ANCIENT CRETE AND MINOAN CIVILATION
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of ANCIENT CRETE AND MINOAN CIVILATION
CLICK TO CONTINUE
MUSIC V. PAPATHANASIOU
PALACE OF KNOSOS
Poet Homer in the epic ILIAD (Iliad B 645 652, Odyssey t 178 - 183) reports that Crete had 100 or 90 cities, but report only these : Knossos, the capital of Crete, Gortys, Phaestos, Lyctos, Miletos, and Rhytio.
Knossos was the capitol, the largest, the most important and the most famousglorious city of ancient Crete - in the Minoan civilization. Knossos was built by Minoas, in order to become the seat of the Common (United) Cretan State.
The ancient Cretan was Greeks. Poet Homer in the epic ILIAD (B 402 405 etc) reports that in the Trojan War all cities of Crete: Knossos, Gortyna etc. fought on the side of the Achaeans or Argoees or Danaeans or Panhellenes and the leader of all men from the Cretan cities (all men of Knossus, Gortyna, etc.) or the leader of all nations (states) that existed in Crete (= Eteokrites, Kydones, Achaeans, Pelasgeans and Dorians) was Idomeneus, Idomeneus was the grandson of Minoas and also one of the top leaders of all Achaeans or Argoeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes. Therefore, Minoas and the residents of Crete during his reign (Kydones, Eteokrites, Achaeans, etc.) were Greeks, part of the Panhellenes.
In addition, the ancient writers clearly report that the Minoans were Greeks: " The first residents of Karpathos were those that campaigned with Minoas, during the period in which he became the first Greek mariner and sea-governor, (Diodorus Sikeliotis, 5, 54).
MINOAS, COIN OF KNOSSOS, 300 b.C.
According to ancient writers: Crete was initially inhabited by the so called Idaioe Dactyloes or Couretaes (or Eteocretans). SEVERAL GENERATIONS LATER (AFTER CATACLYSMOS OF DEYKALYON AND SPECIFICALLY WHEN CRETHEAS WAS KING OF THE ETEOCRETANS) CERTAIN SECTS (RACES) OF ACHAEANS, PELASGEANS AND DORIANS UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF TEKTAMOS (THE SON OF DOROS WHO WAS THE SON OF HELLENE AND MINOAS GRANDFATHER) LEFT FROM OLYMPUS AND OSSA (DORIDA) ARRIVED IN CRETE, WHICH HAD MEANWHILE SUFFERED HUGE DESOLATION. THE DORIANS SETTLED IN THE EASTERN PART, THE KYDONIANS IN THE WESTERN, THE ETEOCRETANS IN THE SOUTHERN PART AND THE REMAINING OTHERS IN THE INTERIOR OF THE ISLAND.
ALSO CAME TO CRETE FROM ARKADIA, PELOPONNESUS (AND THUS GORTYNA OF PELOPONNESUS AND CRETE) THE SO CALLED "KYDONIANS". THE CITIES KYDONIA, GORTYNA AND KATREA OF CRETE, ACCORDING TO PLATO AND PAUSANIAS, WERE BUILT BY THE SONS OF LYKAONA, KING OF ARCADIA AND GORTYNIA IN PELOPONNESE.
When Minoas became king of Dorians, with the help of his brother Radamanthys, united (joined) all the cities and all races of Crete (Eteocretans, Kydonians, Pelasgoeans, Achaeans and Dorians) into a single totally comprehensive unit, and organized in a highly unusual way for this period in history the institutions of the State, the eminent Cretan State (or otherwise "Confederation of the Cretans") which subsequently was copied by all Greeks and thus they became civilized.
Three generations after the death of Minoas the Trojan War started . In this war (according to the Pario Chronicle 1228 - 1218 B.C), all Cretans under the leadership of Idomeneas, the grandson of Minoas, fought on the side of the Argoeans or Achaeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes and for that reason they were named after the end of the war Greeks/Hellenes.
DRAHMA OF CNOSSOS, SVASTICA, 300 b.C.
DRAHMA OF CNOSSOS WITH HERA AND LAVYRINT, , 300 b.C.
ACCORDING TO THE PARIO CHRONICLE, MINOAS WAS REIGNED IN 1470 B.C.
The king Minoas, accorging to Greek Mythology, was sons of Zeus and Europa, daughter of the king of Phoenicia, and adopted sons of Cretan king Asterius.. The ancient writer Diodoros (Book 1,.94,.5, 78-79), Arrian (Alexanders Anavasjs 2 29), Strabo (Geographic's I, C 481 - 483,.17 20), Herodotus (A 2 -5) etc, report that old legislators and kings, such as the Greek Minoas, the Egyptian Mneyis, the Greek Alexander the Great etc were claiming that they were sons of god, for obvious and intelligible reasons, that is to say in order that the people respect the laws or their orders.
The truth is that because the laws of Minoas and Radamanthus were not according to their personal opinions, as had been done until then by kings, but relative to divine orders (that is to say they were relative to a set of morals and religious sentiment), Minoas and Radamanthus were deified, that is to say, after their death were declared same with gods, sons of god Zeus and judges at Hades (the underworld), something similar to Alexander the Great, Constantine the Great, etc.
Minoan civilization is the earliest culture not only in Europe, but in all world. The ancient writers: Plato (Laws, Minos), Plutarch (Lycurgus 4-7, Solon 12 - 20), D. Laertjos (Epjmenidis), Isokratis (Panathinaikos 205), Aristotle (Politics B, 1271, 10), Strabo (Geographic's I, IV, C 481 483,.17 - 20), Herodotus (A 65), and others., report that: 1) Minoas and his brother Radamanthus were the first to create the correct ingenious institutions and laws in Greece. Specifically they were the first to conceive and enact social institutions(= public mess, community of property, etc. = the ancestor of communism) and political institutions (= the constitution, parliament, tax collectors and deputies, representatives or senators, etc.) for the correct (right), fair equality before the state, equal treatment before the law and the uniform common (public) order of governing of all Cretans.
2) Prior to the age of Minoas, in Greece and the rest of the world there did not exist any governing institutions, such as constitutions, Parliaments, deputies, tax collection methods, state of concern, equal justice under the law, etc., but each leader (head of a tribe or tyrant or king) established laws for his population depending upon his own wishes and perception. Each king had in fact whatever wanted and the rest of the people very little or nothing at all; and, no one dared to voice their opinions or objections, and they were worshipped as gods and many times asked for human sacrifices, unethical and corrupt practices etc.
Indeed, these reasons were also the cause, that: a) The Spartans declared that laws other than those enacted by Minoas were ridiculous and absurd to imitate or copy. b) The Jews were saying that if the world does not change, then God will destroy the world, c) The ancient Greeks do not report any other singular, important ancient culture other than the Minoan
According to ancient writers Pausanias (Iliaka), Strabo (Geographic 10), Diodoros (Bible 4 and 5) etc, Initially Cretans were named Idaioi dactyls or Couretes ( ). Consequently the name name C(ou)retans
= Cretans, emanated from the
C(ou)retes was the young Cretans peoples (Couroi) who nourished ( curried) the Jupiter. From those c(ou)retans named after all Cretans.
C(OY)RETAS - ( ,
Knossos, Linear script 1800 15oo BC
LINEAR A 15o ctr BC.
DIDRACMO PHAISTOS, 300 . . WITH TALOS ANT TAURE, FOTHER OF MINOTAURE
DISC OF PHAISTOS, 17 BC.
Alphabet script, Minoan codex, Gortyna 5 century B.C.
The ancient cities Gortyna, Kydonia and katrea of Crete, according Pausanias (VIII, 53, 3-4) and Platon ( , 708) , was built by the sons (Gortys, Kydon and Katera) of Lykaona, the King of Arcadia and Gortynia of Peloponnese. After the destruction of Crete by the Romans, Gortyna became the capital of Crete. Subsequently all Cretan cities including Gortyna were radically destroyed by the Sarakians. They were liberated by Nikiforos Fokas.
The anti-Greek say that the Minoan civilization (culture) even though might be the first created, that it was not a Greek creation and that it was destroyed by a tsunami caused by the volcano eruption in Thera (Santorini), which absolutely is false, created due to their jealousy, dishonesty and corruption, because: 1) There are not such myth or such tales of ancient writers 2) If Crete had been destroyed by the explosion of the volcano in Thera (Santorin), that event is a very serious issue and would have been reported by Poseidonius, the ancient writer who witnessed and described the explosion of the volcano in Thera (Santorini), and which subsequently has been authenticated and preserved by writer Stravon. Poseidonius reports as follows:
Thera established a colony in Kyrene. Between Thera and Therasia flames rose from the sea and this phenomenon continued for 4 days, in such a horrific way that the entire sea was boiling and was ablaze. The flames gradually and slowly brought to the surface an island that looked like it was formed from unified red-hot mass and had a perimeter of 12 stages. As soon as this phenomenon stopped, the first people that dared to approach the place were the then sea-farers Rodioj, who built on the island the sacred temple of Asfalios Poseidon (Poseidonjus, ALL A 14-15 and Stravons, Geographics A, III 16).
3) The Minoan Civilization (Culture), as we will see below, not only was not destroyed, but that it was copied by all the other Greeks who sent experts to Crete to study and learn this culture, and reciprocating by inviting to their own cities experts from Crete to teach them. 4) Minoas and the Cretans during the period of his reign (= Minoites), as we will also see below, were sects (races) of the so called Achaeans or Pan Hellenes, hence Greeks.
Coin of Cretan city Raucos, 300 bC. with the god of sea, Poseidon (Neptune)
Thucydides (A, 4 - 8), Plato (Laws D, 706, b), Stravon (Geographics 10), Isocrates (Panathinaikos), Diodorus (Book 5, 84) and others report that Minoas was the first Greek to organize, create and implement a martial (marine) naval force and with it pursued and drove out from the Aegean Sea the criminal Ka