Animal Kingdom (Nonchordates)

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ANIMAL KINGDOM NONCHORDATES CLASS XI DR. U.P.PANI PGT (BIOLOGY) JNV DURG

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Animal Kingdom I (Nonchordates) ppt is for class XI students of CBSE syllabus.

Transcript of Animal Kingdom (Nonchordates)

Page 1: Animal Kingdom (Nonchordates)

ANIMAL KINGDOM NONCHORDATES

CLASS XI

DR. U.P.PANI

PGT (BIOLOGY)JNV DURG

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1. Arrangement of cells

2. Body Symmetry

3. Nature of Coelom

4. Patterns of Digestive

5. Circulatory System

6. Reproductive System

Basis of Classification

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LEVELS OF ORGANISATION

Cellular level of Organisation Loose cell aggregates, eg. Sponges

Tissue level of Organisation Eg. Coelenterates

Organ level of Organisation Eg. Platyhelminthes

Organ System level of Organisation Eg. Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs, Echinoderms, Chordates

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BODY SYMMETRYAsymmetri

cal symmetry(Body can

not be divided into two equal

halves) e.g.

Sponges

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EMBRYONIC LAYERSDiploblastic animals

Two embryonic layers

Ectoderm and endoderm

e.g. Coelenterates

Triploblastic animals

Three embryonic layers

Ectoderm, mesoderm and

endoderme.g.

Platyhelminthes to Chordates

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Coelom - The space between the body wall and the gut wall is called coelom.

COELOM

•True coelom present•e.g. Annelids, to chordates1.

Coelomates

•Mesoderm present as scattered pouches between ectoderm and endoderm.

•e.g. Aschelminthes

2. Pseudo coelomates

•Body cavity absent•e.g. Platyhelminthes3. Acoelomates

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Notochord is a rigid rod-like structure formed on the dorsal side during embryonic development in some animals.

NOTOCHORD

Animals

Chordates(Notochord

present)

Fishes to Mammals

Non-chordates(Notochord

absent)

Porifera to Echinoderms

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NONCHORDATES1.Porifera2.Coelenterata3.Ctenophora4.Platyhelminthes5.Aschelminthes6.Annelida7.Mollusca8.Arthropoda9.Echinodermata

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Important Characteristics :-1. Commonly called sponges2. Multicellular cell aggregate animals.3. Diploblastic and assymetric body.4. They have perforated body by numerous pores

and have a water transport or canal system.5. Water enters through minute pores (ostia) in the

body wall into a central cavity, spongocoel, from where it goes out through the osculum.

6. Digestion is intracellular.7. Sexes are not separate (hermaphrodite)

1. PHYLUM PORIFERA

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8. Skeleton consists of spicules or spongin fibres.

9. Asexual reproduction by fragmentation

10. Sexual reproduction by formation of gametes

11. Fertilisation is internal and development is indirect having a larval stage

Eg. Sycon, Spongilla, Leucosolenia

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Important Characteristics :- Aquatic, mostly marine, sessile or free-

swimming. Diploblastic animal, radially symmetrical. Exhibit tissue level of organisation Cnidaria is derived from the cnidoblasts

or cnidocytes which contain nematocytes on the tentacles and the body.

Hydra lives in solitary while corals live in colonies.

They have a central gastro-vascular cavity with a single opening, hypostome.

Digestion is extracellular and intracellular.

2. PHYLUM CNIDARIA (COELENTERATE)

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Cnidarians exhibit two basic body forms called polyp and medusa.

Polyp is a sessile and cylindrical form like Hydra, Adamsia, etc.

Medusa is umbrella-shaped and free-swimming like Aurelia or jelly fish.

Eg. Hydra, Obelia, Aurelia, Physalia etc.

Aurelia (Medusa) Adamsia (Polyp)

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Commonly called sea walnuts or comb jellies.

Exclusively marine, radially symmetrical, diploblastic

Tissue level of organisation. Eight external rows of ciliated comb plates

help in locomotion. Digestion is extracellular as well as

intracellular. Bioluminescence (emitting light) is well-

marked. Hermaphrodite and reproduction takes

place by sexual means. Fertilisation is external with indirect

development. e.g. Pleurobrachia and Ctenoplana.

3. Phylum Ctenophora

Pleurobrachia

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Body dorsoventrally flattened. Bilateral symmetry, triploblstic and

acoelomate animals. Organ level of organisation. Mostly endoparasites found in animals

and human beings. Flame cells for osmoregulation and

excretion. Hermaphrodites, fertilisation internal

and development is through larval stages.

Planaria possess high regeneration capacity.

e.g. Taenia solium, Fasciola, Planaria

4.PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

Fasciola

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Body is cylindrical, bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and pseudocoelomate animals.

May be freeliving, aquatic and terrestrial or parasitic in plants and animals.

Alimentary canal is complete with muscular pharynx.

Dioecious, females are longer than males.

Fertilisation internal, development may be direct or indirect.

e.g. Ascaris (Round worm), Ancylostoma

(hook worm), Wuchereria (Filarial worm)

5. ASCHELMINTHES

Ascaris

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Body is soft, elongated, cylindrical and externally segmented.

Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, and coelomate animals.

Aquatic (fresh water or marine) or terrestrial, free-living / parasitic.

Organ-system level of body organisation Longitudinal and circular muscles help in locomotion. Nereis possess parapodia helps in swimming. Circulatory system is closed. Nephridia is for osmoregulation and excretion. Neural system consists of paired ganglia connected by

lateral nerves to a double ventral nerve cord.

6. PHYLUM ANNELIDA

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Nereis is dioecious, but earthworms and leeches are monoecious.

Reproduction is sexual. e.g. Pheretima

(Earthworm), Hirudinaria (Leech) and Nereis

Earthworm

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Arthopoda, the largest phylum of Animalia kingdom. Bilaterally symmetrical ,triploblastic, segmented and

coelomate animals. Organ-system level of organisation. Have jointed appendages and body covered by

chitinous exoskeleton. Body consists of Head, thorax and abdomen. Respiratory organs are gills, book gills, book lungs or

tracheal system. Circulatory system open type.

7. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA

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Nervous system includes a brain and ganglia.

Sensory organs are antennae, compound and simple eyes.

Excretion by malpighian tubules.

Dioecious, oviparous, fertilisation internal, development may be direct or indirect.

e.g. Periplaneta (Cockroach), Limulus (King crab), Prawn, Insects, Scorpion

Prawn

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Molluscs, the second largest phylum of Animalia. Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and

coelomate. Organ-system level of organisation. Unsegmented body covered by a calcareous shell. Body has 3 parts: head, muscular foot and

visceral hump.

8. PHYLUM MOLLUSCA

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Mantle secretes the hard prtesctive shell.

Radula - toothed structure in mouth used for feeding.

Open circulatory system Dioecious, oviparous

and development is indirect.

Examples: Pila, Pinctada, Sepia, Octopus etc.

Unio Sepia

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Exclusively marine forms. Adults are radially symmetrical while larvae are

bilaterally symmetrical. Triploblastic and coelomate animals. Organ-system level of organisation. They have endoskeleton of calcareous ossicles. Digestive system is complete. Water vascular system help in locomotion,

capture and transport of food and respiration. Excretory organ absent. Show very high power of regeneration. Sexes are separate, reproduction is sexual.

9. PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA

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Fertilisation external, development is indirect.

Examples: Asterias (Star fish), Echinus (Sea urchin), Antedon (Sea lily), Cucumaria (Sea cucumber) and Ophiura (Brittle star).

Asterias (Star fish)

Cucumaria (Sea cucumber)