Ansaldo - Deconstructing Creoles

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    Deconstructing Creole

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    Volume 73

    Deconstructing CreoleEdited by Umberto Ansaldo, Stephen Matthews and Lisa Lim

    General Editor

    Michael NoonanUniversity of Wisconsin

    Editorial Board Wallace ChafeSanta Barbara

    Ronald W. LangackerSan Diego

    Bernard ComrieLeipzig

    Charles N. LiSanta Barbara

    R.M.W. DixonCanberraAndrew Pawley Canberra

    Matthew S. DryerBuffalo

    Doris L. PayneOregon

    John HaimanSt Paul

    Frans Plank Konstanz

    Kenneth L. HaleCambridge, Mass.Jerrold M. Sadock Chicago

    Assistant Editors

    Spike GildeaUniversity of Oregon

    Suzanne KemmerRice University

    Bernd HeineKln

    Paul J. HopperPittsburgh

    Sandra A. ompsonSanta Barbara

    Andrej A. Kibrik Moscow

    Dan I. SlobinBerkeley

    A companion series to the journal Studies in Language. Volumes in thisseries are functionally and typologically oriented, covering specic topics inlanguage by collecting together data from a wide variety of languages andlanguages typologies.

    Typological Studies in Language (TSL)

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    Deconstructing Creole

    Edited by

    Umberto AnsaldoUniversity of Amsterdam

    Stephen MatthewsUniversity of Hong Kong

    Lisa LimUniversity of Amsterdam

    John Benjamins Publishing Company

    Amsterdam / Philadelphia

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Deconstructing creole / edited by Umberto Ansaldo, Stephen Matthews and Lisa Lim. p. cm. -- (Typological studies in language, ISSN - ; )Includes bibliographical references and index.

    . Creole dialects. . Typology (Linguistics) I. Ansaldo, Umberto. II. Matthews, Stephen, -PM .D

    '. --dc (Hb; alk. paper)

    John Benjamins B.V.No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, photoprint, microlm, or anyother means, without written permission from the publisher.

    John Benjamins Publishing Co. P.O. Box Amsterdam e NetherlandsJohn Benjamins North America P.O. Box Philadelphia -

    e paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements ofAmerican National Standard for Information Sciences Permanence ofPaper for Printed Library Materials, z39.48-1984.

    8 TM

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    Table of contents

    Acknowledgments xi

    Deconstructing creole: e rationale 1Umberto Ansaldo & Stephen Matthews

    1 On deconstruction 12 Deconstructing creole 32.1 Creole studies and linguistics 32.2 Introducing the volume 43 History of beliefs 83.1 A brief history of creole ideas 83.2 From the Language Bioprogram to the Creole Prototype 103.3 Creole myths 123.3.1 e myth of simplicity 123.3.2 e myth of decreolization 133.3.3 e myth of exceptional diachrony 134 Final remarks 14

    P 1Typology and grammar

    Typology and grammar: Creole morphology revisited 21 Joseph T. Farquharson

    1 Introduction 212 Word-formation 222.1 Afxation 232.2 Reduplication 242.3 Compounding 252.4 Zero-derivation 263 Transparency 274 Inectional morphology 284.1 Afxational inectional morphology 294.2 Reduplicative inectional morphology 30

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    Deconstructing Creole

    5 Complex morphology 315.1 Complex morphology as inectional (afxational) morphology? 315.2 Complexity and age 316 Conclusion 34

    e role of typology in language creation : A descriptive take 39Enoch O. Aboh & Umberto Ansaldo

    1 Introduction 392 Contact languages and simple grammars 402.1 Inection and simplication 402.2 e Noun Phrase as a case study for competition and selection 42

    2.3 e Feature Pool 442.4 Simplication again 463 Competition and selection in English, Gbe and the Suriname creoles 473.1 Properties of the noun phrase in English,

    Gungbe and the Suriname creoles 473.2 e function of determiners in the competing languages

    and the emerging creole 503.3 Intertwining syntax and semantics 523.4 Summary 56

    4 Congruence, frequency and replication in Sri Lanka Malay 574.1 Morpheme sources 584.2 Structural features of case in SLM, Sinhala and Tamil 584.3 Functional alignments 604.4 Summary 625 Conclusions 63

    Creoles, complexity and associational semantics 67David Gil

    1 Creoles and complexity 672 Associational semantics 713 Associational semantics and complexity 754 Measuring complexity: e association experiment 794.1 Experimental design 814.2 Running the experiment 865 Results 886 Further questions: Why languages vary and why languages undress 90

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    Table of contents

    Admixture and a er : e Chamic languages and the Creole Prototype 109 Anthony P. Grant

    1 e Creole Prototype 1092 Introduction to the Chamic languages 1113 Where the Chamic languages t in genealogically 1124 Inuences on the Chamic languages: Whence and where 1145 Lexical elements of unknown origin in Chamic 1206 Aspects of Chamic typology: Phonology, morphology and syntax 1217 Transfer of fabric in Chamic: e lexicon 1268 How Indochinese Chamic languages got this way:

    e replication of the effects of the Creole Prototype as a dynamicdiachronic process 130

    9 Conclusions 136

    Relexication and pidgin development : e case of Cape Dutch Pidgin 141Hans den Besten

    1 Preliminaries 1412 e CDP sentence: Relexication and stripping (and more) 1422.1 SOV word order and the history of CDP 1422.2 Relexication and stripping 1442.3 Relexication and Pro-drop 1472.4 Negation, temporal anchoring and have and be 1492.5 Looking ahead 1513 CDP DPs: Relexication, stripping and adaptation 1513.1 DP-internal Word Order 1513.2 Petried endings? Nominalizations? 1543.3 Conclusion 1554 CDP PPs 1555 CDP clauses again 1576 Conclusions 159

    P 2Sociohistorical contexts

    Sociohistorical contexts : Transmission and transfer 167 Jeff Siegel

    1 Introduction 167

    2 Transmission of the lexier 1672.1 Break in transmission 1672.2 Normal transmission 1692.2.1 Lack of evidence of a pre-existing pidgin 169

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    Deconstructing Creole

    2.2.2 Existence in some creoles of morphology from the lexier 1722.2.3 Conventional language change 1722.3 Discussion 1753 Transmission of substrate features 1773.1 Language transfer 1773.2 Substrate reinforcement 1854 Associated ideologies 1874.1 e development of post-colonial ideology in the New World 1874.2 Discussion 1914.3 Imperfect learning 1945 Conclusion 195

    e sociolinguistic history of the Peranakans :What it tells us about creolization 203Umberto Ansaldo, Lisa Lim & Salikoko S. Mufwene

    1 Creoles and the notion of creolization 2032 e Peranakan population and the genesis of Baba Malay 2062.1 e non-traumatic birth of the Peranakans 2072.2 Multilingualism and the nature of transmission 2092.3 e Peranakans as privileged British subjects 210

    2.4 Baba Malay features 2122.5 Summary and reections 2183 Final remarks 220

    e complexity that really matters : e role of political economyin creole genesis 227Nicholas Faraclas, Don E. Walicek, Mervyn Alleyne, Wilfredo Geigel & Luis Ortiz

    1 Introduction 2271.1

    Purpose 229

    2 Interaction, not simply access 2292.1 Correlating colonization and types of interaction 2303 Beyond correlation: e descriptive and explanatory power

    of the Matrix of Creolization in relation to key debates in creolistics 2314 Toward a typology of colonization and creolization:

    Political economy and the continua, matrix, and spaceof Afro-Caribbean creolization 234

    4.1 Superstrate economies 239

    4.2 Superstrate ideologies, cultures, and linguistics 2424.3 Superstrate politics 2454.4 Substrate economies 2484.5 Substrate ideologies, cultures, and linguistics 251

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    4.6 Substrate politics 2555 Conclusion: e linguistic outcomes 258

    Creole metaphors in cultural analysis 265Roxy Harris & Ben Rampton

    1 Introduction 2652 Ideologies in creole linguistics 2663 Creole language study and the shi in linguistics 2704 Interaction as a site of transcultural encounter 2734.1 Interactional siting: Ritual and remedial interchanges 276

    4.2 Processes of symbolic evocation: Historical consciousnessin situated code-switching 2785 Conclusion 281

    Index 287

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    Acknowledgments

    Our thanks go to everyone who has supported this project for the past two years. Firstand foremost, we thank the contributors to the volume for agreeing to be part of thegeneral theme, and for their hard work in revising their chapters and reviewing papers,as well as other colleagues who offered their comments and suggestions to improve ourcontributions: Ana Deumert and Daniel Nettle. We are particularly grateful to EnochAboh for the many discussions and suggestions in the course of compiling this volume,and Nick Faraclas for his insightful advice and constant support from the early days ofthe project. We also owe our thanks to Kees Vaes at John Benjamins for his support ofthe project, and to Mickey Noonan, the series editor, for his efficiency and for wantingto include this volume in this series. Finally we wish to express our appreciation toMichelle Li for initial formatting of the papers and Martine van Marsbergen and Patri-cia Leplae for their expeditious handli