An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800
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An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800
Europeans Explore the East
Main reason for exploration Through overseas exploration, merchants ,and traders
hoped to benefit from the trade of spices in Asia Christians introduced to these items during the Crusades After the crusades Europeans still demanded these goods
High demand=high prices
Muslims and Italians controlled trade of goods from east to west Muslims sold Asian goods to Italian merchants Italians controlled the trade across land routes of the
Mediterranean Resold to items at increased prices to merchants, severely cutting
Sought to bypass Italian merchants by finding a sea route directly to Asia
Search for Greater Wealth
Crusades left feeling of hostility between Christians and Muslims
European nations believed they had a sacred duty to continue fighting Muslims and to convert non-Christians throughout the world
Wanted to Christianize the people of AsiaBartolomeu Dias explained motives
“to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those who were in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do”
Advances in technology made voyages of discovery possible
Shipbuilders designed a new vessel, which was sturdier than earlier vessels and was able to sail against the windEarlier boats couldn't sail against the wind
To better determine their location, Europeans used the astrolabe
Used magnetic compass invented by the Chinese
Used to better determine location at sea
Perfected by MuslimsBrass circle with
carefully adjusted rings marked off in degrees
Using the rings to sight the stars, the sea captain could tell how far north or south of the equator he was
Portuguese sea captain explained motives for converting non-Christians
“to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those who were in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do”
sailed down the coast of Africa, until he reached the tip, when he was caught in a storm
The storm blew him and his crew to the southeast coast of Africa, and he considered going to IndiaExhausted crew and short supply forced him to
“Henry the Navigator” Portugal's most enthusiastic supporter of explorationDreams of oversea exploration began when he
conquered the Muslim city of CeutaFirst glimpse of the wealth outside of Europe
Determined to reach the source of the wealth in the East
Wanted to spread the Christian faithIn 1419, he founded a Navigational school in PortugalBy time of his death Portugal had many trading posts
along the coast of Africa
Muslim city in North AfricaConquered by Henry the
Navigator of Portugal Gave Portuguese, their
first glimpse of the wealth in the east
had exotic stores filled with pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and other spices
Contained large supplies of gold, silver, and jewels
Portuguese explorer Reached the port of Calicut
On the southwestern coast of IndiaAmazed by the spices, rare jewels, and
precious gems that filled Calicut’s shopsFilled ships with such items
After returning from Calicut, he received a hero’s welcome
Voyage of 27,000 miles had given Portugal a direct sea route to India
Vasco da Gama
Located on the southwestern coast of India
Filled with spices, rare silks and precious gems
Discovered by Vasco da Gama Gave Portugal a
direct sea route to India
Italian sea captainConvince Spain to finance finding a route to
Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic OceanWhile “sailing to Asia” he reached the shores
of an island in the Caribbean, and believed he had reached India, and claimed it for SpainOpen way for European colonization in the
AmericasIncreased tensions between Spain and Portugal
Unknown if Columbus’ land he had claimed for Spain had already been claimed for Portugal
Stepped in between Portugal and Spain to keep the peace of the two nations
suggested the Line of Demarcation
Pope Alexander VI
Created to keep peace between Portugal and Spain
Suggested by Pope Alexander VIImaginary dividing line, drawn
north to south through the Atlantic OceanAll lands to the west would
belong to PortugalAll lands to the east would
belong to Spain Later line would be moved
farther west to include parts of modern-day Brazil for the Portuguese
Line of Demarcation
A 1494 treaty between Portugal and Spain
Declared newly discovered lands to the west of the Line of Demarcation would belong to Spain
Declared newly discovered land to the east of the Line of Demarcation would belong to Portugal
Treaty of Tordesillas
Port city on India’s west coast
Captured by the Portuguese
Capital of Portugal’s trading empire
City on the west coast of the Malay peninsula
Attacked by Portuguese
Its capture gave the Portuguese control of the Strait of Malacca
Later captured by the Dutch
Captured by Portuguese after they captured Malacca
Its capture allowed the Portuguese gave them control of the Moluccas
Strait of Malacca
“spice islands”Very rich in
controlled by Portugal after they captured the Strait of Malacca
Portuguese sea captainStressed country’s intense
desire to crush the Muslim-Italian domination over Asian trade “If we deprive them [Muslims] of this
their ancient market there, there does not remain for them a single port in the whole of these parts, where they can carry on their trade in these things. . . . I hold it as very certain that if we take this trade of Malacca away out of their hands, Cairo and Mecca are entirely ruined, and to Venice will no spiceries . . .[be] . . . conveyed except that which her merchants go and buy in Portugal”
Alfonso de Albuquerque
Spanish sea captain
Claimed the Philippines for SpainBegan
settling in them
NetherlandsSmall country situated along the North Sea in
northwestern EuropeLeading sea power
Largest fleet in the world –20,000 vesselsEstablished the Dutch East India CompanyBegan to challenge Portugal’s dominance
over the Indian Ocean trade
Companies that established and directed trade throughout Asia
Had the power to mint moneymake treatiesraise their own armies
East India Company
Founded in the early 17th century by the Netherlands Meant to establish and direct trade throughout Asia Had the power to
mint money make treaties raise their own armies
Richer and more powerful than England’s company Dutch eventually drove out the English and established dominance over the
regoin established their trading headquarter at Batavia seized the port of Malacca and the valuable Spice Islands from Portugal increased its control over the Indian Ocean trade so many goods from the East traveling to the Netherlands, the nation’s capital,
Amsterdam, became a leading commercial center ruled much of Indonesia and had trading posts in several Asian countries controlled the Cape of Good Hope
used as a resupply stop.
Dutch East India Company
On island of JavaLocation where Dutch
established their training head quartersFrom their the Dutch
conquered several nearby islands
Controlled by Dutch
On southern tip of Africa
Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
Less powerful than the Dutch East India Company
Focused much of its energy on establishing outposts in India
Built up a successful business trading fine cloth
English East India Company
It struggled at firstit faced continual attacks by the Dutch
Eventually established an outpost in India in the 1720s.never showed much of a profit.
French East India Company
China Rejects European Outreach
1368—1644 (276 years)Caused China to become the dominant power
in Asiarulers were not going to allow outsiders from
distant lands into their country in fear of them threating the peace and prosperity they had brought to China when they ended Mongol rule
Son of a peasant Commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of china in 1368 First emperor of Ming Dynasty Began reforms
Agricultural reforms Increased rice production Improved irrigation Introduced farm fishing and the growing of commercial crops (cotton and sugar cane)
Erase traces of Mongol past Promote China’s power and prosperity
Used respected traditions to bring stability to China Encouraged a return to Confucian moral standards
Improved imperial administration Restoring the merit-based civil service
Became a ruthless tyrant, later on in his rule, when problems began to develop Suspecting plots against his rule, he conducted purges Thousands of government officials were killed
After his death, there was a struggle for power Father of Yonglo
Located in southern China
Capital city under the Yuan Dynasty
Hongwu’s place of rule
Son of HongwuBecame ruler of China, after a struggle for power,
after his father’s deathContinued many of his father’s policiesMoved the royal court to BeijingHad a far-ranging curiosity about the outside world
1405 , before Europeans began to explore, he launched 7 voyages of expeditionAll led by Zhang He
Hoped to impress the world with the power of Ming ChinaAcomplished by voyages
led Yonglo’s seven voyages of expeditionDistributed gifts, such as gold, silver, silk and scented outs to everyone,
to show Chinese superiority
As a result, more than 16 countries sent tribunes to China Many envoys traveled to China Chinese scholar-officials opposed this idea, saying that it
was a waste of valuable resources
To keep influence of outsiders down, only the government was able to conduct foreign trade
In reality, trade flourished up and down the coast Prophet-oriented merchants sold goods such as spices and silk
to Europeans, for much less than what they were used to paying
Demand for Chinese goods had a large effect on the economy Silk and ceramic making industries grew rapidly Manufacturing and commerce increased
China did NOT become industrialized Idea of commerce offended China’s Confucian belief Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture
Taxes on agriculture lowered Taxes on manufacturing skyrocketed
First missionary, under Ming rule, to have an impact
Italian JesuitGained special favor at the
Ming courtAble to speak and write
ChineseStill opposed by many of the
educated Chinese opposed Christianity
Extravagant palace complex at the capital city, Beijing Monument to China’s isolationismBuilt by Yonglo between 1404 and 1420Known as foreign city because it was forbidden to all
commoners and foreignersInside emperors conducted business of China and lived
in luxuryOnly emperor and his court lived in the palaceExpensive to maintain
6, 000 cooks to make meals for 10,000-15,000 people1949 converted into a museum and open to the public
Ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, and a government out of money, all weakened Ming China
Higher taxes and poor harvests pushed millions of peasants to starvation
Civil strife and rebellion followedManchus invaded China
The Ming couldn’t hold them back and the dynasty collapsed
Fall of Ming Dynasty
From ManchuriaLocated beyond the northeast end of the Great
WallIn 1644, they invaded China
The Ming couldn’t hold them back and the dynasty collapsed
Took a Chinese name for their dynasty, like the Mongols, naming it the Qing Dynasty1644—1911 Bring Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia,
and Tibet under Chinese rule
1644—1911 Resisted by many of the ChineseForced Chinese to wear hat in a ponytail as a
sign of submissionSlowly earned respect of people
Upheld traditional Chinese systemsMade frontier safe
Became emperor in 1661 and ruled for about 60 years
Reduced government expenses and lowered taxes
Gained support of Chinese intellectuals by offering them government positions
Enjoyed company of the Jesuits at courtInformed him of the latest developments in
science, medicine, and mathematics in Europe
Kangxi’s grandsonRuled from 1763—1795 Helped China reach its greatest size and
prosterityOften rose at dawn to work on the problems of
his empireArmed namads on its bordersChristian missionariesEuropean merchants
Refused to make better trade arrangements with King George III/England
If foreign states wished to trade with China, they would have to follow Chinese rules
Dutch accepted these restrictionsDiplomats paid tribute to China’s emperorsPerforming “kowtow” ritualAs a result, dutch returned with many fine
Chinese goods, like porcelein, silk, and tea
Dutch trade with China
Ritual that merchants who wanted to trade with China were required to do
Involved merchants kneeling in front of the emperor and touching their heads to the ground nine times
British wanted to trade with China, but didn’t like China’s trade restrictions
In 1793, King George III asked for a better trade trade arrangement , which Quian-long refused
British trade with China
Delivered letter from King George III (England) to Quian-long (China)
Letter asked for a better trade arrangement between England and China
Refused to “kowtow” the emperor, although he bowed on one knee
Lord George Macartney
Sent Lord George Macartney with a letter to Quian-long, asking for a better trade arrangement
King George III
Conquered by the Manchus in 1636 and turned unto a vassal state
Existed in Korea’s shadowOrganized their government according to Confucian
principlesAdopted Chinese technology and culture, especially their
its policy of isolation When the Manchus established the Qing dynasty the
political relationship with China did not change. But Korea’s attitude did.
The Manchu invasion, combined with a Japanese attack in the 1590s, provoked strong feelings of nationalismmost evident in their art—of traditional Chinese subjects,
many artists chose to show popular Korean scenes
Most Chinese families had farmed the land the same way their ancestors had.
during the Qing dynasty, irrigation and fertilizer use increased
Farmers grew rice and new crops, such as corn and sweet potatoes, brought by Europeans from the Americas. As food production increased, nutrition
improved and families expanded and the population exploded\
Sons Only a son was allowed
to perform vital religious rituals.
A son also would raise his own family under his parents’ roofassuring aging parents
of help with the farmingMen dominated the
household and their wives
females were not valued, and many female infants were killed.
Although men dominated the household and their wives, women had significant responsibilities. working in the fields supervised the children’s
education managed the family’s
finances most women were forced to
remain secluded in their homes, but some found outside jobs such as working as midwives or textile workers.
Sons vs. Daughters
The culture of early modern China was based mainly on traditional forms
The great masterpiece of traditional Chinese fiction was written during this period Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Zhan examines upper class
Manchu society in the 1700s. Most artists of the time painted in traditional styles, which
valued technique over creativity. In pottery, technical skill as well as experimentation led to the
production of high-quality ceramics, including porcelain.Drama was a popular entertainment,
especially in rural China where literacy rates were low. Plays that presented Chinese history and cultural heroes
entertained and also helped unify Chinese society by creating a national culture.
Cultural Developments in China
Japan Limits Western Contacts
“Warring States,” period Powerful samurai seized control of old feudal estates.They offered peasants and others protection in return for
their loyalty.Under this system, security came from a group of
powerful warlords. The emperor at Kyoto became a figurehead, having a
leadership title but no actual power. resembled European feudalism in many ways. The daimyo built fortified castles and created small
armies of samurai on horses Rival daimyo often fought each other for territory.
This led to disorder throughout the land.
became lords in a new kind of Japanese feudalism.
meant “great name.” built fortified castles and created small armies
of samurai on horses. Later they added foot soldiers with muskets
(guns) to their ranks. Rivals often fought each other for territory.
This led to disorder throughout the land.hoped to gather enough power to take control
of the entire country
defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568.
sought to eliminate his remaining enemies. These included rival daimyo as well as wealthy
Buddhist monasteries aligned with them. In 1575, his 3,000 soldiers armed with muskets
crushed an enemy force of samurai cavalry. first time firearms had been used effectively in
battle in Japan. was not able to unify Japan. He committed seppuku,
the ritual suicide of a samurai
Nobunaga committed seppuku in 1582, when one of his own generals turned on him.
Nobunaga’s best general continued Nobunaga’s mission. set out to destroy the daimyo that remained
hostile. By 1590, he controlled most of the country.did not stop with Japan.
With the idea of eventually conquering China, he invaded Korea in 1592 and began a long campaign against the Koreans and their Ming Chinese allies.
With his death in 1598, his troops withdrew from Korea.
One of Hideyoshi’s strongest daimyo allies, completed the unification of Japan. In 1600 defeated his rivals at the Battle of Sekigahara.
His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyo throughout Japan. became the sole ruler, or shogun. moved Japan’s capital to his power base at Edo To keep the daimyo from rebelling, required that they follow the
“alternate attendance policy” and other restrictions tamed the daimyo.
a major step toward restoring centralized government to Japan. As a result, Ieyasu founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, which would hold
power until 1867. On his deathbed in 1616, Ieyasu advised his son, Hidetada, “Take care
of the people. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to protect the country.” Most Tokugawa shoguns followed that advice. Their rule brought a
welcome order to Japan.
Tokugawa Ieyasu, completed the unification of Japan.
Ieyasu defeated his rivals. His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyo
Battle of Seklgahara
a small fishing village that would later become the city of Tokyo.
Japan was unified, but the daimyo still governed at the local level.
To keep them from rebelling, Ieyasu required that they spend every other year in the capital.
Even when they returned to their lands, they had to leave their families behind as hostages in Edo. Through this and other restrictions, Ieyasu tamed the daimyo. major step toward restoring centralized
government to Japan.
“Alternative Attendance Policy”
A dynasty of shoguns that ruled unified Japan from 1603 to 1867
Their rule brought a welcome order to Japan’s power until 1867 Japan enjoyed more than two and a half centuries of stability, prosperity, and isolation under the Tokugawa shoguns
Confuciusthe ideal society
depended on agriculture, not commerce.
Farmers, not merchants, made ideal citizens
peasant farmers bore the main tax burden and faced more difficulties than any other class. Many of them abandoned
farm life and headed for the expanding towns and cities. There, they mixed with samurai, artisans, and merchants.
Industrial, not agricultural
Confucius vs. Reality
The rise of large commercial centers also increased employment opportunities for women.
Women found jobs in entertainment, textile manufacturing, and publishing.
the majority of Japanese women led sheltered and restricted lives as peasant wives.
They worked in the fields, managed the household, cared for the children, and obeyed their husband without question
Role of Women
Samurai attended ceremonial noh dramas, were based on tragic themes. read tales of ancient warriors and their courage in battle.
In their homes, they hung paintings that showed scenes from classical literature.
traditional entertainment faced competition in the cities from new styles of literature, drama, and art.
Townspeople read a new type of fiction, realistic stories about self-made merchants or the hardships of life.
The people also read haiku Townspeople also attended kabuki theater. The paintings the people enjoyed were often woodblock
prints showing city life.
Culture under Tokugawa
Attended by townspeople
Actors in elaborate costumes, using music, dance, and mime, performed skits about modern life.
3-line verse poetrypresents images rather than ideas.
On a journey, ailingMy dreams roam aboutOver a withered moor. MATSUO BASHO, from Matsuo Basho
Tabi ni yandeYume wa Kareno oKakemeguruMATSUO BASHO, in Japanese
The Japanese first encountered Europeans in 1543, when shipwrecked Portuguese sailors washed up on the shores of southern Japan. Portuguese merchants soon followed. They hoped to involve themselves in Japan’s trade with China and
Southeast Asia. The Portuguese brought clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms,
and other unfamiliar items from Europe. Japanese merchants were happy to receive the newcomers and
their goods. The daimyo, too, welcomed the strangers.
interested in the Portuguese muskets and cannons, because every daimyo sought an advantage over his rivals
The Japanese purchased weapons from the Portuguese and soon began their own production. Firearms forever changed the time-honored tradition of the
Japanese warrior, whose principal weapon had been the sword.
Portuguese and Japanese Relationship
Christian missionaries began arriving in Japan in 1549
The Japanese accepted the missionaries in part they associated them with the muskets and other
European goods that they wanted to purchase.the religious orders of Jesuits, Franciscans, and
Dominicans came to convert the Japanese. Francis Xavier, a Jesuit, led the first mission to
Japan. baptized about a hundred converts before he left Japan.
By 1600, other European missionaries had converted about 300,000 Japanese to Christianity
Christian Missionaries in Japan
Jesuit led the first mission to
Japan. baptized about a hundred
converts before he left Japan.
The success of the missionaries upset Tokugawa Ieyasu.
He found aspects of the Christian invasion troublesome.
Missionaries, actively seeking converts, scorned traditional Japanese beliefs and sometimes involved themselves in local politics.
At first, Ieyasu did not take any action. He feared driving off the Portuguese, English, Spanish, and
Dutch traders who spurred Japan’s economy. 1612 the shogun had come to fear religious uprisings
more. He banned Christianity and focused on ridding his country
of all Christians.
Persecution of Christianity
Ieyasu died in 1616, but repression of Christianity continued off and on for the next two decades under his successors.
In 1637, the issue came to a head. An uprising in southern Japan of some 30,000 peasants, led by dissatisfied samurai, shook the Tokugawa shogunate. Because so many of the rebels were Christian, the shogun
decided that Christianity was at the root of the rebellion. After that, the shoguns ruthlessly persecuted Christians.
European missionaries were killed or driven out of Japan. All Japanese were forced to demonstrate faithfulness to some
branch of Buddhism.
These policies eventually eliminated Christianity in Japan and led to the formation of an exclusion policy
Persecution of Christians
remained open to foreign traders only Dutch and Chinese merchants were
allowed into the port the English had left Japan voluntarily the Spanish and the Portuguese had been
expelled. Since the Tokugawa shoguns controlled
Nagasaki, they now had a monopoly on foreign trade, which continued to be profitable
The form of Buddhism that had the greatest impact on Japanese culture
especially influenced the samurai. sought spiritual enlightenment through
meditation. Strict discipline of mind and body was the Zen
path to wisdom. Zen monks would sit in meditation for hoursIf monks showed signs of losing concentration,
a Zen master might shout at them or hit them with a stick.