATIONThe College has a strong background intactical ventilation. At present it runs aone-week course for Tactical VentilationInstructors. Most courses such as FBTIand core progression also receive atleast a half-day input on tactical venti-lation demonstrating the principles andpractical application of Positive PressureVentilation. The College is looking todevelop the integration of fire behav-iour and tactical ventilation within asuitably realistic training environment.

BRANCH DESIGNThere is an on-going debate, betweenvarious fire departments, on the mostsuitable design for a general-purposefire-fighting branch. At the Fire Service

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Inside FBT attack unit

Enquiries: www.ifte.com

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College the general consensus is that abranch should be capable of producinga variety of streams ranging from fogthrough a spray to a solid jet. For asmall compartment fire, it is widelybelieved that a 30–60 degree cone,producing a fine fog of water at a flowrate of approximately 100–150 litresper minute is suitable for the control offire gases. Traditionally, British firefighters normally carry out an initialattack on a fire using a hose reel. Thisconsists of a 19mm hose with a smallbranch operating at approximately 20

bars. It was quickly discovered at theCollege, when the new pulse tech-niques were introduced, that mostbranch and coupling designs wereinadequate for the task. To operatesmoothly at 20 bars and to give a pulseof short duration, it has been foundthat a branch with a slide design hasdistinct advantages over a ball valve.The water hammer produced by pulsinga branch can easily burst couplings ordamage pumps. Macdonald couplingswith a screw-down lock facility producea strong and secure option. The College

has provided advice to a number ofbranch manufacturers on branch designrequirements. One such piece of adviceis that, ideally, within the cone thereshould be an even distribution of waterrather than just at the rim. This wouldensure that there is an optimum spreadof small water particles to absorb heatand control the fire gases.

THERMAL IMAGE CAMERASThere has been little development bymost Brigades into the operational useof Thermal Image Cameras (TIC). A TIC isnot always considered when making aninitial entry despite it’s proven ability toprovide significant assistance in quicklylocating casualties and/or the seat of thefire. Reasons cited, to name a few,include a lack of faith in reliability, con-cerns over intrinsic safety and resistancefor moving away from traditional, provensearch procedures. The latest generationof TICs however, provide an excellentand versatile search tool. They can pro-duce coloured images showing tempera-ture variation, take digital stills therebypreserving forensic information before itis altered by the developing fire situationand can send live images via telemetry tothe Incident Commander. The latter givesthe Incident Commander valuable infor-mation on the fire’s development and

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FBT students, about to enter attack unit

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assists in the dynamic risk assessmentand the continuous evolution of anoperational plan.

Various College members feel that thisis an area of BA training that requiresdevelopment. It is hoped, should sup-port from manufactures be forthcoming,that this can be investigated and pushedforward. It is interesting to note, froman Australian CFBT web site, that TICsare being used to record and study thenature of flash and roll-overs.

BA TELEMETRY SYSTEMSThe College uses the Draeger 94 plusBreathing Apparatus set fitted with theBodyguard combined pressure gaugeand Distress Signal Unit system. Thisset has proved itself to be reliablethroughout all the use it has been sub-jected to. Its main drawback it thatBodyguard is a complex system andneeds constant practise in its use toensure that the general and daily safetychecks are carried out correctly. Withthe regular turnover of students at theCollege, who are from a variety ofbackgrounds and possess a wide rangeof BA experience, the College hasrealised that it is not always possiblefor sufficient instruction and practicetime, for the correct use of the Body-guard system, to be given. The College

has therefore modified the generalsafety check so those students cancarry out the full range of requiredtests without incorporating all of theBodyguards features. BA wearers whoare competent in the use of Bodyguardcan carry out the checks as normal.

Draeger has recently developed thePSS Merlin BA Entry Control Board,which compliments the Bodyguard sys-tem. The Merlin Board uses telemetry tocommunicate directly with the Body-guard unit via an attached radio unit.This allows the BA Entry Control Officer

to interrogate the Bodyguard unit toestablish cylinder contents, air consump-tion rate, time to whistle etc. The MerlinBoard also has the ability to calculateTime of Whistle. Should the IncidentCommander require all or part of the BAcrews committed to the risk area, to beevacuated, then an evacuation signalcan be transmitted via the Merlin BAboard to the Bodyguard unit. Obviously,from an incident command point ofview, Merlin has the ability to providethe Incident Commander with up todate information to assist them in mak-ing decisions and to be another valuablesafety tool in the control of BA. It isexpected, within the near future, thatDraeger will make a Merlin board avail-able for the College to assess and toincorporate within the training pro-gramme. It would be of particular usefor the BA Instructors course where itscapabilities could be tested to the full.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Prior to backdraught

In ConclusionThere are a number of areas withinBA training that can and should bedeveloped. It is felt that the Collegehas the facilities and expertise toplay an active role in any suchdevelopment.

Subscribe now to APF Magazine.Dedicated to Fire-Fighting and

Fire Protection in the Asia Pacific

Visit www.apfmag.com

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MDM Publishing Ltd., 18a, St James Street, South Petherton, Somerset, TA13 5BW, England. Tel: +44 1460 249 199 Fax: +44 1460 249 292

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:28 am Page 15

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Enquiries: www.reliablesprinkler.com

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:28 am Page 16

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Only a short while ago, it seems, analogue-addressable fire alarm

control panels were found onlyin highrise buildings, large campus-styleinstallations, and commercial/industrialcomplexes. The truth was, micro-processor-based intelligence was simplytoo expensive for small building appli-cations. The sophisticated technologydidn’t justify the expense in smallbuildings. But things have changed,especially during the past year or two,and the future of fire protection – forbuildings of all sizes – is now inexorablytied to analogue-addressable control.

While some manufacturers have devel-oped conventional products that supportanalogue-like features, true analogue-addressable fire alarm systems represent asignificant improvement over conven-tional systems on the market today. First,with support for intelligent addressabledevices, the state and condition of any

device can be pinpointed and checkedfrom the front panel. Conventional sys-tems, on the other hand, are typicallybased on zoned control, which providesinformation only about the group ofdevices on a single wiring loop. If onedetector is dirty or causing a trouble con-dition, all the devices on that loop needto be checked in the field, one at a time.

Analogue-addressable control alsoincreases system reliability and reducesthe chance of nuisance alarms. Unlikeconventional systems, which only rec-ognize when a device changes the stateof a zone (i.e.: from normal to alarm),intelligent devices process informationon a continuous basis. This means, forexample, the device can track andcompensate for the effects of the

gradual accumulation of dirt, and willsignal the control panel if it is in needof service long before it becomesineffective or issues a false alarm.

This kind of self-diagnostics is partic-ularly important when it comes to meet-ing the testing requirements of local firecodes. In fact, more and more panel-generated diagnostic reports are acceptedin lieu of manual testing of each device.And that can save a lot of time, trouble,and expense on a regular basis.


While analogue-addressable control hasoffered many distinct advantages overconventional fire alarm systems for quitesome time, the trade-off in terms ofexpense and relatively complicatedinstallation has kept it largely in thedomain of large installations. Amonglarger systems an economy of scale hasmade the choice of an analogue-addressable system one that reaps signif-icant benefits to both the contractor andthe building owner. Until recently smallerinstallations could not justify that leap.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


No going backNo going backANALOGUE-ADDRESSABLE FIRE ALARM CONTROL has hit its strideamong large and mid-sized applications. The question now is canthe cost and configuration barriers be lowered enough to bring itto maturity among small building applications as well?

By Okay Barutcu



APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:29 am Page 17

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Lately, however, the cost of analogue-addressable control has come downsignificantly. The price of microproces-sors is low; on-board memory is rela-tively cheap; and manufacturers haverecouped the high cost of developmentto the point where they can now offerthe technology at less of a premiumthan before.

Not long ago contractors werereluctant to install such systems inbuildings that required fewer than1,000 detectors. Today industry insidersagree that this threshold has droppedto between 50 and 80 detectors. Smalloffice buildings and lowrise residentialcomplexes now make likely candidatesfor analogue-addressable control.

The most significant factor in thespread of analogue-addressable controlto small building applications has beencost, but technology has played an

important part as well. Sophisticatedfeatures at the high end of the scalehave led to crossover products at thelow end. Today manufacturers are ableto offer scaled-back versions of tech-nology originally developed for largeapplications. This technology is ideallysuited to smaller applications becauseit’s simpler to implement, easier toinstall, and economical.


Once complicated to program and con-figure, analogue-addressable systemsare now loaded with features thatstreamline installation. Those very fea-tures are making them attractive forsmall building applications.

The most notable panels gearedexpressly for small buildings are the

new generation of hybrid analogue/conventional systems. These offer low-cost conventional control, or cost-effective analogue-addressable control,or a flexible combination of the two.

Let’s say you have a small building:new construction; twenty detectors –too small to justify an analogue-addressable system. But you know thatthe planned phase two of constructionwill quadruple its floorspace. A hybridsystem is ideal for such an installationbecause it can start out as a conven-tional panel serving the first phase ofconstruction for as long as necessary.For phase two of construction, theaddition of a loop controller at thecontrol panel will give it analogue-addressable capability to serve intelli-gent devices installed with the newconstruction. Meanwhile, existing con-ventional devices can be replaced withnew intelligent devices and brought on-line at any time after the control panelhas the added analogue-addressablecapability. Existing field wiring can bereused, and the panel doesn’t evenneed to be replaced. The cost of thejob meets the needs of the applicationwithout committing to analogue con-trol before its cost is justified. The endresult is an analogue system for theentire building at a fraction of the costof replacing an outdated control paneland all its connected devices.

The phased-in approach for newconstruction does away with the all-or-nothing limits of traditional analogue-addressable control. In retrofit situationsthe cost and performance benefits areeven more significant because hybridcontrol panels offer a convenient and cost-effective migration path toanalogue-addressable control.

This allows aging conventional sys-tems to be replaced in stages. As areasof a building are renovated, conven-tional detectors can be replaced withintelligent devices according to atimetable that suits the owner’s budgetand renovation schedule. The change-over can occur so that it has the leastimpact on building occupants, forexample, when a tenant’s lease expires.Because there is no need to retrofit anentire fire alarm system at once, workcan even be scheduled over a numberof weekends – without any lapse in fireprotection between visits by installers.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Pic courtesy of Edwards International

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:29 am Page 18

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Enquiries: www.estinternational.com

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:30 am Page 19

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While the convenience of hybrid controlpanels have gained them significantheadway in the market, systems gearedfor small buildings are now loaded withfeatures that make them easier to installand service as well. Programming andconfiguration improvements streamlinethe process for installers so that theyspend as little time on-site as possible.

One of the greatest advantages ofanalogue-addressable control over con-ventional systems is the support foraddressable devices. With this support,

an analogue-addressable panel can dis-play details about the location andcondition of any intelligent device onthe system. The tricky part is registeringthe location and type of device withthe system so that it can display thesedetails when required. When theamount of time an installer spends set-ting up a system determines whether ornot analogue-addressable control is acost-effective solution, this factor takeson a great deal of importance.

Recognizing this, manufacturers havecome up with several innovative short-cuts that speed setup and installation foranalogue-addressable systems. Becauseevery installation presents different

challenges, look for a control panel thatsupports a range of programming meth-ods, including laptop programming, bar-code scanning, autolearning, and frontpanel configuration:

● AUTOLEARNING is a routineinvoked by the installer after thefield devices are connected. Muchlike the search for new hardwaresequence found on today’s plug-and-play PCs, the Autolearn routinelooks for connected devices and reg-isters their device addresses with thecontrol panel. Autolearn also deter-mines whether any hardware optionsare installed with the control paneland makes sure they are workingcorrectly. Autolearn is vital to anysmall building analogue controlpanel because it provides a baseupon which device-level details canbe built. While it identifies whichdevices are connected, it remains theinstaller’s next task to associate thedevice addresses with meaningfullocation information such as “CAFE-TERIA”, “3RD FLOOR WEST”, “UTILITY

ROOM”, etc. This information is dis-played by the control panel whenrequired.

● LAPTOP PROGRAMMING is amethod that was inherited from biganalogue-addressable systems. Itinvolves downloading data from thesystem, modifying it with a propri-etary Windows® based softwarepackage, and then uploading thenew data to the control panel. Thismethod is useful for larger systemsand where relatively complicatedsetup or extensive text inputting isrequired. It is also useful for associ-ating text details with devices fol-lowing the Autolearn routine. Panelsthat support laptop programmingcome with a port to which a laptopserial cable may be connected.

● BARCODE SCANNING is an innova-tive alternative to laptop program-ming for associating text with deviceaddresses. Here’s how it works: eachdetector includes a unique addressrepresented by a barcode that appearson the device itself and on the end-flap of the box it came in. As eachdevice is installed, the installer simply

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APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:30 am Page 20

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writes its location on the box next tothe bar code and tears off the flap.Back at the control panel theautolearn sequence is run. Then theinstaller scans the bar code from thebox flap and inputs the locationinformation written next to it for ref-erence. The control panel automati-cally associates the device addresswith the text information that fol-lows. This text information may alsobe scanned into the system by meansof a series of sheets carried by theprogrammer that has bar codesaccompanied with plain languagetranslations for text, digits, and fre-quently-used words such as “EAST”,“WEST”, “BASEMENT”, “ROOM”, etc. Con-trol panels that support barcode scan-ning have built-in scanner ports thataccept a connection for compactpencil-style barcode scanners. Forroutine programming and setup, thisoption provides the most convenientmethod of text and numerical input.

● FRONT PANEL PROGRAMMING is aviable option for initial system setupand for making minor changes totext and numerical data. Text inputfor more than a handful of devices,however, can quickly become tediousand time-consuming, even amongcontrol panels that have dedicatedbuttons for each letter in the alpha-bet. Unlike barcode scanning, thereare few shortcuts for repetitive text,and unlike laptop programming,there is no familiar QWERTY-style key-board to speed text input.


Analogue-addressable control panelsoffer the versatility and reliability ofintelligent fire alarm systems, makingbuilt space safer to occupy than everbefore. They are far better at what theydo than conventional systems withzoned control. While barriers to theuniversal acceptance and application ofanalogue-addressable systems remain,these barriers are rapidly coming down. Lower overall cost, the con-venience of hybrid systems, and inno-vations such as autolearning andbarcode scanning are all working infavour of analogue-addressable controlpanels as they edge out traditionalconventional control in the worldmarkets today.

The future of small building firealarm control will undoubtedly reflectinnovations and developments amonganalogue control addressable panels. Aswe continue to lower the feasibilitythreshold for analogue-addressable sys-tems and extend their reach into ever-smaller applications, conventionalsystems will diminish in importance.Whether analogue-addressable systemswill eclipse conventional control alto-gether remains to be seen. But onething can be said for sure: onceanalogue-addressable takes hold, thereis no going back.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Pic courtesy of Edwards International

Okay Barutcu is Regional Director,Europe and South Africa, for ESTInternational. He is based in Arundel,UK.

Enquiries: www.securiton.ch

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:30 am Page 21

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2800 East Evans Avenue, Valparaiso, IN 46383-6940 USA

International +1.219.548.4000 • www.tft.com • [email protected]

1/10mm of Polyester Powdercoat (inside and out) has been melted onto the metal (UNS C8300 Brass)

at 200 Celsius; the perfect corrosion resistant

finish, smooth water way and years of reliable service.

90 grams of solid 304 Stainless Steel, 3 centimeters diameter capable of holding vertical weights up to 160kg. The biggest in the industry.

Knightfire MonitorMaster Foam Nozzle

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Gaam Emergency Products-AUPhone : 61394661244Fax : [email protected]


PolyM ShanghaiPhone: 862164690107Fax: [email protected]


Universal Cars LimitedPhone: 85224140231Fax: 85224136063andrewplh@simedarby.com.hkwww.mitsubishi-motors.com.hk


Pt Palmas EntracoPhone: 6221384 1681Fax: 6221380 [email protected]


Yone CorporationPhone: 81758211185Fax: [email protected]


CME Technologies SDN BHDPhone: 60356331188Fax: [email protected]


Gaam Emergency Products-NZPhone: 6498270859Fax: [email protected]


Alliance Industrial SalesPhone: 6328908818Fax: [email protected]


S.K. Fire Pte. Ltd.Phone: 6568623155Fax : [email protected]


Shilla Fire Co., Ltd.Phone: 820236659011Fax: [email protected]


Young Ararat Enterprise Co. LtdPhone: 886 2 2772 3121Fax: 886 2 2721 9775


Anti-Fire Co, Ltd.Phone: 6622596899Fax: [email protected]




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CompliantFor excellent quality fire fighting equipment visit www.tft.com and call your local distributor for a demonstration. Display equipment, literature and digital data can be obtained by contacting your trained TFT distributor. Enquiries: www.tft.com

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:31 am Page 22

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com



Model Number 3414/3421 3431/3433 911 922Product Name Apollo Monitor Apollo Hi-Riser Ozzie Oscillating Monitor OzzieMaster Oscillating MonitorOrigin USA USA USA USAMaterial Used for Monitor Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum AluminumWeight Monitor 10.5 kg / Base 17.5 kg Monitor 14 kg / Base 17.5 kg Monitor 13 kg Monitor 12.5 kg/ Base 17.5 kgMaterial Used for Legs Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum AluminumQuoted Output (lpm) 3030 ground/ 4800 deck 3030 ground/ 4800 deck 1420 2900Final Finish Painted Painted Painted PaintedDelivery Times 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 4 WeeksUnique Features Separate single or dual inlet Separate single or dual inlet Oscillating Monitor with Oscillating Monitor with

base available. Easily converted base available. Easily converted adjustable sweep angle. adjustable sweep angle. into a deck mount monitor. into a deck mount monitor with Separate single or dual inlet

unique elevating feature. base available.Easily converted into a deck mount monitor.

Warranty 5 Years 5 Years 5 Years 5 Years


Akron Brass Company343 Venture Blvd.Wooster, OH 44691, USATel: +1 330 264 5678Fax: +1 330 264 2944Website: www.akronbrass.com<http://www.akronbrass.com>

Model Number 365/570 366 / 567 376 377 378 379Origin Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany GermanyMaterial Used for Monitor Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum

(Gunmetal Option) (Gunmetal Option) (Gunmetal Option) (Gunmetal Option) (Gunmetal Option) (Gunmetal Option)Material Used for Legs Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stainless SteelWeight 8 kg 10 kg 35 kg 87 kg 240 kg 450 kgQuoted Output (lpm) 2000 4000 8000 16000 32000 60000Final Finish Coloured Red or Coloured Red or Coloured Red or Coloured Red or Coloured Red or Coloured Red or

Coloured to Coloured to Coloured to Coloured to Coloured to Coloured toCustomers Customers Customers Customers Customers CustomersSpecification Specification Specification Specification Specification Specification

Delivery Times Basic Units promptly Basic Units promptly Basic Units promptly Basic Units promptly Basic Units promptly Basic Units promptly available available available available available availableCustom Tailored, Custom Tailored, Custom Tailored, Custom Tailored, Custom Tailored, Custom Tailored, complete complete complete complete complete completeUnits upon Request Units upon Request Units upon Request Units upon Request Units upon Request Units upon Request

Unique Features Easy to service, low Easy to service, low Easy to service, low Easy to service, low Easy to service, low Easy to service, low maintenance, basic maintenance, maintenance, maintenance, maintenance, maintenance,units to allow units to allow units to allow units to allow units to allow units to allow adaption to varying adaption to varying adaption to varying adaption to varying adaption to varying adaption to varyingrequirements, e.g requirements, e.g requirements, e.g requirements, e.g requirements, e.g requirements, e.gactuators, pipes actuators, pipes actuators, pipes actuators, pipes actuators, pipes actuators, pipesand nozzles and nozzles and nozzles and nozzles and nozzles and nozzles


Albach GmbH & Co. KGKonigsteiner Strasse 58D-65929 Frankfurt/Main (Hochst)GermanyTel: +49 69 33 99 38 0Fax: +49 69 33 99 38 22Website: www.alco-frankfurt.de<http://www.alco-frankfurt.de>

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:31 am Page 23

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Albach GmbH & Co. KGKönigsteiner Straße 58 • D-65929 Frankfurt/Main (Höchst) • GermanyFon: 0049 (0) 69 33 99 38-0 • Fax 0049 (0) 69 33 99 38-22 • e-Mail: [email protected] • www.alco-frankfurt.de

Specialists are committed.

We have been in this business for over 50 years.

Monitors for the protection of industrial plants and ships1.000 to 60.000 litres throughput per minute50 to 180 m throw distance

Manually operated, electrically or hydraulically controlled.

A complete range for your specific needs.

Product Name Streamline PGM Portable Ground Monitor Titan Self-inducing Bipod Foam MonitorOrigin UK UKMaterial Used for Monitor Aluminium Alloy and Stainless Steel Aluminium Alloy and Stainless Steel foam barrelMaterial Used for Legs 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless SteelWeight Just 7 kg (without nozzle) 41 kgQuoted Output (lpm) 900-2200 Litres/min (depending on nozzle) 4500 Litres/min at 10 bar g.Final Finish Red thermoplastic (non-chip), natural legs Yellow thermoplastic (non-chip), natural barrelDelivery Times In stock In stockUnique Features Compact, low maintenance, low pressure loss, Applies good foam blanket onto bulk tanks, lowpressure loss, 2 man quick and easy to set up pressure loss, 2 man portable, quick and easy to

operateWarranty 12 months 12 months


Angus FireThame Park Road, ThameOxfordshire OX9 3RT, UKTel: +44 1844 265003Fax: +44 1844 265 156Website: www.angusfire.co.uk<http://www.angusfire.co.uk>

Product Name Crossfire BlitzfireOrigin USA USAMaterial Used for Monitor Hardcoat Anodized Aluminum Hardcoat Anodized AluminumMaterial Used for Legs Stainless Steel with Carbide Tips Stainless Steel with Carbide TipsWeight 11.5 kg 9.9 kgQuoted Output (lpm) 4800 lpm 1900 lpmFinal Finish Powercoat Inside and Outside Powercoat Inside and OutsideDelivery TimesUnique Features Safe-Tak Flow Safety Valve Safety Shut Off Valve

Folding Legs 6-detent Flow Control ValveEasily Transfer from Truck to Ground Use Oscillating Attachment

Folding LegsSafely Operates at 10 degree angle

Warranty 5-year warranty 5-year warranty


Task Force Tips, Inc.2800 East Evans Avenue, ValparaisoIN 46383, USATel: +1 219 548 4000Fax: +1 219 464 0620Website: www.tft.com<http://www.tft.com>

Product Name Stinger 2.0Origin USAMaterial Used for Monitor Cast AluminiumMaterial Used for Legs Forged AluminiumWeight 27 lbsQuoted Output (lpm) 3030Final Finish Red PaintDelivery Times 30 DaysUnique Features Dual Purpose. Can be used as a Deck Gun


Elkhart Brass Mfg. Co., Inc.1302 West Beardsley Avenue, Elkhart, IN 46515, USATel: +1 574 295 8330 Fax: +1 574 293 9914Website: www.alkhartbrass.com <http://www.alkhartbrass.com>

Enquiries: www.alco-frankfurt.de

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:32 am Page 24

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If yyou hhaven’t sseen iit, yyou ddon’t kknow wwhat yyou’re mmissing!

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The SaberJet Nozzle from Akron Brass offers the penetration of a solid bore tip and the fog protectionof a fog nozzle. The SaberJet ends the straight stream vs. fog debate by eliminating the need to carrytwo types of nozzles.— From straight stream to fog on the fly - No shutdown— Straight stream & fog at the same time or separate— 7 tip options - 19mm thru 25mm — 1", 1 1/2" or 2 1/2" inlets— Everything you need in one nozzle - No separate tips to attach— Versatile - High Rise, CAFS, Interior, Exterior, Foam— No need to shutdown the nozzle to activate an emergency low-pressure switch


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APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:32 am Page 25

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The new Stinger® 2.0! It's the lightest, most firefighter friendly monitor on the market with superb performance and durability features:

The industry’s lightweight leader— easy to carry, ultra strong Industry’s lowest friction loss/best stream quality—improved streams up to 1250 GPMQuick action left-right lock mechanism—90º lever action with visual position indicatorLatch pins with visual position indicator—confirm at a glance that pins are latchedLightweight, forged legs— for superior strength

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The Most Experienced Manufacturer of Fire Fighting EquipmentElkhart Brass Mfg. Co., Inc. | 1-800-346-0250 | www.elkhartbrass.com

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APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:33 am Page 26

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Fires in these tanks posespecific problems forboth the professional

fire fighter and the firedesign engineer, which growdramatically the longer thefires burn. Large quantitiesof flammable liquids areinvolved, which becomeincreasingly difficult tocontrol and extinguish thehotter they get.

Clouds of noxious smokeare given off into theatmosphere and toxic liquidsmay escape into water courses andrivers during an incident. It is vitallyimportant to control and extinguishsuch fires quickly and efficiently tominimise their environmental impact.

Such swift action can also minimisethe loss of these non-renewable energyresources, that help generate valuableforeign currency on international mar-kets. Lets now look at how we shouldprotect these valuable assets, to ensurewe achieve effective fire protection andminimise the consequential losses in anincident.


The most reliable means of ensuringthat a fire fighting attack can be

commenced immediately after a firehas been detected, is by ensuring thatthe fire protection equipment is alreadyin position, which means having a fixedfoam system permanently installed inthe hazardous area.

This avoids answering lots ofquestions once the fire starts. Questionslike:

● What are the required foam applica-tion rates?

● What are the water supply require-ments?

● What fire pump capacities will berequired and how can we achievethem?

● How much foam concentrate will beneeded?

● What delivery equipmentdo we have to apply thefoam – above the criticalapplication rate?

● Can we get enough waterpressure to project thefoam onto the tank?

● Which way is the windblowing?

● Are there sufficient firehoses in good condition?

● What about cooling theother tanks?


There is insufficient time to start cal-culating the logistical requirements toextinguish the fire once it starts, andvaluable time can be wasted in settingup large monitors and all the supplyhoses to feed them. Whereas for fixedfoam systems the equipment is alreadyconnected and these questions are allanswered during the design phasebefore an incident occurs, so the sys-tem is ready to go at the press of aswitch to take a pre-determined courseof action to achieve the desired fastcontrol and extinction. Fixed foam sys-tems take all the “guesswork” out offighting a tank fire, and normally uselower application rates than over the

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Storage Tank Protection

Why Do We Need Fixed Foam Systems?OIL-BASED PRODUCTS are increasingly being used as botha prime energy source and a basic feedstock for otherpetrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. This, coupledwith the need to hold strategic stocks, means that verylarge quantities of these volatile products are stored invertical bulk storage tanks. Tanks are found at numerouslocations in the chain of distribution between the pro-ducing field, the refinery and petrochemical plants, load-ing jetties, distribution terminals, pipelines, downstreamindustries and the consumer products we all need, likeheating, fuel for cars, plastics, paints, medicines and so on.

By Mike Willson

Storage Tank Protection

Storage tank fires in Crude Oil tanks can lead to violent boil-overs if control is not established early

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:33 am Page 27

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top monitor systems in recognition thatall the foam is delivered onto the fuelsurface where it can combat the fire.

In many ways fixed and semi-fixedsystems are victims of their own suc-cess – regularly they operate and extin-guish fires, while they are still small.There is no drama, no crisis, no adversepublicity because the foam system pro-vides valuable cooling, seals thevapours, prevents re-ignition andquickly extinguishes the fire while it isstill small and remains a “minorincident”.

● before it has had a chance to have alarge environmental impact

● before it has drawn any mediaattention

● before it has caused extensivedamage to on-line processes orsurrounding plant

● before it has endangered personnelor incurred vast cost to bring undercontrol.

A fixed foam system can be yourbest friend, for each day it helps tominimise the environmental impact ofaccidents involving flammable liquidstorage around the world. Reducing therisk to site personnel as well as thegeneral public, reducing any legal lia-bility and reducing the potential formedia interest are all hidden benefits offixed foam systems. At the same time they are working to minimise thedisruption to other plant processes

on site, minimise the cost of repair,minimise the product losses andimportantly minimise the impact onneighbouring plants.

To be able to provide efficient pro-tection in this way, fixed foam systemsrequire three things from the end userorganisation:

1 Initial commitment to invest in theinstallation of a professionally de-signed and engineered fixed foamsystem, using high quality com-ponents for reliability and long life.Cost cutting here can lead to inferiorequipment or system design that willgive problems later.

2 Run commissioning trials onceinstalled, to prove the correct actionis being taken by the system. This isvery important to satisfy seniorofficials and insurance companiesthat the system will work if needed.

3 Implementation of a system main-tenance programme with full systemtesting – at least annually. Reli-ability, ease of inspection and lowmaintenance will be importantdecisions in selecting the specifictypes of equipment to be used inthe system.


Storage tank protection accounts forapproximately 70% of all fixed foamsystem installations.

There are three types of bulk storagetank for hydrocarbons and polar sol-vents commonly found in service. Interms of popularity these are:

1 Fixed cone roof2 Open top floating roof3 Covered internal floating roof

We also need to consider theirsurrounding bunds/dike areas.

The selection of the most appro-priate system will depend upon the

construction of the tank and the fuelstored in that tank.

For fixed cone roof tanks containinghydrocarbons, both base injection andtop pouring systems are normallyacceptable. However if the tank con-tains any polar solvents or water mis-cible fuels then top pourers are thenormal choice. Furthermore polar sol-vents demand the use of specialisedmulti-purpose or alcohol resistant (ARtype) foam concentrates like NiagaraAR-FFFP or Tridol AR-AFFF.


The concept of base injection or subsurface foam injection only becamefeasible with the development of highquality fluoroprotein type foam con-centrates like FP70, which have a highresistance to contamination by fuel andhave good fluidity.Hence this is still themost popular, cost-effective and effi-cient foam for hydrocarbon tank pro-tection. These fires are likely to bedeep-seated and have been burning forlonger than spill fires when the foamarrives. The finished foam must there-fore have excellent burn back resistanceand stability. Good FluoroProteinsexhibit all of these characteristics.

In operation base injection systemsintroduce a very low expansion foam ata pre-determined application rate atthe base of the tank through a HighBack Pressure Generator (HBPG) abovethe water level. The foam then risesthrough the fuel to form an extinguish-ing blanket at the surface, draggingcold fuel up with it to disperse andcool the hot fuel zone at the surface. Itis important that the HBPG is capableof working against the head pressure ofproduct in the tank as well as pressurelosses in the supply pipework. The mosteffective units have twin pressuregauges to easily check that the unit isworking correctly and the back pressuredoes not exceed 40% of the foamsolution inlet pressure. An integral

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Angus Fire’s HBPG Base injection systemprotecting hydrocarbon tanks

In operation base injection systemsintroduce a very low expansion foamat a pre-determined application rateat the base of the tank through aHigh Back Pressure Generator (HBPG)above the water level.

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non-return valve is also important toensure there is sufficient energy to rup-ture the vacuum supported burstingdisc as operation begins. Should linepressure fluctuate so that the unitstalls, the non-return valve preventsfuel from the tank spilling out of thegenerator air intake holes into thebunded area, which could cause aserious escalation of the fire.

Advantages of base injection systemare:● Rapid response with the optimum

use of foam and water resources.● The design application rate (mini-

mum 4.1 L/min/m2) of foam solu-tion is achieved.

● Because the system components arelocated at ground level normallyoutside the bund area, they are lesslikely to be damaged in the event offire or explosion.

● Base injection systems are simple toretro-fit, operate and maintain.

● Valved take-offs from existing prod-uct lines may be suitable as foaminlets, provided the entry velocity of the finished foam does notexceed the design rates. This canavoid tank de-commissioning duringinstallation.

● 40% back pressure capability allowsdownstream pipes between the gen-erator and tank to be reduced, which

can greatly reduce the overall systeminstallation cost.

● Rotational currents caused by therising foam stream carry cold fuel tothe burning surface which can aidextinction by dissipating the hotzone. Tests have shown that surfacetemperature can quickly be reducedby up to 100°C by this circulationeffect.

All these factors make for a moreflexible and cost-effective use of avail-able resources.


Top Pourer Sets or foam chambersdeliver low expansion foam from above

the fuel surface onto the tank shell torun down on to the surface, particular-ly important on polar solvent fuels.Suitable for use on fixed roof or cov-ered floating roof tanks, top pouringsystems are normally designed on thebasis that the full surface representsthe hazard area. Application rates rec-ommended in international standardslike NFPA11:2002, call for minimumapplication rates of 4.1 L/min/m2 forhydrocarbon fuels and 6.5 L/min/m2 ormore depending on the polar solventinvolved.

The system components are thereforesized accordingly and will comprise asuitable foam concentrate inductiondevice, a combined foam generator,

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Integral UL listed TPS 100 unit givesexceptional performance and reliability

Enquiries: www.skum.com

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:34 am Page 29

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pourer and vapour sealing mechanismin a single robust, low maintenanceintegral unit. The vapour sealing glassdisc prevents flammable vapour escap-ing to atmosphere through the foamline, eliminating any consequent fire orexplosion hazard.

Modern top pouring sets are factorycalibrated to give the precise flow andpressure requirements of the systemdesign. A new orifice plate can be pro-vided to adjust flows to meet anypipework routing changes duringinstallation for optimum flexibility. Thisallows the design engineer to make themost cost-effective use of the foam,water and pumping resources availableon site.

Top pouring systems are also suitablefor the protection of polar solvents oralcohols when used in conjunction witha suitable natural based alcohol-resistantfoam concentrate such as Niagara forminimal environmental impact. Anintegral design of deflector is importantas it simplifies installation and ensuresthe foam is dispersed against the tankshell to minimise turbulent mixing andreducing the application velocity. Thisensures less fuel pick-up and a morerapid spread across the fuel surface.Equally important is the unit’s abilityto be tested without foam entering thestorage tank, and without use of addi-tional plates to block off the pourerwhich could then be forgotten and leftinside after testing – which could

disable the system in the event of fire!Top pouring system advantages/


● Design application rates are achievedwith all foam reaching the fuel sur-face.

● Robust and simple to operate.● Can be tested in situ.● Top pouring equipment may be sus-

ceptible to damage in the event ofan explosion, when the roof inten-tionally blows off to prevent ruptur-ing the tank.

Alternative systems using LargeCapacity Monitors will be discussed inthe next issue.


These tanks have come into wide useall over the world because of the oper-ational advantages they can offer overfixed roof tanks. They earn their keepby reducing costly evaporation lossesand eliminating any vapour spaceabove the fuel, hence reducing the firerisk.

For many years it was believed thesetanks were so safe that fires wereunlikely to occur. Many subsequentfires including Milford Haven in the UKhave shown this is not necessarily thecase and as a result a fire protectionsystem to protect the rimseal became inmany cases a necessity.

The main area of vulnerability to firein these tanks is in the enclosed spaceat the seal between the floating roofitself and the tank shell. If the seal isdamaged in any way, vapour will col-lect which can be ignited by lightningor sparks produced either by friction orstatic electricity.


Rimseal pourers are fixed to the rim ofthe tank shell and should be designedto pour aspirated foam down the insideof the tank wall and into the seal area.To apply expanded foam effectivelyabove the seal a foam dam must befitted to the floating roof to preventde-stabilisation from foam spreadingacross the roof. By containing the foamin this way sufficient depth should beachieved to flow laterally around theseal perimeter to the point where theseal may be damaged.

To take account of the much smallersurface area of the risk the foam gener-ating equipment is sized accordingly.Fabricated pipe sections produce foamof poor quality that is frequently

carried from the tank wall by the wind,so a specially designed unit withknown foam properties should be usedlike the market leading yellow triangu-lar Rimseal Pourer Sets.

An important consideration whenselecting rimseal foam generatingequipment is the ability to generate acoherent foam stream which willadhere to the tank shell and not beaffected by wind – particularly impor-tant when the roof is low. The use ofnatural FP70 foam will assist this effectsince it is more sticky than syntheticdetergent based alternatives and willremain for longer as a protecting foamblanket in the seal area.

In addition quick and easy installa-tion with a special fixing kit allowsquick and easy retro-fitting without theneed for hot work or tank decommis-sioning when riser pipes are already inplace. The best units are factory cali-brated to meet the specific flow andpressure conditions of the systemdesign for a quick and easy upgrade ofpoorly performing or corroded units atminimal cost.

The other system widely used onsuch tanks during the 1970/80s wasthe BCF halon rimseal system. This wasa fast acting technique to attack thefire early in its development, withsprinkler bulbs located in the rimsealarea to detect a fire, connected to acentral halon bottle for discharge. Earlydetection of most fires took place anda rapid short burst of halon was

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Effective design of Rimseal Foam Pourercrucial to minimise adverse effects ofwind

Scorchmark visible on side of storage tank

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applied to the area. This proved to beeffective on several occasions, however,the system did have numerous prob-lems, including gas escaping the sealarea, maintenance difficulties and theleakage of halon from the storagecylinders before they were required tooperate.

Due to its ozone depleting effectssuch halon systems are consideredunacceptable for such applications.Clearly it has now become a matter ofurgency to remove these halon systemsand find a suitable replacement.


New developments in foam equipmenttechnology have provided a betterFloatafoam solution to replace thesehalon systems and supplement conven-tional Rimseal Pourers. Detection tubingis ruptured by heat from a fire, the dropin pressure automatically triggers dis-charge of the water taking foam with itfrom a micro-inductor and delivering itthrough special aspirating nozzles ontothe fire. Using this technique detectionis very rapid (10–15 seconds) and as aresult, extinction of the fire is also veryfast – typically under 20 seconds for a

fully involved seal fire. The useof pressure switches on bothnitrogen supply and foam dis-charge lines provides a signal tothe alarm panel, alerting firefighters to any change in statusof the system. This providesreliable, effective and efficientreplacement for these halonsystems.

In developing this betterfoam system, key considera-tions are:

● Any self-contained foamsystem must be capable ofextinguishing three types offire, a small hole in the sealmaterial, large tear wherethe seal area is exposed anda shoe gap fire. A fire maygo undetected for manyhours, especially when theroof is at a low level in thetank, so a reliable detectionsystem is essential.

● In the unlikely event that a systemfails to extinguish a fire, the aspirat-ed foam blanket must be deliveredgently and control burnback formore than 15 minutes.

● The small hazard area requires ahigh foam application rate to ensurethe fire is contained before any esca-lation occurs.

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Enquiries: www.angusfire.co.uk

Floataform installation

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:35 am Page 31

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● Foam concentrate should be storedin a separate reservoir and capableof providing the required levels ofheat resistance and fluidity in theseal area could only be achieved byusing Alcoseal.

● The system needs to be free of elec-trical components, using nitrogengas filled linear heat detection tub-ing in 40metre segments to avoidany electrical contacts/ignition riskson the roof.


For covered floating roof tanks with lightplastic or aluminium membranes, it isusual for the membrane to melt or sinkin the event of a fire. Top pourer sets areagain the preferred option, with the pos-

sibility of base injection dependent uponthe floating roof construction. The dan-ger with base injection on these tanks isthat outlets can easily be blocked if theroof sinks or distorts. These tanks aregenerally viewed like Cone Roof Tanksabove, for foam fire protection.


In the past most fire fighting profes-sionals have seen bund fires as being ofsecondary importance, but views arenow changing. Evidence from recentmajor fire incident reports suggest thisis a serious high risk area and should beprotected. Many of these fires haveeither started or seriously escalatedwithin the bunded area surroundingthe bulk storage tanks themselves.

Some of the world’s largest fires havebecome so large and “Infamous” simplybecause there was no adequate systemof bund protection – and it keepshappening!


Historically, the main foam systemstandard for the Oil industry NFPA 11(National Fire Protection Association) inAmerica provided no guidance on bundfires, offering only general guidelinesfor “supplementary protection” in stor-age tank bunded areas by using moni-tors and mobile AF120 foam units,which are very popular for spill fires inrefineries and other industrial areas asit is so quick and easy to use. Thelatest revision NFPA 11:2002 now rec-ommends low level foam dischargeoutlets (pourers) at 4.1 Litres/min/m2

over a 30 minute operating period forClass I hydrocarbon bunded areas (20 mins for Class II). The British Stan-dard BS5306 Section 6.2:1989 was thefirst international standard to takebunded areas seriously as a hazardousarea, and made specific recommenda-tions of 4 Litres/min/m2 for 15 minutesusing Medium Expansion (MEX) PourerSystems.

The most common causes of seriousbund incidents over the last 10 yearshave included leaking flanges, faultyvalves, pump failures, electrical sparks,tank over-filling, blocked roof drains,pipeline ruptures, boilovers, lighteningand of course spillage during main-tenance work.

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Angus Fire’s popular MEX Bund Pourerin action

In case of firebetter safe than sorry!

We offer to the fire professional the completerange of high performance foaming agents,e.g.

MOUSSOL-APSAlcohol resistant universal AFFF foam liquids

STHAMEX-AFFFAqueous film forming foam liquids

STHAMEXSynthetic foam liquids

STHAMEX-class-AFoam liquids for class A and B

FLUOR-FOAMOUSSEFluoroprotein foam liquids

FOAMOUSSE-FFFPFilm forming fluoroprotein foam liquids

FOAMOUSSEProtein foam liquids

Ask for more information!


Dr.STHAMER HAMBURGLiebigstrasse 5 · D-22113 Hamburg · GermanyTelefon +49 40 73 61 68-0 · Telefax +49 40 73 61 68-60

E-Mail: [email protected] · http://sthamer.com

Enquiries: www.sthamer.com

APF p. 1-36 2/11/06 10:35 am Page 32

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Incident escalation in the bund often forces firefighters toretreat rapidly, the fire may destroy or damage hoses andportable equipment, severely limiting the capability for fur-ther attacks. Forceful application of foam with monitors andhandlines can spread the fire more quickly by splashing burn-ing fuel into new areas, rapidly escalating the incident. Allthese factors also increase the risk to site personnel by reduc-ing their personal safety.


The latest advance in this area of protection has come fromMEX Bund Pourers producing a free-flowing yet stable medi-um expansion foam blanket (typically 35-55:1) which actsswiftly to attack the fire by quickly producing large volumesof fluid yet bulky foam. Having a number of fixed MEX pour-ing outlets avoids the need for personnel to be close to, orinside, the bunded area and thereby increases the safety offirefighters at the incident.

These MEX bund pourers also employ a gentle applicationtechnique. The rapid production of a vapour sealing foamblanket gently floated across the fuel surface minimises anymixing with the fuel, avoids splashing and escalation andmaximises protection against reignition – especially where FPor FFFP foam is used. MEX foam also buries and coolspipework, flanges and valves, minimising the risk of ruptureor further distortion thereby reducing fuel leakage rates.

The free-flowing nature of the MEX foam gives fastknockdown, yet its cohesive nature is also very stable againstwind, particularly when more sticky natural FluoroProteinbased foams like FP70 are used.

A further benefit is the optimum MEX production at verylow inlet pressures, typically 1.5–3 bar.g. Consequentlypumping capacities are minimised and cost-effective simplefixed inline inductors can easily be used. The pressure dropthrough the inductor venturi (which can result in poor per-formance for low expansion monitor equipment) can be apositive benefit in MEX systems, as a way of losing excesspressure.

The effectiveness of MEX foam for bunds has been recog-nised in the British Standard with a reduced 15 minute oper-ating time. Significant savings can therefore be made interms of foam stockholding, pumping capacities and waterstorage when MEX is being used. Angus Fire’s latest advancewith their unique MEX bund pourers provides the mostreliable and cost-effective solution to the bund protectionproblem.

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Angus Top Pourer Set discharging foam in a butterfly shapeddispersion pattern into an oil storage tank

CONCLUSIONSFixed Foam Systems take the “guesswork” out of fightingstorage tank fires and can provide swift, efficient fireprotection to control the fire whilst still small and avoidescalation. Considerable importance should be given toensuring that the very best performance is obtained fromyour fixed systems in terms of reliability and lowmaintenance. A good foam will not perform at its bestthrough poor quality equipment, neither will poor qualityfoam produce the best performance from excellentequipment! You get what you pay for at the end of the day!

It is also crucial to ensure that any foam system isregularly tested. It is advisable to operate your foamsystems and produce foam at least annually, to ensure theyare in a state of readiness to help in your hour of need.

Enquiries: [email protected]

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China is becoming the World BiggestMarket on Fire Prevention This century China is entering into an era ofunprecedented change both politically andeconomically. This is marked chiefly by China’sentry into the World Trade Organization, theprivilege of hosting the 2008 SummerOlympics, as well as the continued economicdevelopment of the Western Regions. All ofthese events are creating exciting opportun-ities in the one of the most dynamiceconomies on the Asian continent.

Despite all of these advancements, China’sfire prevention industry lags behind in relationto its growth in GDP. China remains one ofthe most fire prone countries in the world.According to statistics issued by the Fire Pro-tection Bureau and the Ministry of PublicSecurity, in 2001 alone there were 215,863fires in which there were 2,314 fatalities, 3,752injuries, and property damage in the amountof 1.39 billion RMB. The Chinese governmenthas taken active measures to solve this, andhas allotted over 3.3 billon RMB, for fire safetyand prevention measures. All in the form ofover 6000 key infrastructure construction pro-jects over the next 5 years. Due to the under-developed Chinese domestic fire preventionindustry, more than 40% of all fire preventionproducts are imported. This translates toapproximately 13.2 billon RMB available forthe importation of foreign fire protectionproducts over the next 5 years.

The Largest Exposition in SouthernEastern & Western ChinaIn cooperation with various urban and provin-cial fire protection associations, the Fire Pro-tection Bureau, Guangdong Province PublicSecurity Department and the GuangdongProvince Fire Prevention Association will pre-sent the “2003 Guangdong InternationalExhibition for Fire Prevention Equipment andTechnology” (FIRE GUANGDONG 2003) inGuangzhou, in May 2003. This Exhibition willfocus mainly on Southern, Eastern andWestern China, and will be the largestexposition in these three areas. Eastern andSouthern China are the two most economicallydeveloped regions of the country, with thehighest concentration of industry; accountingfor more than 60% of GDP; while WesternChina will become another highly developedcentre within the next ten years. It is estimat-ed that these three regions will occupy morethan 70% of China’s total fire preventionexpenditures.

This highly anticipated global event isgoing to cover 900 standard booths spreadingover 20,000 square meters. It is predicted thatover 100,000 professionals will attend thisevent, including leading experts in the field offire prevention, business agents, government

officials, fire prevention communities, andmany distributors of fire-protection products.Additionally, the international media will bepresent, reporting the event to all quarters ofthe world.

Promotion Campaign and Seminars ProfileTo promote the FIRE GUANGDONG 2003, arange of internationally well-known manufac-turers of fire prevention products will givetheir demonstrations of fire fighting methods

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Jinhan Exhibition Hall of China Foreign Trade Center GuangzhouApproved by: Guangdong Provincial Public Security DepartmentOrganizer: Guangdong Provincial Fire Protection AssociationCo organizer: Fire Protection Bureau Guangdong Provincial Public Security Department

Science & Technology Section Guangdong Provincial Public Security Department Host: Union Fair & Trade Co Ltd

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and technology. This will be a powerfulattraction for the media from all over thecountry. In addition, there will be severalprofessional seminars and public lectures onadvanced technology and fire suppressionproducts have already been scheduled. Theinternationally acknowledged experts will giveacademic reports and have discussions with allconcerned.

Schedule For Site OperationSetting up: May 11-12, 2003Exhibition Session: May 13-16, 2003Dismantling: From 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., on May16, 2003Open Hours: 9:00 a.m.-4: 30 p.m.

Venue & Total Exhibition AreaGuangzhou, China Foreign Trade Center is oneof the most well known exhibition venues inthe world, Jinhan Exhibition Center is a partof Foreign Trade Center, where the ChinaExport Commodities Fair is held twice a yearwhich is a grand event in China, the sellers,buyers and visitors from all over the world par-ticipate because its famous every year. Thetotal Exhibition Area is 20,000 square meters.

Scope of Exhibition

1. Fire Vehicle, Fire Fighting Plane & FireBoat

2. Fire Detection & Alarm System3. Fire Fighting and Rescue Equipment4. Foam Equipment & Systems5. Fire Extinguishing equipment6. Fixed & Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment7. Fire Hydrant, Hydrant Cabinet, Connection

Hose reels & Nozzles8. Pumps & Valves9. Materials on Protective Covering, Resistant

& Building and Fire Proof Construction10. Fire Door, Shutter & Access System11. Effective Extinguishing12. Fire Prevention & Smoke Evacuation

Equipment13. Disaster Area’s Communication & Lighting

Equipment14. Fire Technology & Equipment on

Petrochemical, Aviation, Forestry, Water15. Fireman Personal Protective16. Fire Engineering Design and Installation17. Computer Software18. Magazine About Fire Professional

Regulations & Standards

Exhibiting A. Package Stand 9sq.m (3m×3m)Unit price: US$2880 per booth Includes Basic Fittings: Three-meters fasciaboard with company’s name (1); Walls onthree sides; Carpet (9 sq.m); Table (1); Chairs(2); Fluorescent Lights (2); 5amp/220v SinglePhase Socket (1), Waste Paper Basket (1).Raw SpaceUnit price: US$285 per sq.m (Minimum areaof 54 sq.m)Outdoor SpaceUnit price: US$228 per sq.m (Minimum areaof 54 sq.m)

Free Services● Pre-exhibition promotional campaign● Assistant in traffic and accommodations ● Assistance in visa applications and hotel

reservations● Communication and negotiation with pur-

chasers and suppliers● Seminars and summit meetings of advanced

technology and trade development● Company and product listings in the official

directory● Assistance in transportation and entry for

exhibits. ● Assistance in hiring of interpreters, tempo-

rary workers, stand design and printing ofpromotional literature

Transport Of ExhibitsAppointed Official Overseas Forwarder: HansenExhibition Forwarding Ltd.Unit 13, 13/F, New Commerce Center, 19 On Sum Street, Siu Lek Yuen, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong Tel: (+852) 2367-2303 Fax: (+852) 2367-0479E-mail: [email protected] Contact: Mr. Michael Kun

AdvertisingFree publication of company’s brief introduc-tion (Max. 200 words) in the official Exhibi-tion Directory; the organizing committee hasthe right to delete exceeding parts of theintroduction. This advertising enables yourproducts to be introduced to the biggest mar-ket in the world. Please send the artwork filmsbefore April 13, 2003 to Union Fair & TradeCo., Ltd.

How to ApplyA. The candidate should fill in the Reservation

Form completely (in block capitals) andreturn it to the organizing committeeoffice via post or email, fax due April 13,2003.

B. Once the completed form is received, theorganizing committee will notify the can-didate of his/her booth information andmail him/her an Exhibitor’ s Manual. Pleaseread through this manual and return thecompleted form to Union Fair & Trade Co.,Ltd.

C. The candidate should pay for the booth feeby T/T to the appointed account.

Registration Forms can be obtained bycontacting the office below Union Fair & Trade Co., Ltd. GuangzhouOffice: 26/F., Guang Ren Building, 1 Guangren Road,Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, 510030, P. R. China Tel: 86-20-83355868 83355898 Fax: 86-20-83352413 83358432 E-mail: [email protected] Website: http//www.unionft.com

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Enquiries: [email protected]

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TYPES OF DECONTAMINATIONAs well as the mass decontamination ofthe general public, provision must bemade for decontaminating emergencyservices personnel, their protectiveclothing and equipment. This is prob-ably the area with which most peopleare familiar, but, again, the additionalthreat of terrorist action may call for amore sophisticated solution.

Where vehicles, large equipment orstructural surfaces have to be treated,there is also the need to contain thecontaminant, to prevent further spread,as well as neutralizing it. This requiresa different approach in terms of chemi-cal agent and delivery system, with theemphasis on portability.

Decontaminating confined spacesand in areas where potentially sensitiveelectronic equipment may be housedposes its own problems. Deluging suchareas with water may be impractical orundesirable and more effective alterna-tives are now available.

MASS DECONTAMINATIONDevelopment of mass decontaminationsystems has clearly been intensified inrecent years in response to the height-ened threat of terrorist action wherelarge numbers of casualties are likely.

The most commonly used systemsintended for major incidents are self-contained shelters which can be fullyoperational within 10 minutes of arriv-

ing at an incident and offer a warm,protected environment for high-throughput treatment of walking andstretchered casualties.

Most of these systems facilitate athree-stage decontamination processand the more advanced can be config-ured to suit different requirements byrepositioning or removing internal par-titioning. For optimum throughput ofup to 300 casualties per hour, a typicalunit would consist of five separate sec-tions each divided into three cubicles.This permits a three-stage treatment ofde-robe, shower and re-robe.

Most units employ an inflatableframe which supports a removable

inner lining with integral sump whichcollects contaminants for subsequentsafe disposal. It is important that thesump is fitted with floor panels toensure that users are not in contactwith the contaminated run off and thatthey can walk comfortably and safelythrough the shelter.

Typically, showering takes place inthe second cubicle where trigger oper-ated hand-showers are suspended onflexible hoses so that both walking andstretchered casualties can be treated.

As the number of potential contami-nants continues to grow, there is a needto develop more sophisticated deconta-mination processes. Consequently, thereis a tendency to incorporate detergent/chemical additive inducing systems intothe shower water supply to ensure amore effective decontamination.

Such chemical inducing systems arenot new but the latest models offermuch greater flexibility and more pre-cise control. Twin inducers, for example,can deliver two detergents/additivessimultaneously to one shower outlet oreach additive can be directed to sepa-rate stages of the decontamination

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ANY MAJOR INCIDENT is likely toinvolve several distinct approachesto decontamination.

Treating casualties can range from arelatively small group of employeesin a factory to several hundred, oreven thousand, members of the pub-lic. To the usual hazards associatedwith industry, we now have to addthe potential threat of terrorist actionwhich, could take place anywhere.Recent events suggest that suchaction could involve large numbersof casualties who could not neces-sarily be decontaminated effectivelyusing traditional methods.

Developing an effectivedecontamination strategy

Developing an effectivedecontamination strategy

Hughes CUPOLAdecon 2decontamination unit suitable fortreating emergency services and, insmaller incidents, members of the public.Extended sumps can be added forgreater versatility

By Tony Hughes – Managing Director, Hughes Safety Showers Ltd, Stockport, England

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process. For example, the first cubicle,where casualties disrobe, can also beused for initial showering where theadditives are used, leaving the secondcubicle for water wash down. Alterna-tively, different additives can beinduced into the water supplies in thefirst and second cubicles, in which casethe second cubicle is still used for washoff but the water includes a salineadditive supplied from the inducer.

Furthermore, warm water heaters areused to aid the decontaminationprocess as well as avoiding the shock ofcold water to the users.

A range of ancillaries are also avail-able to enhance the performance of theunits. Depending on the location, elec-tricity supplies may not be accessible ormay be disrupted. Portable generators aswell as lighting and air heaters willtherefore ensure independence.

The most reputable manufacturers ofmass decontamination shelters now offera completely self-contained packagewhich in addition to the hardware ancil-laries includes the provision of pre andpost decontamination packs for mem-bers of the public. These are designed tomeet the safety, comfort and security

needs of casualtiesbefore and after treat-ment. Available to suitadults, juveniles andinfants, they typicallyinclude light-weightdisposable clothing andfootwear, face mask,bio-hazard bag for con-taminated clothing andbag for valuables. Someform of identification isalso essential for effec-tive and speedy process-ing of casualties. Thesimplest option is anumbered wrist band

which can correspond with numbers onthe bio-hazard and valuables bags.

As an alternative to the inflatableunits, trailer mounted versions areavailable and can be towed to an inci-dent. A variation on this system is thede-mountable pod which can be deliv-ered to the point of use on the back of

a truck. The units usually have all theservices on board – power, heat andlight – and with the exception of awater supply are totally self-sufficient.As with the inflatable shelters, this typeof unit is ideally suited to the deconta-mination of the public, but is not aswell suited to the decontamination ofsuited emergency service personnel.


Decontamination of emergency servicespersonnel must be carried out separatelyand various methods have evolved overthe last 20 years.

The original wash-to-waste principle,where contaminants are dischargeddirectly into the main drainage system,is no longer environmentally acceptablein many situations. It has been largelysuperseded by the containment methodwhere wash off is collected in a sumpand neutralised or treated for safe dis-posal. Consequently, the majority of theemergency services now use a wash-to-waste Decontamination Shower withinan inflated shelter or a speciallydesigned sump. This allows for the con-tainment of the washed off contami-nant, with the option of wash-to-wastein cases of major disaster, where speedis of the essence and the environmentalrisk is regarded as negligible.

A number of single decontaminationunits are available which are ideal for useat minor incidents and these have suchfeatures as decontamination inducers,disposable linings and sumps and modu-lar design. Some are also adaptable forthe storage and decontamination ofcontaminated equipment.

The most popular development iseffectively a scaled down version of themass decontamination system discussedearlier. In addition to treating protectiveclothing they can also be used to de-contaminate small items of equipment,and at minor incidents they are idealfor the decontamination of small num-bers of the general public. Also, inemergencies, they can be used tocontain leaking drums until suitabledisposal can be arranged.

This multi-role capability has madethese units the first choice for the UKemergency services and they are widelyused in many other countries. Whenused at normal chemical incidents, twounits can be deployed, one for the gen-eral public and one for the emergencyservices.

Shower heads in these units can befixed or hand held with the option to

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Pre-decontamination kits meet the safety, security andcomfort of casualties awaiting processing

The most reputable manufacturers ofmass decontamination shelters now offera completely self-contained packagewhich in addition to the hardwareancillaries includes the provision of preand post decontamination packs formembers of the public.

Decontamination shelters must be flexibleenough to accommodate walking andstretchered casualties

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Enquiries: www.ppsgb.com

Enquiries: [email protected]


Whitefield Road, Bredbury, Stockport, Cheshire SK6 2SS England.Tel:0161 430 6618 Fax:0161 430 7928 Email: [email protected]

Chemical Spillages, HazMat Incidents, Terrorist Attacks - a few of the reasons whythere is an ever increasing demand for well designed equipment capable ofefficiently handling emergency decontamination situations. Hughes have developeda wide range of Emergency Response andDecontamination Systems which are botheasy to assemble and quick to operate.Don’t delay, talk to us today, because“every second counts”. www.hughes-sa fe ty-showers .co .uk

Enquiries: www.trelleborg.com

Trelleborg Protective Products ABP.O. Box 1520,

SE-271 00 YstadPhone: +46 411 67940

Fax: +46 411 15285www.trelleborg.com/protective

[email protected]

Trelleborg S.E.A. Pte Ltd10 Toh Guan Road #03-06

International TradeparkSingapore 608838

Phone: +65 6 8989 332Fax: +65 6 8989 303

www.trelleborg.com/[email protected]

APF p. 37-68 11/21/06 9:39 AM Page 39

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attach brushes for more effective clean-ing of protective clothing and equip-ment. Extended sumps are also anincreasingly popular feature and consistof an area outside the main showerenclosure where clothing can beremoved or equipment treated andwhere the contaminated wash downcan be safely contained.

DECONTAMINATION OF EQUIPMENT Foam based systems are now beingused to decontaminate structural sur-faces, large equipment and vehicles.The neutralising chemical is carried in afoam which is sprayed onto the affect-ed area from either a trolley baseddelivery system or a back-pack unit.The thick, sticky foam produces a blan-ket which adheres to surfaces and trapsthe contamination. It immediately sup-presses vapour and powder to minimizethe risk of dispersal. Foam bubbles havea scouring effect on contaminated sur-faces, and a solvent additive improvesthe penetration and effectiveness ofthe neutralising agents.

Once decontamination is completed,the neutralised chemicals can bewashed from the affected surfacesusing a portable jet washer. During thisfinal wash-off stage, there is a furtheropportunity to add chemicals to com-plete the process.

MIST TECHNIQUEWorking in confined spaces, such as theinside of vehicles, can pose particularproblems especially if equipment is

present. The preferred and most effec-tive method is to use an atomised spray.It quickly disperses throughout thetreated area and condenses on all sur-faces providing uniform coverage with-out the risk of wetting or excessiveexposure associated with normal spraynozzles which could damage equipment.

A dilute neutralising agent is deliv-ered by compressed air, fed from astandard breathing apparatus cylinder,to a hand held ultrasonic spray headwhere it is atomised into a dense fog,thus having the added advantage ofcombating airborne contaminants.

The same system can be used todecontaminate the inside of protectivesuits delivering a fine mist which dis-perses evenly throughout the suit toensuring uniform treatment of allinternal surfaces. Deodorants can alsobe introduced as part of the chemicaltreatment to eliminate any unpleasantodours that may accumulate within the suit.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


A range of accessories are available to ensure complete independence

TOTAL SOLUTIONRecent efforts have been directedtowards bringing together thevarious decontamination systems intoa single transportable unit. Compactequipment design, interchangeablecomponents and on-board palletizedstorage and handling are being usedin developing totally self-containedtrailer mounted rapid response unitsto meet the complete range ofdecontamination requirements.

Dedication to the rescue and safety of people,

this has been the objective of AUTOFLUG

already since the first days of aviation. From the

foundation of the company in 1919 right up to

the present day, AUTOFLUG has remained a

medium-sized family enterprise.

AUTOFLUG supplies humanitarian rescue

services with safety systems such as inflatable

life tents, inflatable decontamination tents and

showers, inflatable rescue stretchers, inflatable

dinghies and manifold accessories for all

AUTOFLUG inflatable equipment.

AUTOFLUG rescue and safety systems incor-

porate the latest experiences, are based on

newest materials and technologies and are

meeting the highest requirements.


Industriestrasse 10

D-25462 Rellingen/Germany

Phone +49 4101 307-312

Telefax +49 4101 307-316

E-Mail: [email protected]

Website: www.autoflug.com

Enquiries: www.autoflug.com

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:45 am Page 40

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Enquiries: www.lenzing-fr.com

APF p. 37-68 11/21/06 9:48 AM Page 41

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As a result of increasing safetyconsciousness, the Protective Clothing standards have been

revised and upgraded, which are mainlybased on the international standardssuch as European Standard EN 469 and the US Standard NFPA. In order tolearn what kind of fabrics is used infire-fighting clothing, it is necessary to understand the structure of thegarments.

Basically, a fire-fighter protectivegarment, which is also called turnoutgear, has four layers, including outershell, moisture barrier, thermal barrier,and lining. The outer shell providesprotection from flame and heat. Themoisture barrier, which is next to theshell fabrics, acts as a protector fromsteam and harmful chemicals. The thirdlayer, which is a needle-punched felt ornon-woven fabrics, acts as an insulatoragainst heat conduction. The lining isthe inner layer for providing comfort tothe wearer. Normally, the lining is quilt-ed with thermal liner. For wildland firefighting, a single layer protective gar-ment is normally worn over a stationuniform.

The basic prerequisite for a fabric tobe used in making fire suit must be

flame resistant, does not melt or drip. AFR fabric has to extinguish in less than2 seconds after flame and burn lessthan 6� char length according to theASTM specification D6413 StandardTest Method for Flame Resistance of

Textiles (vertical test) or flame spreadtest EN 532. In NFPA standard, all fab-ric materials shall have an average charlength of not more than 4�.

Beside flame resistance, an outer shellfabric has to have certain physical prop-erties with or without external stresssuch as heat. Those basic safety require-ments are residual strength, heat resis-tance, tensile strength, tear strength,surface wetting and dimensional change.

As required by European StandardEN 469, residual strength has to beequal or greater than 450 Newton (N),which measures the tensile strength ofouter shell when having exposure toheat according to EN 366 Method A at10 kW/m2.

Any fabric to be used in turnout gear,it is necessary to pass the heat resistancetest, where an individual fabric sample isplaced in an oven heated to 260°, andthe fabric shall not melt, drip or ignite.The shrinkage shall be equal to or lessthan 5% according to the requirementspecified in Annex A of EN 469.

According to the EN 469 Standard,the tensile strength and tear strengthof the outer shell fabrics have to be greater than 450 N and 25 Nrespectively.

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Lenzing FR Viscose © Hermann Kollinger OÖLFV

DURING THE PAST FORTY YEARS,many flame-retardant fabricshave been developed for use infire fighting clothing. In fact, thedemand for flame resistant (FR)fabrics has increased drasticallyin the Asia Pacific region due tothe following phenomena. Theeconomic advancement has trans-formed many places in the regioninto populated and industrializedzones, where countless high-risebuildings have been erected inmajor cities. In addition, moreand more world events are beinghosted in the region. This hascaused an increase in internation-al travelers and tourists, which inturn has led to more stringentdemand in public safety services.

By Johnny Ho

Protective Fabrics for APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:50 am Page 42

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Dimensional change should be with-in ±3% after 5 cycles of washing withthe procedure specified in ISO 5077.For moisture barrier cloth, there shallbe no penetration by liquid chemicalsto the innermost surface; and 80% ofthe liquid chemicals shall be runningoff from the laminated cloth. Moisturebarrier is also required to be tested withhydrostatic pressure for NFPA Standard,which shall have a minimum waterpenetration resistance of not less than1 psi for 5 minutes and 25 psi whentested according to Method 5516 andMethod 5512 respectively as listed inthe NFPA standard.

Fibers and yarns are the buildingblocks for FR fabrics. Fabrics made oftreated cotton were widely used inprotective clothing before high perfor-mance fibers were introduced. Currently,personal protective clothing made oftreated cotton fabrics are still used bysome countries in wildland and structuralfire fighting as well. However, the retar-dant chemical being coated on the cot-ton fabrics could be washed away in onewash, if proper detergent is not used.

The advance in technology hasallowed us to develop inherent FRfibers in several approaches. First of all,all man-made fibers are made frompolymer. The polymer can be made lessflammable by both physical and chemi-cal means. In order to change theburning properties of an existing fiber,flame retardant agent is added in thepolymer prior to its formation into fila-ments. The original properties of thefiber will not be changed, which can bepolyester, viscose or acrylic.

The second approach is to develop acompletely different fiber called HighPerformance Fibers, with new mol-ecular structure and properties. PBI (Polybenzimidazole), Aramids and

Polyamide-imide all fall into thiscategory.

The third approach is to increase theflame resistant property by partiallycarbonizing the fiber, such as car-bonized polyacrylonitrile (PAN).

Each fiber has its own decomposi-tion temperature and combustion orignition temperature. When tempera-ture reaches a particular ignition point,the fiber will burn. Both heat and oxy-gen are required for combustion totake place. In order to determine theflammability of a fiber numerically, atesting process known as Oxygen IndexMethods has been developed, whichmeasures the minimum oxygen per-centage required in order to supportcombustion of the fiber within a con-trolled atmosphere. This quantitativevalue is called limiting oxygen index(LOI), which is commonly reported as apercentage. A textile will burn easilywith a LOI less than 21%, since air con-tains about 20.95% oxygen by volume.Untreated cotton and viscose will burneasily in air since their LOI is about20%. Most of the man-made FR prod-ucts have a LOI equal to or greaterthan 28% such as FR Viscose which hasa LOI of 28%.

However, the flame resistant propertyof a fabric is not solely determined bythe LOI of the constituent fiber. Thefabric weight, fabric construction andpile or no pile surface all greatly affecta fabric’s flame resistant property. Theintegrity of the fabric after exposure toheat and flame is also important sincethe fabric may start to decomposebefore ignition.

There are many FR fibers available inthe market with different trade names.The best-known fibers for fire-fightingclothing fabrics in Asia Pacific regionare PBI Nomex, Kermel, and Kanox. PBI was originally developed for the

NASA space program, which is an extra-ordinary organic fiber. It will not burnin air, emits little or no smoke and doesnot melt or drip. Even after rapid heat-ing to 400°, tensile strength remains atalmost the same level. Unlike other highperformance fibers, it has good textileproperties. Its elongated cross section issimilar to cotton, but it has a moistureregain around 15%, almost 50% higherthan that of cotton under the samecondition. This moisture regain is at amolecular level. Fabrics do not absorb

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A testing process known as OxygenIndex Methods has been developed,which measures the minimum oxygenpercentage required in order to supportcombustion of the fiber within acontrolled atmosphere.

Fire-Fighter Clothing

PBI Gold. Pic courtesy of Heinrich Vorndamme OHG

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water at a higher rate than other FRfabrics. And it has outstanding resis-tance to chemicals, solvents and fuels.

Protective fabrics made of PBI fibers,such as 200 gr/m2 PBI Gold lightweight shell fabrics which are a blendof 40% PBI and 60% high-strengtharamid fibers, and exhibit a very highresidual strength property which isabout 4 times higher as required byEN469 Standard. And PBI Gold retainsits softness even in a charred state. Thefabric will not shrink and will notbecome brittle after exposure to flameand heat. This property will provide abetter protection from flash over. Dueto the high moisture regain of PBI Goldfabrics, PBI fire fighting clothing iscomparable to cotton in comfort,which also contributes to excellent stat-ic dissipation. Since 1983, PBI has beenwidely recognized as the premium prod-uct in outer shell and hood protection.

Nomex was introduced by DuPont in1961, which is a registered trademarkfor DuPont’s meta-aramid staple fibers,filament yarns and FR fabrics. Sincethen it has been used for station wear,coverall and fire fighting clothing.Nomex fiber has excellent thermal sta-bility and does not melt but decom-pose at 371°. Nomex III, a blend of95% meta-aramid fibers and 5% highstrength para-aramid fiber, offers highstrength fabric, which resists mostchemicals and acids. Delta T is anotherproduct currently found in the Asianmarket, and is a blend of 75% Nomex,23% para-aramid and 2% carbon fiber.

Kermel was developed in France byRhone Poulenc in the 1960s. Before1984, it was only available to the Frencharmed and police forces. Kermel is madeof polyamide-imide and belongs to thesame family of meta-aramid. Since Ker-mel is a smooth-surfaced fiber with analmost circular cross-section, it gives asofter hand when comparing to otheraramid fabrics. It also resists chemicalswith high resistance to abrasion, and thefabric has a thermal conductivity twiceas low as any other fabric made ofaramid fiber. It resists up to 250° for along duration.

A fabric has been developed for higherbreaking, tearing and bursting strengthby using the Kermel HTA core yarn. TheKermel HTA core yarn is made by wrap-ping para-aramid yarn with the Kermelfibers in order to increase thermal resis-tance and strength.

Kanox is a pre-oxidized fiber, whichinvolves a process to partially carbonizethe Polyacrylonitrile fiber in order tomake it flame resistant. The fiber alsoresists chemicals, infrared ray, molten

metals and with good thermal stability.Kanox is a registered trademark forTaiwan KK Corporation. CarbonizedPolyacrylonitrile starts decompositionat 300°, although spontaneous decom-position does not take place until thetemperature reaches 550°. Protectiveclothing made of Polyacrylonitrile fab-rics can be exposed to relatively hightemperature for a short period of time.

Beside outer shell fabrics, the FRfibers also play an important role in theinner layers of fire fighting clothing.Breathable waterproof membrane isoften laminated on non-woven FR fab-rics, which are made of FR fibers. Gore-Tex’s Fireblocker, Airlock and Crosstechare widely used as moisture barrier inwhich they are laminated with ePTFEmembrane. Gore-Tex has developed afabric known as Airlock by puttingthermally stable and chemical resistantspacers made of foamed silicone on theback of ePTFE membrane, which is aunique combination of thermal protec-tion and moisture barrier. The Gore-TexAirlock fabric creates an insulating aircushion in order to provide thermalprotection. SympaTex also makes mois-ture barrier with Polyester film, likeCrosstech, which is also non-permeablefor blood, virus and bacteria.

Lenzing is the major producer of FRViscose, which normally is blended withNomex fiber for making lightweightfabrics. The blended fabrics are used aspocketing, facecloth or lining in Pro-tective Clothing.FR fabric manufacturers are trying tooffer more colors in order to meet thespecification of the fire brigades indifferent countries, and fabrics will befinished with new process and tech-nology such as Nanotechnology inorder to provide water repellent anddurability. There are a lot of FR fabricsthat have been developed and arebased on the fibers being mentionedin this article in different structureand weave. As the demand of FRfabrics for personal protective clothingkeeps on increasing, some Asiancountries such as China and SouthKorea are beginning to develop theirown facilities by producing FR fibers orFR fabrics in order to meet theirdomestic needs.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


In conclusion, there are a varietyof fabrics that can be used in fire-fighting clothing, however, safetyis the major concern and shouldnot be compromised when choos-ing for the right fabrics.

Kermel was developed in France by Rhone Poulenc in the 1960s. Before 1984,it was only available to the French armedand police forces. Kermel is made ofpolyamide-imide and belongs to the same family of meta-aramid

Lion Iso-Dri. Picture courtesy of Lion Apparel

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:51 am Page 44

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When the alarm sounds,

you don’t know what you

may be facing at the fire

scene. Every fire is different.

Your work and your

equipment needs vary as

well. That’s why wearing

PBI Gold is so important. It

protects you better regardless

of conditions. It offers the

highest level of heat and

flame resistance, helps

reduce stress and fatigue,

and provides the utmost in

comfort and durability.

Battle the unexpected with

kits made to take the heat.

Garments of PBI Gold

fabric are available from

leading manufacturers

around the world. Specify

PBI Gold and you’ll be

well suited for the heat

and flames of battle.

Celanese Advanced Materials Inc.

P.O. Box 32414

Charlotte, NC 28232

T 704.554.3378

F 704.554.3101

E-mail: [email protected]


PBI Gold and PBI Gold Plus in logo form areregistered trademarks of Celanese AdvancedMaterials Inc. The Celanese AMI name and logoare registered trademarks of CNA Holdings, Inc.

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:51 am Page 45

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Class A Foam and Compressed Air FoamSystems (CAFS) are gaining increasinginterest from various UK Fire Brigades as

a more efficient and environmentally safemethod of fighting most types of combustiblematerial fires including structural fires.

A number of UK Brigades are currentlytrailing CAFS equipment to assess the keybenefits of using Class A foam with CAFSequipment. The main benefits can be sum-marised as:

● Quicker knockdown times of fires.● Quicker reduction of heat – cooler

environment.● Massively reduce water damage.● Reduced environmental damage.● Less exposure for firefighters to hazards

of firefighting.● Simple to use – no special training

required.● Reduction in firefighter fatigue due to

reduced suppression time and effort.● Less water needed.

Class A foam concentrate is classified as asynthetic detergent hydrocarbon surfactantand is similar to a triple strength dish deter-gent. Its components reduce water’s highsurface tension to effectively make waterpenetrate the crevices found on fuel sur-faces. Additionally, it contains foamingagents that create bubbles when the foamsolution is agitated with air. The bubblescreated keep the water contained withinthem in contact with vertical surfaces toprovide efficient fuel cooling. Class A foamclings to fuels instead of rolling off, pre-venting the fireground water waste associ-ated with conventional water fire streams.

There will always be financial reservationsabout investing in relatively new technologiessuch as Class A foam and CAFS. It is possibledecision makers perceive Class A foam con-centrate to be expensive and difficult to mixand apply. What may seem intuitively true intheory is not always so in practice.

Today, new technology built into foamproportioning hardware has made Class Afoam application easy, accurate and morecost-effective than ever before. The initialinvestment of acquiring foam concentrate,

foam hardware and brigade training mustbe weighed against the benefits they pro-vide. When costs such as Class A foam con-centrate and CAFS hardware can be provento be cost effective, they are no longer anexpense, but rather an investment.

COMPRESSED AIR FOAM SYSTEMSIn a CAFS unit, compressed air is injectedinto foam solution in the apparatus piping,prior to discharge into the hoseline. Finishedfoam is discharged into the fire hose or fixedmaster stream appliance. The features ofusing CAFS, over using standard branchesand foam nozzles to generate finished-foam, include higher quality finished-foamproduction, lightweight hose lines, increasedfire stream discharge distance and finished-foam consistencies that range from “milky”wet to “shaving cream” dry. The benefits forthe fire officer are increased flame knock-down capability from a limited water supply,better exposure protection, less fatigue fromlightweight CAFS hoses (hoselines are filledwith a partial volume of air) and increasedfoam stream penetration into burning struc-tures to reach the core of the fire.

The potential of CAFS used with Class Afoam offers the ability to deliver largequantities of agent over long distances withthe absolute minimum manpower to attackstructural fires that previously required mas-sive tactical operations.

CAFS equipment is available from UK-basedmanufacturers like HALE PRODUCTS EUROPEin a number of different configurations.

Mini-CAFS A self-contained retro-fittable unit for thecompartment of an existing vehicle, typical-ly a small appliance. The Mini-CAFS foamsystem comprises drive motor, compressor,foam mixing system and regulator, assem-bled within a rigid frame which fits into thespace required for an 8kVA generator. Wateris supplied either by vehicle pump orportable pump, without any modification.The foam is supplied either from cans orvehicle foam tank. The equipment is rapidlydeployed and easily operated.

World Series vehicle pump withIntegrated CAFS ModuleThe Godiva World Series pump is the mar-ket leader in the UK vehicle mounted pumpsector. It is now available with a CAFS unitattached “piggy-back” style to the back ofthe pump. The system comprises a com-pressor, Hale FoamMaster V Series foaminduction unit and Hale X-mixer system. Asolid-state electronic control provides asafety system and full operator control fromthe pump instrument panel.

Pto-driven Mini-CAFSThis system is essentially the three maincomponents of the self-contained Mini-CAFS unit but supplied as separate partsand installed by the vehicle builder in therequired locations (air compressor, foamproportioner and control manifold). Thisprovides installation flexibility and improvedmaintenance access for the customer.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com




CAFS equipment demonstration

US Firefighters training with CAFS

Hale Mini-CAFS unit retrofitted to a UK fireappliance

MCP50 – pto-driven Mini-CAFS components

Further information on CAFSequipment is available from

HALE PRODUCTS EUROPE on Tel: +44 (0)1926 623600 Fax: +44 1926 623666

[email protected] www.haleeurope.com

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:51 am Page 46

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Enquiries: www.waterousco.com

Enquiries: [email protected]

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:52 am Page 47

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WEBER-HYDRAULIK GMBH74363 Güglingen, Heilbronner Straße 30

fax +49 / 7135 - 71 396, e-mail: [email protected]

Are you interested? Please call +49 / 7135 - 71 238or visit our internet pages http://www.weber.de

tested according toprEN 13204

and NFPA 1936/USA


As one of the worlds leading manufacturers of hydraulic rescuetools, WEBER-HYDRAULIK work closely with vehicle

manufacturers and fire brigades to ensure that our rescuesystems can tackle the most arduous task.

NEW! SUPER-VARIO SPS 400sets new standards for combi-tools!

Enquiries: www.weber.de

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:52 am Page 48

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If we begin with col-lapse search and res-cue operations we see

an immense use ofhydraulics in this field.The main requirement ofthis application type isportability, consideringthe often very difficult‘terrain’. Small portablehand-operated combina-tion tools, originallydeveloped with the veh-icle rescue in mind, orcompact, lightweight,battery-operated combi-nation tools that comewith spare batteries thatcan easily be carriedaround and swapped, have becomevaluable pieces of equipment to have inyour urban search and rescue equip-ment cache. In slightly less difficultcircumstances where the terrain is notso rough-going, lightweight portablepumps that can power not only combi-tools but also heavier-duty equipmentlike dedicated spreaders, cutters andrams, are an alternative worth consider-ing. The ability now exists to take thetool into any difficult-to-access placeand to use it to cut steel reinforcement

in concrete and/or to make strategiclifts for the prying open of confinedspaces between rubble. Many of thesetypes of tools were extensively used inthe aftermath of 9-11 where it wasimpossible to lug full hydraulic systemsonto the top of the enormous rubblepile for this sort of work.

Of course the use of more heavy-duty hydraulics such as powerful 24-tonne hydraulic wedges used to createlifting bag insertion gaps (starting witha minimum insertion opening only 6

mm) are also used inheavy lift operations suc-cessfully. Used in combi-nation with wedges arehigh-pressure pneumaticlifting bags with their 25mm insertion require-ment that can take overfrom the wedge. 50-Tonaluminium lifting jackshave been adapted fromindustrial heavy-dutyjacks and in turn cantake over from the liftingbags, or if possible beused from the start allowone to make working/entry spaces in therubble. Modern shoring

systems with their integrated pneu-matic or hydraulic struts complete thispicture. There is an increasing amountof use of this sort of hydraulic gear inheavy lift operations. These lightweightshoring struts with integratedhydraulics make lightweight equipmentthat can be used to support or lift inheavy lift operations. These operationswere not possible in the past withoutthe involvement of heavy-duty indus-trial equipment being deployed.

When thinking about the use of

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


A powerful 24-tonne hydraulic wedge to create an initial gap

Hydraulic Rescue Equipment

Away From TheVehicle Extrication

Rescue Scene

By Brendan Morris, Instructor – Technical Rescue, Holmatro Rescue Equipment

Hydraulic Rescue Equipment

Away From TheVehicle Extrication

Rescue SceneIN THE EARLY 1970s a gentleman by the name of Mike Brick washired by a hydraulic tool manufacturer to develop a concept for ahydraulic rescue tool. The rest, as they say, is history. Of course wehave come a long way since then, with the most advancedhydraulic tools, making use of high-pressure systems, allowing forlow-volume technology that in turn allows for much lighter-weightportable tools as opposed to those big heavy hydraulic monsters ofthe past. While most double-acting hydraulic rescue tools wereoriginally designed with motor vehicle extrication rescue in mind,now we also see a wide variety of other uses for this equipment inthe technical rescue field. Various areas of technical rescue arebeginning to make more use of hydraulic technology as the manu-facturers begin to develop more holistic rescuer-orientated pro-ducts. Let’s have a closer look at some of these other fields oftechnical rescue – collapse/urban search and rescue, indoor rescueoperations and confined space rescue – and some of the hydraulictools particularly suitable for use in these rescue areas.

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:53 am Page 49

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Hale Products Europe LtdA Unit of IDEX CorporationCharles Street, Warwick,CV34 5LR England

The innovations continue...

World Series PumpModular SystemMulti-pressure pumpnow available with -● Gearbox● Integrated CAFS● Control Panel

with Class 1instrumentation

PPV Fans Positive Pressure VentilationFans -● Robust construction● Easy manoeuvrability● Water turbine or petrol

engine powered

More efficient, more effective firefightingfrom Hale Products Europe

Powerflow GP8/5Compact PumpNew design portable pump -● High performance with low

noise level● Lightweight compact design● Exhaust gas ejector or hand

priming versions

MiniCAFSCompressed air foamsystem for any vehicle -● Improved fire knockdown times● Reduced environmental damage● Reduced water use


Tel: +44 (0) 1926 623600Fax: +44 (0) 1926 [email protected]

Enquiries: www.haleeurope.com

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:53 am Page 50

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hydraulics away from the vehicle rescue scene, the second typeof rescue one immediately thinks of is certain indoor operationssuch as elevator rescue. In some cases when an elevator rescuercomes to something more than the routine reconnection of thepower, we find that a hydraulic ram and in some cases aspreader are required. In my experience there are however a few things to remember when deploying such tools in indoorenvironments:

Firstly it is important to think carefully about ventilation ofthe fumes from your pump if you are using a petrol motor.Remember the CO is a dense heavy gas and generally travelsdown so watch that it is not moving into the lift shaft anddown to your victims. In this case ventilation as well as atmos-pheric monitoring becomes essential.

Also remember when using a ram to hold an elevator dooropen not to place it high but to rather opt for the on the

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Cordless compact battery operated tools offer immenseadvantages

Hydraulic RescueEquipment Away FromThe Vehicle Extrication Rescue Scene

Hydraulic RescueEquipment Away FromThe Vehicle Extrication Rescue Scene

Enquiries: [email protected]

In some cases when anelevator rescuer comesto something more thanthe routine reconnectionof the power, we findthat a hydraulic ram andin some cases a spreaderare required.

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ground option even though this maybe in the way later. The reason for thisis simple. In the unlikely event of thedoors moving more open at any time inthe rescue the ram may well fall out ofplace and may even end up careeringdown the elevator shaft.

Thirdly there is, like in the (urban)search and rescue applications discussed

before, the issue of portability of tools.Especially in high-rise or large buildingswhere power is disconnected and eleva-tors and escalators are out of order,tools may have to be carried throughcorridors or up (many) flights of stairs.Hand-operated tools, portable pumpswith dedicated tools, and last but notleast the latest generation of battery-

operated tools, unquestionablyall have distinct advantages overfull-blown rescue sets whenrushing to the accident scene.

A third area that has seen theuse of hydraulic tools in somecases is confined space rescue.The sequence of tools discussedearlier in this article to gainaccess or create space –hydraulic power wedge, pneu-matic lifting bags with lowinsertion thickness, lightweightaluminium jacks and shoringsystems with integrated pneu-matics or hydraulics – verymuch applies to this applicationtype as well. Needless to say,considering the often very limit-ed space and often the impossi-bility for more than one rescuerto gain access at the same time,combination tools rather than

dedicated spreaders or cutters are oftenthe way to go.

Remember also that no cutting toolis intrinsically safe, in the sense ofexplosion proof, as it makes use ofmoving metal blades over one another.Therefore the necessary protectionsagainst sparks should always be fol-lowed when working in an explosiveenvironment. The other thing to con-sider is again ventilation when usingpetrol run pumps in these types ofconfined space environments. Veryoften a battery-operated self-containedtool is the way to go as mentionedabove. Alternatively be sure that goodventilation is in place. If you opt forcarrying the battery tool for thesecases, be sure to have a good under-standing of the battery technologyavailable to you. There is nothing worsethan carrying the weight of a dead bat-tery around with you on a rescue scene.A battery tool with a flat battery thatcannot be quickly swapped for a freshbattery is not ideal in any situation. Itis essential that battery tools have theability to change batteries and thatcharging of the battery does not requirethe whole tool to be out of action.

Of course there are always those“special” situations were hydraulicshave to be deployed. These are normallythe types of cases that make a good

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Hydraulic Rescue Equipment Away From TheVehicle Extrication Rescue Scene

Hydraulic Rescue Equipment Away From TheVehicle Extrication Rescue Scene

Lightweight but powerful strong struts create asafe working environment


Remember also that no cuttingtool is intrinsically safe, in thesense of explosion proof, as itmakes use of moving metalblades over one another.

Tools mayhave to becarried throughcorridors or up(many) flightsof stairs.

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story back at the station. For instancethe boy trapped by his head betweenthe bars of a fence, or the man trappedby his head between the metal poles inthe headboard of his bed. After copiousamounts of soap and other lubricantsfail to assist his extrication one eventu-ally resorts to the hydraulics. Whenasked how they get into these situa-tions we all know that our patients arenot going to have a clear answer.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Compact mobile equipment can be used for indoor rescue operations

Whether it is used on the top of arubble pile in an urban search andrescue application, under the wateror down a confined space, what isessential to remember is that whilethese various situations are not anextrication scene, it is still importantto adopt the standard safety proce-dures regarding the handling ofhydraulic rescue equipment in thesetypes of special situations. Weshould not forget to use the toolssafely no matter where or by whomthey are being used. This is funda-mental to the effectiveness andsuccessful use of this equipment.

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Enquiries: www.macron-safety.com

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 10:55 am Page 54

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Some twenty years ago fire protectionwas simple and lucrative. Most fire pro-tection companies needed only a fewproducts to meet a customer’s require-ments. These included sprinkler systemsfor normal commercial risks, and halonfor most high value risks. Halon was aneffective agent that was also cheap,easy to design, clean and simple toinstall. It was such a good solution thatmany companies sprung up just tooffer this single source solution.

With the discovery of the effects ofhalogens on the ozone layer and subse-quent requirements of the MontrealProtocol, all this started coming to anend in the late 1980’s. Governmentregulations prohibited the manufactur-ing, selling and installation of Halonsystems due to its dramatic contribu-tion to ozone depletion. Alternativeswere necessary, as customers demandednew systems that offered the same per-formance in terms of fire extinguishingcapability.

While all Governments agreed tophase out Halon, not all agreed on thetiming of the phase-out. They werefaced with difficult decisions on thecost and impact of switching to untriedand untested alternative fire protectionsystems.

Today most countries in the AsiaPacific region have introduced policiesto stop new systems from beinginstalled and existing Halon systemsfrom being refilled. However this is notconsistent across the region.

Australia, New Zealand, Singapore,Malaysia and many other countries inAsia saw the phase-out of new systeminstallations many years ago, with vary-ing policies regarding the replacementof existing systems. These policiesdepend on individual Government reg-ulations and funding. Today, some ofthe only Halon installations are permit-ted only upon approval from necessarygovernment bodies, meeting the essen-tial use-criteria.

In Japan, the installation of new sys-tems was phased out 8 years ago andthe replacement of existing systems isonly allowed until the current Halonbank is depleted. As the price of Halonhas increased due to the limited andcontrolled supply, some companieshave already started switching to alter-native systems.

Korea and China have similar policesto phase-out Halon production by2010, with no current policy regardingthe phase-out of its supply. However,China has already seen a move in themarket to stop supplying the gas, whilethere is a chance that production inKorea may cease before 2010, depend-ing on local demand.


It was soon discovered that replacingHalon was complex because no singlesolution could offer all of its benefits,simplicity or cost savings.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Pic courtesy of Tyco Fire & Security Services Asia

By Wendy Lee, Technical Director of Tyco Fire & Security Services Asia

THE PAST TEN YEARS have seena dramatic change in the systemsused for the protection of high-value risks from fire. Many newtypes of products, agents and fireprotection systems have appearedon the market to provide solutionsfor different hazards, many claim-ing to be the all-encompassingsolution to meet the replacementof Halon. However, these alterna-tives are known to have limit-ations, and it is important thatcustomers are aware of theselimitations in order to help themmake the right choice.

The replacement of HalonThe replacement of Halon

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Today many new systems have sur-vived the close examination and testingof the last 15 years to take their placeas acceptable alternatives. Each hasproven its worth in meeting modernrequirements for clean and effectivefire protection systems.

Many halocarbon-based agents weredeveloped following the discovery ofthe impact of Halon on the ozonelayer. They all offered effective fireextinguishing capability, but many haddrawbacks in terms of cost and envi-ronmental effects, among other factors.Today the main surviving halocarbonagent is FM200, which offers benefitssimilar to Halon. This system requireslower concentrations, and thereforeuses fewer cylinders than other avail-able alternatives. However the con-trolled source of supply plus theby-products of combustion are of con-cern to both the health of occupants

and to sensitive equipment, limitingFM200’s use to certain areas only.

Inert gases are environmentally safeand clean agents, combined withunmatched safety for people. TheseInert gases consist of natural gasessuch as Nitrogen and Argon, whichexist in the air that we breathe. Theyprovide a very low cost of gas agentand are readily available everywhere inthe world. One of the best availableagents in this category is INERGEN.INERGEN is a special blend of Nitrogenand Argon with the addition of a smallamount of Carbon Dioxide. It wasdeveloped specifically to provide fireprotection for sensitive electrical andelectronic instruments and equipment.It has been proven to be safe forpeople, for property and for the envi-ronment; helping with the growingenvironmental and safety concerns ofmany businesses today.

Water mist has evolved over the lastfew years to provide an effective solu-tion to many types of risks where the

use of small amounts of water is not aconcern. It is especially effective onhighly flammable risks, where the energyof the fire is used to convert the waterdrops into water vapour. These systemsrequire more extensive engineering andinstallation cost in some instances, andhave a strong presence in the marinemarket.


To ensure that the best system is pro-vided, customers need to make surethat the fire systems are appropriate forthe identified risks and properlydesigned. This does not just mean tak-ing into account the systems’ ability toextinguish fires, but also how they areused and maintained.

When many of the older Halon sys-tems were being replaced, it was foundthat some had not been correctlydesigned and installed. Critical factorsthat could affect the performance ofthe system, such as vents, automaticopening and closing of doors, and inte-gration with the detection and alarmsystems, were not taken into considera-tion. System maintenance is also animportant integrated part of the systemand changes in building occupancy andfree space may result in having toupgrade the system.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Pic courtesy of Tyco Fire & Security Services Asia

The search for the ideal Halon sub-stitute has seen positive progressand development, resulting in awider selection of fire systems. Assuch, it is important that fire pro-tection professionals with the nec-essary expertise and knowledgeare engaged to ensure that theright systems are in place to meeteach user’s unique requirements.

Thereplacement of Halon

Thereplacement of Halon

Water mist has evolved over thelast few years to provide aneffective solution to many types ofrisks where the use of smallamounts of water is not aconcern.

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Enquiries: www.chemetron.com

Enquiries: www.thefireshop.com

APF p. 37-68 11/21/06 9:40 AM Page 57

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Incident ground operations rely ongood communication. Indeed com-munication can mean the difference

between a successful outcome andtragedy. Much has been spoken andwritten about the fire ground communi-cations issues on September 11 2001. Itis not for me to comment on these butone can only speculate whether thetragedy would have been lessened ifcommunications systems had not beendestroyed and had performed as theywere designed to.

How often have you found yourselfeither unable to hear instructions,unable to give instructions, or worse stillunable to get help because your com-munications equipment is Either inade-quate for the environment in which you

are working or fails to perform at criticalmoments.

Modern technology has brought withit many new types of radio system, alongwith specialised accessories for fireground use. Is this progress or have we

developed a reliance on complex tech-nology, which is not in the best interestsof reliable fire ground communications?

We must be careful that we do notembody new technology for technol-ogy’s sake, without understanding thelimitations of that technology.

Many fire brigades and other services,particularly in the USA, have adopteddigital trunked radio as their communi-cations medium. Whilst trunked systemsprovide wide area coverage, interoper-ability with other services, and efficientuse of radio spectrum, I believe thecomplex infrastructure associated withthem makes them quite unsuitable forfireground use.

Recent events in a number of UScities have highlighted the often tragicconsequences of failure of a critical partof a trunked radio network. In oneinstance a blown fuse caused total lossof communication at a serious firealmost resulting in tragedy.

After twenty-five years of professionalinvolvement in fire brigade communica-tions I am a firm believer in the “kiss”principle – keep it simple, stupid!

In the vast majority of incidentsattended by a fire brigade, adequateincident ground communication can beachieved by the use of one or more sim-plex radio channels. At larger incidentswhere simplex communication is notpossible, either due to the size of thefireground or the size and constructionof the buildings involved, the use oflocal repeaters becomes necessary. Inmany cases these form part of thebuilding in question and although pro-viding reliable communications for mostincidents, they may well fail or bedestroyed during a major incident. TheWorld Trade Centre provides a primeexample.

It is therefore desirable that such sys-tems be backed up by mobile repeatersystems operated by the fire brigade,systems over which the fire brigade has

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Helmet mounted communications in use with breathing apparatus

Don’t Tell Me You Can’t

It is therefore desirable that suchsystems be backed up by mobilerepeater systems operated by the firebrigade, systems over which the firebrigade has total control.

THE IMPORTANCE of clear, understandable communications in incidentmanagement cannot be over emphasised, not just from a command andcontrol perspective but, even more importantly, from one of safety.

By David Ramsay

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total control. These may be located incommand vehicles or they may be dedi-cated portable units, which can beappropriately located as required.

Trunked radio may provide solutionsin other areas, but I do not believe thatit is the appropriate technology for useon the fire-ground.

In addition to requiring a totally reli-able infrastructure, the emergency inci-dent ground provides a number ofunique challenges to test any communi-cations system.

In structural fire-fighting there is theneed to communicate in high noise lev-els or when wearing breathing apparatus.

In rural fire-fighting noise levels maybe even higher when helicopter opera-tions or tree felling are being carried out.

At Hazmat incidents communicationissues are compounded by the need tocommunicate from within fully encapsu-lated suits and in hazardous atmospheres.

At USAR incidents the use of radiomay not be possible and the use ofhard-wired systems may be necessary.

In such conditions, there is a require-ment for specialised accessories to beused in conjunction with portable radioor hard line equipment. These acces-sories come in four main formats:

● In ear microphones and receivers● In mask microphones and speakers● In helmet microphones and accessories● Throat microphones

In ear microphones have come a longway since the relatively crude devices,which were available in the early 1990’s.

Early devices were very susceptible tobackground noise and were quiteunsuitable for the fire-fighting environ-ment. High quality ear microphones arenow available, however, any ear worndevice is susceptible to hygiene andconsequent health and safety problemsin the dirty environment encounteredwhen one is involved in hot fire-fighting.They are more suited to Police andsecurity operations than fire-fighting.

In mask devices provide communica-tion for a fire-fighter wearing breathingapparatus, however many of the devicesavailable do not adequately reject back-ground noise. Although offering a sig-nificant improvement over speaking intoa handheld microphone through a voicediaphragm, they only provide part of theanswer. Speech quality is affected by thefact that the user’s mouth is obstructedby the mask. They are also restricted bythe fact that they are only of use whenthe user is wearing a mask.

Helmet based systems can provideuseful communication whether or notthe user is wearing a mask. There ishowever the need for the user to bewearing a helmet.

The majority of helmet systems use abone conduction pickup mounted with-in or on the headband of the helmet.Whilst bone conduction pickups havebeen available for many years, untilrecently the quality of sound has beenless than acceptable and they haveacquired a reputation for poor speechquality.

Modern bone conduction devices,properly interfaced to portable radios or

hard-wired communication systems, canprovide highly intelligible speech trans-mission with minimal pickup of back-ground noise. Because they do not relyon speech from the user’s mouth, theuse of a breathing apparatus mask haslittle effect on speech quality.

These devices are useable in ambientnoise levels of up to 120dB, making themideal in the high noise environmentsreferred to above. Using these devices,clear intelligible radio communication isnow possible in environments where face-to-face communication is impossible.

Throat microphones provide an alter-native to bone conduction pickups.They can provide a similar level of ambi-ent noise rejection and have the advan-tage that the user does not need to bewearing a helmet.

Modern technology has provided uswith a number of options, some useful,some not. With adequate planning andthe use of appropriate equipment, don’ttell me you can’t hear on the fire ground!

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


In structural fire-fighting there is the needto communicate in high noise levels orwhen wearing breathing apparatus

Repeaters in command vehicles give the fire brigade total control of the equipment

t Hear On The Fireground

David Ramsay is Managing Directorof Audio Communications Ltd.Based in Auckland, New Zealand,he has been professionally involvedin fire brigade communicationssince the early 1980’s. During thistime he also served for 21 years asan officer in the Auckland VolunteerFire Police Unit. Alongside his engi-neering expertise, this operationalexperience has proven invaluable inunderstanding the requirements ofemergency service communicationssystems and equipment.

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As we have learned from fire testing on new products and by researching fire losses in storage

applications, we now know that theusage of standard 1/2� (15 mm) andlarge orifice sprinklers 5/8� (20 mm) willbe limited in the future. They will belimited because larger orifice sprinklerscan provide better protection while alsoproviding cost savings. More waterfrom the initial operating sprinklers andquick response time are the keys togood storage protection.

NFPA 13 requires that for storageapplications, with densities exceeding0.34 gpm/ft2 (13.9 mm/min), sprinklerswith nominal K factors of 11.2 (160) orlarger that are listed for storage appli-cation shall be used. There are also spe-cial application listings for these largerorifice sprinklers that permit reduceddesign areas for storage of cartonedclass IV commodities and containinggroup A and B plastics with heights to20 feet (6.1 m) high and buildingheights to 27 feet (8.2 m).

Reliable’s G-XLO, K=11.2 (160) andG-VELO, K=14.0 (200) are approvedwith these special application listingsthat allow the design area to bereduced from 4000 square feet (372 m2)to 2000 square feet (186 m2). This willcut in half the water demand for thesystem. The larger K factors will alsoprovide the required densities at alower starting pressure. This offers thepotential for reduced pipe sizes and thepossible elimination of fire pumps andother water supply supplements.

For ESFR protection, the K-14 (200)

ESFR can provide good protection forbuildings up to 40 feet (12.2 m) inheight and with storage that does notexceed 35 feet (11.0 m) in height.However, the K-14 (200) ESFR requiresa very high operating pressure. The K-14 (200) ESFR now also requires onerow of in-rack sprinklers for 45 feet(13.7 m) high buildings with rackheights of 35 feet (11.0m) and 40 feet(12.2 m).

Reliable’s new K-22 (320) ESFR pro-vides excellent protection for all build-ing heights up to 45 feet (13.7 m) highand with storage up to 40 feet (12.2 m)without in-rack sprinklers. The larger Kfactor uses a lower starting pressureand can help to reduce pipe sizes andeliminate fire pumps.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com




Reliable Fire

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One SizeDoesn’tFit All

One SizeDoesn’tFit All

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The best fire suppressant is the one that will minimizeclaims of all kinds in the event of a fire. And no othersuppressant meets that criterion as well as Inergen® inertgas fire suppressant.

It will put out Class A fires in as little as 22 seconds, andClass B fires in as little as 17 seconds. It has virtually thesame density as air, so it won’t sink to the floor or seepunder doors. It disperses quickly and holds its concentrationto snuff out fires quickly.

Inergen fire suppressant won’t damage physical assets.It doesn’t decompose into damaging by-products when itcomes into contact with flames or red-hot metal surfaces.And it leaves no residue to clean up.

It’s also safe for people, with a unique formulation thatwon’t affect the health of occupants even after prolongedexposure. Safety and governmental bodies worldwide allowits use in normally occupied areas.

It has no environmental impact when discharged, either,and has never been regulated or banned anywhere in theworld. In fact, with its special mixture of naturally occurringatmospheric gases, you’d have to ban air to ban Inergen firesuppressant.

In short, it’s the safest fire suppressant possible. Both forthe insured and the insurer.

Why risk recommending anything else?



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As bushfires approached the rural community of Uriarra, 9 miles

(15 kilometers) northwest ofCanberra, Australia, on the morning of January 18, police told residents thatthey could stay or go as they saw fit.Everyone decided to stay put.

That afternoon, police received afrantic call to evacuate the village, butby that time, the raging fires preventedanyone from getting through by air orroad.

The scene played itself out again inthe western Canberra suburbs of Duffyand Chapman, where many residentsdecided to defend their homes, too.They turned on their lawn sprinklers,blocked and filled their gutters withwater, and wet down their roofs andfences.

When police decided that afternoonto evacuate Duffy and Chapman, it wastoo late. Thirty homes were alreadyburning.1

Eventually, the firestorm consumedmore than 400 homes in the westernsuburbs of Australia’s capital city andkilled four people.

As Australia continues to battle oneof its worst bushfire seasons in itshistory, the importance of community

awareness of the consequences ofsaving property at the possible expenseof lives takes on a sharp focus.

“Never before has the importance ofcommunity involvement and prepared-ness been more obvious,” says AlanRhodes, chair of the Australasian FireAuthorities Council’s (AFAC) CommunityEducation Group.

CHANGING PATTERNSAustralia is a large, geographically andculturally diverse country with a rela-tively small population. It’s also one ofthe most wildfire-prone countries in theworld.

From the 1930s through the 1980s,the pattern of wildfires in Australia sug-gests that parts of the country couldexpect to contend with a particularlybad fire season about once each decade,says Russell Taylor, manager of Commu-nity Education for the New South WalesRural Fire Service. In the 1990s, how-ever, this pattern began to change insome parts of the continent.

New South Wales, for example, expe-rienced several devastating wildfire sea-sons in the last 10 years, with very littlelet-up since 1994. The 2002 to 2003

wildfire season began in mid-September,the first month of spring. By mid-November, firefighters had alreadyresponded to more than 200 significantfires that killed one civilian and causedsignificant property damage. Surprising-ly, some of these fires occurred in thetropical rainforests of the north coast,areas not normally prone to wildfires.And all of this took place beforesummer had even begun.

Fortunately, Australia does havecertain advantages when it comes todealing with wildfires. With only 22 fireservice groups covering the whole coun-try, national coordination, informationdissemination, and cooperation areeasily achieved, and the AFAC is ideallypositioned to act as a resource for thecountry’s fire and emergency servicesand land management agencies.

Another advantage is the country’spolitical structure, which allows making,planning, and implementing public policyto take place statewide, rather thanregionally. This helps Australian commu-nities avoid “reinventing the wheel,”leads to economies of scale, and facili-tates a consistent countrywide approachto dealing with unwanted fire.

Although a well-coordinated systemof cooperation among the Australianstates during wildfires is well estab-lished, problems arise when each state isfacing its own harsh wildfire season, asis the case this year.

So why is this season so different?And why is Australia’s general fire risk somuch greater than it has been?


The main source of the wildfire problemis the El Niño weather pattern, whichhas brought lower-than-average rainfalland higher-than-average temperatures.Large parts of Australia are suffering theeffects of long-term drought. Areas ofWestern Australia and New South Waleshave experienced the lowest rainfall inrecorded history.2 Southwest WesternAustralia has had its third consecutivelow-rainfall winter, and almost all ofVictoria and South Australia have hadbelow- to very-much-below-averagerainfall. In fact, the situation has gottenso bad that some towns have to truck intheir drinking water.

The drought also leaves firefighters ata loss for water for firefighting purpos-es. In some areas, reticulated supplies, aswell as dams and rivers, are significantlydepleted or virtually non-existent.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Working Towards By Anthea Bibby

Australian officials look for ways to reduce thewildfire burden as they face yet another recordseason.

This article is reprinted from NFPA website www.nfpa.org copyright © 2003,National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA. All rights reserved.

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The severe drought, together withincreased fuel loads in the very drywoodlands, points to a much greaterlevel of wildfire risk for the 2002 to2003 fire season.

Another factor is Australia’s popula-tion concentration. Most of the coun-try’s 20 million people live along theeastern and southeastern coasts, whererainfall levels have been well belowaverage.

In addition, the urban–rural interfaceis expanding, prompted by a lack ofspace, increased inner-city housingprices, and the appeal of living in a nat-ural environment. Urban sprawl oncewent hand-in-hand with massive clear-ing of bush, but this is no longer thecase. More communities are being builtin or on the edge of the bush, andmany of the people moving to theseareas don’t realize the dangers associat-ed with their environment. Nor do theyunderstand their responsibilities in termsof protecting their homes and assets.

Further complicating the situation incoastal districts is the transient touristpopulation. Many tourists don’t knowthe areas well, don’t have a stake in thecommunity, and don’t understand therisks associated with the area, which isoften dotted with holiday “shacks” hid-den amongst the bushland.

A PARTNERSHIP IN PROTECTIONAgainst this background, it’s clear thatkeeping Australian communities safefrom wildfire requires a close partnershipbetween the fire services and the com-munities they protect.

Most Australian firefighters are volun-teers, and local farmers predominantlystaff many rural brigades. The pro-longed and intense fire seasons placeextraordinary demands on them at atime when they are already stretched tothe limit by the stresses of the oppres-sive, long-term drought. Even with the

most modern training, the latest equip-ment, and the strongest willpower, it’simpossible for fire services alone to pro-vide adequate protection from wildfire.

As a result, the Australian fire ser-vices’ overall aim is cooperating withtheir communities to help them identifytheir risks, know their responsibilities,assess their needs, understand how firein their area is likely to behave, and

have practical plans in place to dealwith disaster when it strikes. The key toachieving all this is education.

While there are a variety of approachesand programs throughout Australia, com-munity wildfire preparedness educationbasically falls into two categories: generalpublic awareness campaigns and targeted,community- and street-level programs.

General public awareness campaigns

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include media campaigns, public meet-ings, and programs, such as “BushfireBlitz” and “Western Australia’s BushfireReady,” in which officials use a varietyof media to disseminate informationabout prevention and preparednessamong high-risk groups.

The more targeted community-levelprograms, such as Victoria’s CommunityFireguard Program, launched in 1993,are designed to help participantsbecome self-sufficient. Based on thebelief that a well-prepared house givesfirefighters an advantage in protecting itfrom a passing fire and serves as thebest refuge for residents during a fire,they recommend that able-bodied peoplestay and help defend their properties,but only when they’re properlyprepared.3 To that end, the programsprovide on-going training to help resi-dents identify and assess their risks,decide whether to evacuate early or stayto defend their property, and plan andprepare for fire. They also ensure thatresidents are sufficiently organized toundertake individual or group actionduring a fire.

Among the information communityeducational programs provide are themain causes of fire death; appropriateconstruction in wildfire-prone areas, fac-tors affecting wildfire behavior, and howto create buffer zones. Other topicsinclude planting to minimize the impactof fire, fuel reduction, care of pets duringa fire, fire protection equipment, andsurvival plans. Educators also discuss theupcoming weather patterns and fire risks.

Another key part of planning andpreparedness that the programs addressis safe access and egress for fire servicevehicles. The urban/wildland interface inAustralia is renowned for narrow roadswith limited turning circles and manydead ends. Therefore, safe access andegress for fire service vehicles is. Suchroads also become an issue during theevacuation of residents.

No matter who they are tailored to,all of these programs are predicated onstrong community involvement in, andownership of, the process. To be effec-tive, the whole community — fire services,land management agencies, industry,local government, and residents — mustparticipate in identifying risks andassessing the need for mitigation.

While news reports from Victoria’s fire-threatened Alpine areas in January paint-ed a frightening picture of a massivefirefront hundreds of kilometers longbearing down on several towns, they alsoshowed well-organized, confident com-munities with fire plans in place, workingin partnership with fire service personnel.

A nationwide assessment is yet totake place of the success of communityprograms in mitigating the effects ofthis season’s wildfires. However, it isclear that “where programs similar tothe U.S. Firewise have been fully inte-grated in the prevention strategy over aperiod of years, the community hasbeen empowered to actively prepare forfire and to stay and protect their homes,and, in most cases, property losses havebeen kept to a minimum,” according to

K. Thompson, chair of the AFACCommunity Safety Committee.

FIREWISEAlthough the Australian approach toevacuation seems to be different thanthat of the United States, the U.S. Fire-wise Communities program reflectsmany of the central aims of the Aus-tralian community educational programsand dispenses some of the same advice.One particular area in which the U.S.program has a great deal to offer is itsapproach to educating and partneringwith officials and experts, advising themon fire intensity, risk, land use, andvegetation type.

For this reason, AFAC, in conjunctionwith NFPA, is assessing the applicabilityof Firewise in Australia, especially interms of its use in educating and brief-ing town planners, building regulators,and local government officials. The Fire-wise model also helps when it comes toconsulting with environmentalists, resi-dents, advocates of alternative lifestyles,and developers.

No matter what the aims or audienceof a community wildfire education pro-gram, ensuring the quality of the infor-mation being imparted is an on-goingissue. If wildfire preparedness educationis to be effective, it must be practical,targeted, and adaptable to a variety ofcommunities. It must also be evaluatedand updated constantly.

A decision to implement Firewise inAustralia is not expected before October.

As with all such projects and pro-grams, the one underpinning aim ofAustralia’s community education pro-grams is to enable communities todevelop the best possible protectionfrom the effects of wildfire.

THE ROLE OF AFAC AFAC, a representative body for fire andemergency services and land manage-ment agencies in the Australasian region,was established in 1993 and has 24 fullmembers. There are also 10 associatemembers, including the New Zealand;Papua, New Guinea; Singapore; andHong Kong fire services. AFAC plays akey role in coordinating the cooperationof fire services and land managementagencies throughout Australia and NewZealand. In addition, it’s crucial toensuring that the public, government,and bureaucracies, and those advising allthese people, have access to appropriate,accurate, and up-to-date information.

Those who develop, deliver, and facil-itate community education programsmust be able to supply sound advice tocommunities and individuals with par-ticular needs, understand the implica-tions of legislative changes, and beaware of the expectations and likelysupport available from local fire services.At the same time, they must be able to

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


No matter what the aims or audienceof a community wildfire educationprogram, ensuring the quality of theinformation being imparted is an on-going issue.

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relate to people from different culturalbackgrounds and to understand howpeople learn, how they are likely tobehave in a wildfire, and what motivatesthem to take action.

A recent example of AFAC’s contribu-tion in this area is a study of the com-munity response to the 2001 to 2002wildfires in New South Wales, whichhighlighted the importance of people’sperception of risk in their approach tofire preparedness and their motivationto act.4 The study also “identifies theneed for on-going research to underpinpolicy positions and continued effortsto engage communities in developingtheir understanding of the [wildfire] riskand their capacity to respond effectivelyto the risk.”5 The still-unreleasedreport’s insights will be invaluable tothose who develop, deliver, and evaluatecommunity safety programs.

AFAC is also facilitating the identifica-tion and development of competenciesrelating to community safety, communityeducation, and liaison. In addition, it’sinvolved in developing models for com-munity education and a framework forevaluating these programs.

Crucial to the process of maintaininga flow of quality data to all stakeholdersare AFAC’s efforts in obtaining federalfunding to set up a national CooperativeResearch Center (CRC). The recentlyannounced CRC involves a wide range ofpartners, including the CommonwealthScientific Industrial Research Organisa-tion (CSIRO), universities across Australia,the Australian Building Codes Board, andAustralian fire services. It represents Aus-tralia’s new approach to fire research andwill become the focal point for researchinto urban/wildland interface fires.

The CRC would undertake a variety ofwildfire-related research projects basedon national priorities. Areas likely to betackled are predictive models of wildfirebehavior in the urban/wildland interface;building construction; suppression andprevention methods; human behaviorduring emergencies; and fuel reduction.

Establishing the CRC will mean bettercoordination of research and allow newdevelopments to be tested in a widerange of Australian environments.

REFERENCES1. Les Kennedy, “Courage under fire,”www smh.com.au, January 25, 20032.Australia’s Rainfall Deciles, 1 May to 31October 2002, Commonwealth Bureauof Meteorology (www.bom.gov.au)2. Briefing Paper at Launch of NSWRural Fire Service Bushfire Program,October 20023. Dr. P. Odgers & A. Rhodes, Com-munity Response to the New SouthWales Bushfires 2001–2, AFAC, Nov.2002, Draft (unpublished)4. Ibid, Abstract.5. Ibid, Abstract.

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Crucial to the process of maintaining aflow of quality data to all stakeholdersare AFAC’s efforts in obtaining federalfunding to set up a nationalCooperative Research Center (CRC).

Enquiries: www.halotron-inc.com

Distributed By:

Amerex Corporation Badger Fire ProtectionTrussville, Alabama, USA Charlottesville, Virginia, USA205-655-3271 • Fax 205-655-3279 800-446-3857 • Fax 434-973-1589Web Site: http://www.amerex-fire.com Web Site: http://www.badgerfire.com

Buckeye Fire Equipment Co. Kidde SafetyKings Mountain, North Carolina, USA Mebane, North Carolina, USA704-739-7415 • Fax 704-739-7418 800-654-9677 • Fax 800-547-2111Web Site: http://www.buckeyef.com Web Site: http://www.kidde.com

65 lb. (29.5 kg) and 150 lb. (68 kg)UL Listed Wheeled Units

are also available

American Pacific Corporation, Halotron DivisionLAS VEGAS, NEVADA /CEDAR CITY, UTAH, USA

702-735-2200 • FAX 702-735-4876WEB: halotron-inc.com • E-MAIL: [email protected]

• U.S. FAAApproved for AirportFire Fighting (Cert Alert 95-03).

• Installed in 200-500 Lb. Systems at more than 43 U.S. International Airports.

• Complete Line of High Performance UL Listed A, B, C ratedportables from four U.S. Manufacturers.

• Available in High Performance UL Listed Wheeled Units 65Lbs. (29.5 kg) - 150 Lbs. (68 kg).

• Available from Distributors outside the U.S. including:Matafuegos Donny (Argentina); PT Chubb Lips (Indonesia);Palmer Asia (Philippines); Lingjack (Singapore) and KoreanPacific Corporation (Korea).




APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 11:05 am Page 65

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ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


ALBACH GMBH & CO. KG was founded in 1871: ALCO – thename stands for over 50 years of specialised work in the develop-ment and construction of Monitors for vehicles, ships and indus-trial plants.

● Alco Monitors● Extinguishing with water, foam and powder● Cooling large objects● Damping down gases, vapours and dusts

We design and manufacture fire-fighting equipment for ourcustomers’ specific requirements – therefore technical advice isthe basis of our business. During the further long life of ourproducts we provide our customers with service, maintenanceand technical support. Our product range includes applianceswith extinguishing agent flow rates between 1,000 and 60,000lpm (150 and 16,000 gpm), as well as pipe and nozzle equip-ment especially for each application…

● Jet nozzles● Jet/spray nozzles● Jet/spray nozzles with internal powder pipe● Foam pipes with and without self-priming

In addition to hand wheel and hand lever operated monitors,we furnish all kinds of remote controlled monitors (also ex-proof)

● Electrical● Oil hydraulic● Water hydraulic● High performance cannon on trailer, with jet/spray nozzle,

capacity adjustable up to 26,000 lpm (7,000 gpm), throwrange up to 115m (126 yds), nozzle equipped with integratedfoam agent suppy

THE HIGHLIGHT IN HEAD PROTECTION“Joint development of new Head Protection Systems for FireBrigades and Occupational Safety”

Draeger Safety AG & Co. KgaAand Schuberth Helme GmbH haslaunched into cooperation tojointly develop and market a newrange of integrated head protec-tion systems for fire brigades,police and other occupationalsafety applications.

Both companies are traditionalleaders in their own fields: Draeger in safety technology andSchuberth in head protection systems. Founded in 1889 and rep-resented today in over 100 countries, Draeger is now one of theleading manufacturers of breathing protection and gas detectionequipment worldwide. As for Schuberth, the Brunswick-basedcompany has been developing all types of head protection solu-tions for over 80 years; including BMW’s motorcycle helmets andFormula 1 racing helmets. With the know-how and experiencegained from years of market leadership, Draeger Safety andSchuberth are well placed to introduce the innovative and reliableproducts that customers around the world have come to expectfrom us.

In the first of many exciting developments to come, DraegerSafety and Schuberth is proud to present the new HPS 6100; anew innovative fire fighter helmet which combines the highest

safety standards with extraordinary wearer comfort. The helmetshell, made from Duraplast material, is heat-resistant and offersexcellent protection, even when subjected to the intense temper-atures experienced during flashover situations. A patented adap-tation system allows the helmet to be fitted quickly and securelyonto Draeger’s range of full facemasks. Available in variouscolours and configurations, the HPS 6100 will provide optimumprotection; whenever and wherever it is called upon.

NEW ELKHART BRASS STINGER 2.0 IS LIGHTEST,EASIEST TO USE!There is no product in the fire industry like the new Stinger® 2.0from Elkhart Brass. It’s the lightest, most fire fighter friendlymonitor available with features designed to deliver superb perfor-mance and durability. Because Stinger is super lightweight, it iseasy to carry and handle; at the same time, it’s ultra strong. Inaddition, it combines features, function, versatility and durabilityfor superior performance at every fire. New Stinger 2.0 has anElkhart Brass cast-in vein that provides a larger waterway forimproved flows up to 1250 gpm, giving it the industry’s lowestfriction loss with the best stream quality available.

Stinger 2.0’s unique design makes it the ultimate masterstream device. It can be used as a portable monitor or quicklyconverted to a deck gun by removing a portable base and placingthe Stinger 2.0 on a top mount adapter or deck mount fixture.The new lightweight, compact, folding base can be stored in acompartment, on running or tailboards, or even pre-connected toa hose bed for use a blitz attack line.

Expand the capabilities of a deck mounted Stinger 2.0 withThe PIPE® 2.0. This increases Stinger’s height by 18 inches forgreater control and coverage. Or attach the SM 1250 Select-O-Matic® nozzle to a Stinger 2.0 to create a master stream devicethat can handle virtually every fire-fighting situation.

In its second century, Elkhart Brass is committed to leadingthe fire industry through family ownership and management. Thecompany’s complete line of fire fighting and fire protectionequipment is used by fire fighters and in industry throughout theworld. Elkhart Brass is the most experienced manufacturer of firefighting equipment.


Besides the widely covered 9/11 incident, we have also seen onTV the disastrous results of highrise fires in other countries. Inthose incidents, the high-tech sky ladders on the fire enginescould reach only the 21st floor or so. If a fire breaks out on ahigher floor, the occupants would have to move to higherground. They have to climb up 20 floors, may be in a smoke-filled stairway. What do you do with the elderly and the disabled?

Mass evacuation in highrise buildings is always a nightmare forthe building managers and the fire brigades throughout theworld. How to evacuate people from tall buildings quickly indangerous situations? As the buildings get taller, there is anurgent need for more efficient means of escape in buildingsfor people to get out as quickly as possible from dangerous situ-ations. Is today’s building designed for equal opportunity inevacuation? Is the fire brigade geared up for possible

Product Update ● Product Update ● Product Update

For more information, please contact:Albach GmbH & Co. KGTel: +49 69 33 99 380

Website: www.alco-frankfurt.de

For more information, please contact:Draeger South east Asia PTE Ltd.

Tel: +65 6 8729 268Website: www.draeger.com

For more information, please contact:Elkhart Brass Mfg. Co.Tel: +1 800 346 0250

Website: www.elkhartbrass.com

APF p. 37-68 11/21/06 9:55 AM Page 66

Page 69: APF Issue 05

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


challenges? In many ways INGSTROM Escape Chute has theanswers to these questions.


Hughes Safety Showers hasannounced the introduction of a fully comprehensive MassDecontamination System fortreating up to 300 casualties anhour at major incidents.

The system, which is com-pletely self-contained, is designedfor rapid deployment and high

throughput. It can be easily transported to the site of an incidentand operational within seven minutes. The system is based on thecompany’s CUPOLAdecon5 mass decontamination unit, a robustinflatable shelter that is already approved and used by emergencyservices in many countries. Zipped doors and internal partitionsensure privacy and protection for casualties as they progressthrough the decontamination process.

The shelter consists of an inflatable frame and removable innerlining with partitions that typically divide it into five sections,each consisting of three cubicles. Typically, four sections could beused for walking casualties and the fifth for treating stretchercases using the fold-away roller bed supplied as part of the kit.

The system includes a high-output, portable water heater, theHughes PORTAheater100, for warming the water as required bymost decontamination regimes or simply to avoid shocking thecasualties.

A portable heater that delivers warm air to the shelter, can, inhigher ambient temperatures, be switched to supply unheated airfor basic ventilation. For night time operation, pole mountedlights ensure good illumination and safe operation and a genera-tor allows the unit to be independent of mains power supply.

INTRODUCING NEW PPS: PLYSU PROTECTIONSYSTEMS BECOMES PROFESSIONAL PROTECTIONSYSTEMS IN ASSISTED MBOOne of the world’s leading manufacturers of Decon technology,Plysu Protection Systems Ltd has been the subject of a successfulassisted management buy-out this month (January) changing itsname in the process to Professional Protection Systems Ltd.

The company has been acquired from former owners, SouthAfrican packaging giant, Nampak, for an undisclosed sum byMark Whitcher, Director and General Manager of the old PlysuProtection Systems, with the assistance of outside backers.

Whitcher, who becomes Managing Director said, “In our for-mer existence the company wasn’t known in the market place asPlysu Protection Systems, but as PPS. In our new existence weshall still be known as PPS. This is all indicative of the way wepropose to go. Like the name change all our other changes willbe similarly subtle, but for the better, thus helping to allay theunderstandable fears that all customers, suppliers and employeeshave about change”.

The new company will retain its site at Woburn Sands, near

Milton Keynes, England for the foreseeable future where it hasbeen since its creation in 1947. Traditionally one of Europe’sleading manufacturers of air fed protective clothing the companyhas, built up a thriving export market in Decon showers for haz-mat and mass Decon operations.

Currently the company exports to 30 countries and includescustomers as diverse as the USAF, the Japanese Defence Forces,the French Government, Czech Fire Services and the MalaysianCivil Defence Corps.

New PPS is, says Whitcher, well funded with a healthy orderbook. One of its first tasks is to embark on an ambitious pro-gramme of investment in new manufacturing facilities as well asR&D. Another top priority is going to be the introduction of highprofile customer training programmes with a strong focus ondeploying the new Decon technologies.

NEW VARIO SPS 400 – “THE BRUTE”The protection systems designedin modern vehicles require highercutting and spreading forces, aswell as innovative blade design.

This led to the development ofa new combi tool that surpassesall existing models on the marketwith a spreading force higher than

a heavy duty spreader and a cutting capability exceeding eventhe highest cutting class of the new EN standard.

A complete set includes a new telescopic ram that fit to theopening of the SPS 400 plus thepower unit V 50 with “turbo-drive-function”.

The close working relationshipwith leading vehicle manufacturersensures that rescue personnel areequipped with tools able to copewith the latest materials.

ZUMRO RESQ Q-CUTTERConfined space rescue is not only a specialized piece of action, avery small cutter is a first requirement as well as a rescuer mostlyneeds to cut material from spaces as large as the fist. ThereforeZumro has introduced the Q-Cutter; a very small and light weightcutter with a semi-remote thumb-control and a head whicharticulates 180 degrees. This Q-Cutter therefore is the ideal solu-tion for cutting seat frames and pedals!

This compact cutter has a minimum cutting force of 149 kNand can cut 18mm round hot steel bars as well as a flat bar of50 x 6mm. Moreover the Q-Cutter has a minimum spreadingforce of 36 kN (3 ton) with only a weight of 7.4 kg.

Like all Zumro cutters, this Q-Cutter can be ordered to operateon ANY hydraulic pressure system with the unique MPS systemand also has the unique blade design for impact-free cutting.

Product Update ● Product Update ● Product Update

For more information, please contact:Escape Consult Mobiltex (S) Pte Ltd

Tel: +65 6 295 1389Website: www.escapeconsult.com

For more information, please contact:Hughes Safety Showers Ltd.

Tel: +44 161 430 6618E-mail: [email protected]

For more information, please contact:PPS Ltd.

Tel: +44 (0) 1908 582 311Fax: +44 (0) 1908 583 741

For more information, please contact:Weber-Hydraulik GmbHTel: +49 7135 71 270

Website: www.weber.de

For more information, please contact: Zumro B.V.

Tel. +31-(0)252 419002Website: www.zumro.nl

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 11:06 am Page 67

Page 70: APF Issue 05

Your intention was to protect your high-value assets from fire

with a clean agent. But many clean agent fire suppressants

are odorless, colorless gases. So how do you know for sure

that you are being properly protected and not misled by

an impostor?

Only Great Lakes’ FM-200® fire extinguishant is supported

by years of testing and use in applications like yours. It is

manufactured under the most rigorous quality and purity

standards in the world to ensure a safe, reliable product.

The FM-200® extinguishing agent has also received product

listings and approvals from the leading independent testing

laboratories worldwide—your assurance of product quality,

consistency and reliability.

Demand the protection that only the world’s most trusted clean

agent can provide! Do not compromise your security. Ask for the

FM-200® extinguishing agent for your fire suppression system.


www.FM-200.comFM-200 is a registered trademark.FM-200 use is covered by U.S. patent 5,124,053.

©2002 Great Lakes Chemical Corporation

The World’s Most Trusted Choice In Clean Agent Fire Suppression.Enquiries: www.FM-200.com

OFC IFC IBC OBC 2/11/06 10:09 am Page obc4

Page 71: APF Issue 05

ASIA PACIFIC FIREwww.apfmag.com


Akron Brass Company, Inc. 25

Albach GmbH & Co. KG. 24

American Pacific Corporation 65

Angus Fire 31

Autoflug GmbH 40

Bronto Skylift OY AB 7

Celanese AMI 45

Chemetron Fire Systems 57

Dafo Fomtec 33

Draeger South East Asia PTE Ltd IBC

Dr. Sthamer Hamburg 32

Edwards International19

Edwards Manufacturing Inc. 63

Elkhart Brass Mfg. Co., Inc. 26

Fire Service College 12

Great Lakes Chemical CorporationOBC

Hale Europe 50

Holmatro Rescue Equipment 51

Home Safeguard Industries 20

Hughes Safety Showers Ltd.39


Lenzing AG 41

Lion Apparel Asia Pacific IFC

Lukas Hydraulik GmbH 53

Luxfer Gas Cylinders 9

Macron Safety Systems (UK) Ltd. 54

MSA 36


OCV Control Valves 47

Plymovent 14

PPS 39

Reliable 16

Securiton AG 21

SK Fire 8

Svenska Skum 29

Task Force Tips 22

The Fire Shop 57

Trelleborg Protective Products 39

Tyco Fire & Security Asia 61

Vema Lift OY 4

Waterous 47

Weber-Hydraulik GmbH 48

WH Brennan & Co. Ltd. 14





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An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 5 – March 2003



Aeria l Ladder P lat form Vehic lesStorage Tank Protect ion

Austra l ia ’s F irewise Programme

BA Trainingfor FireFighters

also ins ideAeria l Ladder P lat form Vehic les

Storage Tank Protect ionAustra l ia ’s F irewise Programme

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MDM Publishing Ltd.

APF p. 37-68 2/11/06 11:07 am Page 68

Page 72: APF Issue 05

Enquiries: www.safety-highlight.com

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