Anneli Ylimartimo

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ERIAFF Conference 2014 Seinäjoki, Finland Anneli Ylimartimo, R&D Specialist JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Finland "Development of Water Protection in agrarian Areas along Waterways in Saarijärvi, Central Finland"

Transcript of Anneli Ylimartimo

  • Anneli Ylimartimo, Tiina Siimeksel, Tarja Stenman & Samuli Lahtela Development of Water Protection in agrarian Areas along Waterways in Saarijrvi, Central Finland (MAISA 2010-2014) June 11, 2014 / 1 JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Bioeconomy
  • Central Finland, Saarijrvi Waterways The ecological condition of more than half of the waterways in Saarijrvi region is classified in satisfactory or poorer classes. The target is good ecological condition.
  • Agriculture in the region cereals and grass cultivation, cattle raising, milk production hilly terrain and abundance of waterways cause challenges in controlling nutrient loads from the fields to surface waters imprecise or uncontrollable spreading of slurry increases leaching of P MAISA project studied nutrient load from arable land by the newest technology advanced implementation of new knowledge and technologies for water protection MAISA, 2010-2014, budget of 720 000 (mainly EAFRD), coordinated by JAMK
  • 1. Continuous automatic in situ monitoring of water quality 4 New technology for Central Finland Automatic measuring stations with S::can UV-VIS spectrometers The system produces real time information about water quality by internet (measuring density was once in hour enormous amount of data from Sept 2010 until Dec 2013)
  • 5 Water to measuring stations came from surface run-off and underground drainage optical measurement of NO3-N, DOC, and turbidity (FTU) P-tot and solids are calculated based on correlation with turbidity samples for laboratory analyses for calibration etc. based on concentrations mg/L and flow rate L/s loads e.g. 2 kg/ha/year of P-tot Flow rate was measured by v-notch weirs and pressure sensors or acoustic measurement: (1.) Weather data was measured by our own weather station in Tarvaala
  • 6 Two different watershed areas Tarvaala research area: * 9 ha, 100 % field * humous silt * steepness varies 2-5 % 129 ha Measuring stations in the main outlet ditch above and below the studied field area (1.) 9 ha
  • 7 Satosuo research area: . * 396 ha * 64% field (253 ha), of which 39% organic peat field * steepness < 1 % . Measuring stations in brook above and below the research area 1218 ha (1.)
  • Nitrogen concentrations (mg/L) varied according to waters flow rate 8 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 2,5 5 7,5 10 12,5 15 40767,00069 40786,91667 40798,58427 40810,20972 40821,87564 40833,54514 40845,2125 40856,87569 40868,54306 40880,20972 40891,87639 40903,54306 40915,21042 40998,91667 41010,58333 41022,25 41033,91667 41045,58333 41057,25 41068,91667 41080,58333 41092,25 41103,91667 41115,58333 41127,25069 41138,91736 41150,58403 41162,25069 41173,91806 41185,58542 41197,25208 41208,92083 41220,71319 41232,37986 41364,70914 41376,45872 41388,4592 41400,12546 41411,7926 41423,45883 41435,12602 41447,33446 41459,00106 41470,66742 41482,50089 41494,16736 41505,83422 41517,50127 41529,1677 41540,83454 41552,50087 41564,1675 41575,79212 41587,45948 41600,12598 Virtaama(l/s) NO3-NjaN-tot(mg/l) NO3-N (mg/l) N-tot (mg/l) Virtaama (l/s) Satosuo August---Dec 2011 / March-------------December 2012 / March----------------December 2013 (1.) Results
  • and so did the concentration of solids, but not that of organic matter (DOC) 9 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 40767,00069 40787,125 40799,00079 40810,83472 40822,71042 40834,58681 40846,4625 40858,33403 40870,20972 40882,08472 40893,95972 40905,83472 40989,70833 41001,625 41013,5 41025,375 41037,25 41049,125 41061 41072,875 41084,75 41096,625 41108,5 41120,375 41132,25069 41144,12569 41156,00069 41167,87569 41179,75208 41191,62708 41203,50208 41215,37986 41227,37986 41239,25556 41371,87593 41384,08375 41395,95929 41407,83388 41419,70894 41431,58398 41443,4587 41455,87601 41467,75088 41479,79251 41491,66735 41503,54253 41515,41787 41527,29229 41539,16752 41551,0424 41562,91738 41574,75075 41586,62583 41599,50069 Virtaama(l/s) KiintoainejaDOC(mg/l) Kiintoaine (mg/l) DOC (mg/l) Virtaama (l/s) Satosuo August----Dec 2011 / March------------December 2012 / March----------------December 2013 (1.)
  • The loads (kg/ha/year) of N and P (and even organic substances) in 2012 -2013 were smaller in Satosuo (organic peat) than in Tarvaala (humous silt field). N load in Tarvaala was much higher than general estimates of load of agriculture. 10 Hovin kosteikon valuma-alue 2008 - 2009 (Hyttinen 2010), sek maatalouden yleiset kuormitusarviot (kg/ha/a) maksimiarvoilla Rekolaisen ym. (1992) ja VEPS:n (Tattari ja Linjama 2004) mukaan. (1.)
  • The loads of N, P, solid and organic substances varied between years and locations according to weather conditions and topography long time monitoring is needed Biggest loads in April-May and in Sept-November The load (eg. N) is shifting from spring to autumn and winter more attention to water protection for winter is needed 11 (1.) Conclusions
  • Continuous Automatic in situ Monitoring (CAM) Produced more accurate and real time information about nutrient loads from fields in Central Finland However, optical measurement of turbidity did not always result in good correlations in silt, moraine, and peat soils in Central Finland disturbance by high concentrations of soluble P-tot and humus sometimes P-tot had to be measured by less accurate old methods Leaching of P to run-off is not resource-efficient and is causing eutrophication of waterways more accurate information is needed new technological innovations are needed to CAM of P in grass cultivation areas 12 (1.)
  • Measuring stations require regular maintenance 13 (1.) A frog inside another type of sensor Insect worms in spectrometers caused abnormal turbidity results
  • Quality control of data is essential daily checks, reasons for abnormalities must be analysed, data must be cleaned by removing verified abnormalities such as swans washing results just above our measuring station (verified by game camera) 14 (1.) Analyzing the data and results is time- consuming!
  • The effect of two spreading methods of slurry, injection and spreading on surface, on nutrient load from surface run off was studied 2. Spreading methods of slurry in grass cultivation 15 in 2010-2013, in real grass cultivation conditions, in three experimental plots of 0,62 1,14 ha.
  • The surface run off was collected by automatic samplers (altogether 127 samples) 16 (2.)
  • (2.) Results 17 The most significant differences between the plots were found for P: - spreading on surface resulted in the highest concentrations and loads of P in surface run-off - spreading on surface during rain 20-fold N and 10-fold P concentrations - most of tot-P was in soluble form (ca. 82%) Blue column and line = spreading on surface; Red = injection; Green = control (mineral nutrients) Concentrations (g/L) in surface run-off: Loads (kg/ha/year) through surface run-off: Total-P Column = Total-P Line = Soluble total-P
  • (2.) Conclusions 18 Notable year-to-year variation in the concentrations (g/L in surface run-off) and in the loads (kg/ha/year through surface run-off) of nutrients and solid matters long-time experiments are needed The nutrients of slurry are easily leached. Remarkable amount of annual nutrient load may come in surface-run off (e.g. < 54% of tot-P, 12% of tot-N, and 16% of solids). Injection of slurry prevents nutrient leaching even in rainy conditions and is recommended in grass cultivation.
  • The amount of manure produced in cattle and pig farms located along the waterways in the region was studied by interviewing the farmers. Also the spreading methods of slurry and timing of spreading were studied (Lytjrvi & Stenman 2012). The manure balances of municipalities located along waterways in the region were calculated as amount of N and P in manure per arable land area per municipality in 2010. Conclusions: The amount of manure in the region is not adequate for fertilizing all fields. Injection of slurry is already a widely used spreading method. However, more controllable and precise application of slurry would prevent nutrient leaching, would increase the resource efficiency of external nutrient input, and would save the costs of buying mineral fertilizers. 3. Manure balances of municipalities 19
  • 4. Water protection measures in the farms 20 Farmers attitudes to water protection were studied by interviews The attitudes were positive. Farmers found water protection important, had new ideas for water protection, and also participated actively in project events. New knowledge and technologies for water protection were promoted in cooperation with farmers and partners, e.g. Guidance on