Alvin Final Project
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FACTORS AFFECTING IMPLEMENTATION OF OCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF SAMEER GROUPBY
AKOKO ALVIN A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE A WARD OF THE DIPLOMA IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO THE KENYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT.MAY 2014DECLARATION
Declaration by the Student
This research project is my original work and has not been presented to any other examination body. No part of this research should be reproduced without my consent or that of the Kenya Institute of Management.
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NRB/DPM/ 54096Declaration by the Supervisor
This research project has been submitted for defense with my approval as the Kenya Institute of Management supervisor.
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For behalf of Kenya Institute of Management
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Branch Manager-Nairobi BranchDEDICATION
To my late dad Akoko Nelson for affording me the best Education and my lovely mothers Damaris and Betty.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I acknowledge the contribution of all those who supplemented my knowledge. This research project would not have been completed without your support. Special thanks to my supervisor Mrs. Linda Mutwiri for the support and knowledge throughout this research. The entire community of KIM, lecturers who took me through my studies and the management that, ensured I achieve most if not all during my study. My college mates who encouraged me all through the course period and assisted me whenever I requested for help.ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to exploit the factors affecting implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) policy in Kenya. The background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives research questions significance of the study, limitations and scope of the study are all covered in chapter one. The paper reviewed the existing literature and experience on implementation of Occupational Health and Safety. The literature was reviewed along the four variables training, government policy, finance, technology and their adverse effects on implementation of Occupational Health and Safety. The study targeted a population of 180 employees of Sameer Group and 40% of the sample was drawn from the target population which was used in analysing the data. Data will be collected from both primary and secondary sources whereby questionnaires and literature reviewing was done respectively so as to get detailed information. The questionnaires were presented for validity and reliability before distribution to the respondents. Data collected from /respondents will be edited to delete errors and detail the viral facts. The data was presented using graphs, pie charts and table diagrams respectively depending on the techniques.
The study findings majority of the respondents completely agreed that training affect implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety policy by 69%, 78% of the respondents also agreed that government regulation affects implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety policy, 88% also indicated that finance affects implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety policy and78% of the respondents indicated that technology affects implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety policy. Based on the findings of the research and the acknowledged limitation undertaken, recommendations for further research may include Implementation of Occupational Safety and Health Policy which will help the company in future to get more information and how to improve on occupational safety and health programs in manufacturing firms and to widen the scope and target more customers on the basis of age and gender.
TABLE OF CONTENTSDECLARATION ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES vii
LISTS OF FIGURES viii
DEFINITION OF TERMS x
INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background of the Study 1
1.3 Statement of the Problem 71.4 Objectives of the Study 81.5 Research Questions 81.6 Significance of the study 81.7 Limitations of the study 91.8 Scope of the Study 10CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Introduction 112.2 Review of Theoretical Literature 112.3 Critical Review 262.4 Summary 282.5 Conceptual Framework 29CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 313.2 The Study Design 313.3 Target Population 313.4 Sample Design 323.5 Data Collection methods and Instruments 333.6 Data Analysis Methods and Procedure 34CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction 354.2 Presentation of Findings 354.3 Summary of Data Analysis 49CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 515.2 Summary of Findings 515.3 Conclusions 525.4 Recommendations 535.5 Suggestions for Further Study 54REFERENCES 55APPENDICES
Appendix I Letter of introduction
Appendix II Questionnaire
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Target Population 32Table 3.2 Sample Size 32Table 4.1 Response Rate 35Table 4.2 Gender of Respondents 36Table 4.3 Age of the Respondents 37Table 4.4 Highest Level of Education 38Table 4.5 Number of Years in Service 39Table 4.6 Respondents Category 40Table 4.8 Effect of Training 41Table 4.9 Rating the Effect of Training 42Table 4.10 Effect of Government Regulation 43Table 4.11 Rating the Effect of Government Regulation 44Table 4.12 Effect of Finance 45Table 4.13 Rating the Effects of Finance 46Table 4.14 Effect of Technology 47Table 4.15 Rating the Effect of Technology 48LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Organizational Structure 7Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework 29Figure 4.1 Response Rate 35Figure 4.2 Gender of Respondents 36Figure 4.3 Age of the Respondents 37Figure 4.4 Highest Level of Education 38Figure 4.5 Number of Years in Service 39Figure 4.6 Respondents Category 40Figure 4.8 Effect of Training 41Figure 4.9 Rating the Effect of Training 42Figure 4.10 Effect of Government Regulation 43Figure 4.11 Rating the Effect of Government Regulation 44Figure 4.12 Effect of Finance 45Figure 4.13 Rating the Effects of Finance 46Figure 4.14 Effect of Technology 47Figure 4.15 Rating the Effect of Technology 48LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ ACRONYMS
Diploma in Project management
Government of Kenya
Kenya Institute of Management
Occupational Health Safety
Small Medium EnterpriseOPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
FinanceMonetary requirements needed to run the hospital
Government RegulationsThese are regulations, the principle guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.Technology The branch of Science that deals with the application of knowledge based machines for practical purposes.
TrainingTraining is a planned process to modify attitudes, knowledge or skill through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity.
INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
This chapter contains the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study and the scope of the study.
1.2 Background of the Study Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety has a significant relationship with employee satisfaction, customer retention, loyalty, costs, profitability, service guarantees and growth of organization. However, the poor Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in The manufacturing industry in, Nairobi - Kenya has resulted in accidents and injuries and many other times loss of life (Sohail, 2003).
There are numbers of occupational health and safety management systems which can be applied, including the British Standard BS 8800:2004 Guide to Occupational health and safety management system, the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001, and the International Labor Office ILO-OSH 2001 Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems. Each of these management systems is based on the plan-do-check-act management model and embodies the principle of continual improvement as exemplified in the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 families of standards.
In a note produced by the Royal Society of Chemistry, London (2005), it was concluded that there are no fundamental differences between any of these management systems, and there are large degree of overlap in system elements and most are common requirements. The differences between BS8800 and ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 relate largely to scope and the specific needs of OH&S requirements compared to quality and environment specifications. The distinction between BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 and ILO-OSH 2001 is mainly in the order which the elements are addressed. The intent and basic requirements are common to all three documents. In North America, other OHS management system standards were developed or being developed including ANSI Z.10 in the USA, and Z1000 in Canada. Moreover, different states have put out their own guidelines; for example the seven-element OR-OSHA Safety & Health Program Model from Oregon State.
In Kenya and largely in the Eastern Africa, the development and implementation of OHS management systems at industrial organizations are evolving driven mostly by legislations. Many developing countries in the world including Kenya have declared commitment to establish legislations in accordance with the ILO specifications. Any OHS management system must link business processes in order to effectively manage and continually improve operations. The OHS management system becomes the framework in which program activity is planned, implemented, evaluated, improved, documented and verified, thus the proper flow of information is the life blood of any organization.
When instituting programs like ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS 18001, organizations begin to see the need for some means of relating all of the required information and documentation back to the process that it is seeking to control and ultimately improve continuously. Moreover, management systems must reduce redundancies in the data, assures completeness of the data and information, and presents the information in a way that workers and managers can understand it. The choice of which system to adopt depends solely on the needs of individual organizations. If an organization already has or will seek accreditation under ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 it may consider adopting OHSAS 18001 as part of an integrated approach, because OHSAS 18001 was designed to be compatible with these standards.
Established in 1952, Sameer Group of Companies (a conglomerate of 27 companies) is one of the Kenyas leading industrial groups. Its line of business covers a wide range of products including: raw material and converted hygienic tissue paper, non-woven fabrics, processed meats, aluminum profiles, ready-mix concrete, synthetic sponge/foam, plastic pipes, stationery, and printed packaging materials. Sameer Group commissioned Occupational Health Safety as part of their effort to establish clear and comprehensive safety management standards that can be applied to all of their companies.
There hasnt been any known study that had a focus on investigating factors affecting implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety. This study therefore sought to investigate factors affecting implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety (OHS),with specific interest on Small Medium Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya.Health and safety management systems emerged as a key prevention strategy in the mid-1980s. The Bhopal disaster is credited as the catalyst for attention to management systems in the process industries (Sweeney, 1992:89), although the concept of a systems approach had been evident since the 1960s (Lees, 1980:71). An estimated 2500 people were killed and ten times as many injured by leaking methyl isocyanate at Bhopal in December 1984. Issues identified as contributing to the disaster were inadequate attention to design of plant and process, maintenance and testing of plant and protective equipment, training and emergency planning, as well as the failure to implement safety audit recommendations and a lack of attention to the broader planning issues associated with the location of hazardous plants in residential areas (Kletz, 1985:198). Following the Bhopal disaster, many enterprises in the high risk process industries extended the focus of health and safety activity beyond the traditional emphasis on process technology and technical safeguards towards management practices, procedures and methods, while attention was directed at industry level to models for system development and performance measurement (Sweeney, 1992).
The mid-1980s also saw the appearance of health and safety management systems beyond the process industries. In Australia, manuals on health and safety management systems were published by consultancy companies, employer organisations and governments (Chisholm 1987, Confederation of Australian Industry, 1988, Department of Labour (Vic), 1988, WorkCover (SA), 1989). However, while the 'systems' terminology in these manuals was new, the system elements were consistent with the health and safety programs of previous years. Just how similar or different the new approach to health and safety was in relation to its antecedents might be tested by tracing the development of health and safety management systems and exploring the influences which have shaped them.
The United States literature places the formative period for health and safety management programs as the 1950s and the 1960s. At this time the concept of health and safety was presented as being as much a part of the discipline of management as of engineering. Management and personnel techniques included policy setting, definition of responsibilities, and employee selection and placement. Statistical techniques used in the quality control field were introduced. Ergonomics, or human factors engineering, was incorporated also into the role of the health and safety professional, alongside new responsibilities relating to fleet safety, property damage control and off-the-job safety. Occupational hygiene duties had already filtered into the role of the health and safety professional following changes in workers compensation law defining compensable industrial diseases (Petersen, 1988).
The developments in health and safety management outlined above are only part of the story. The changes described may have broadened the role of the health and safety professional, but at a deeper level there appears to have been little change in the basic elements of a health and safety program. The genesis of health and safety programs in the workplace is placed earlier in the century as a response to the need for health and safety organization following the introduction of workers compensation legislation (Simonds, 1989). The three organizing principles of the early health and safety programs, engineering, education and enforcement of rules provided the framework for a seminal work on safety.
Heinrich had a formative influence on health and safety practice and his safety program elements have endured to the present day as the foundation of management techniques in health and safety. Heinrich's highly influential work Industrial Accident Prevention: A Scientific Approach documented the prevailing approach to health and safety preventative programs, within a philosophical framework which saw individual employees rather than working conditions as the primary cause of accidents in the workplace.
Heinrich's theories and techniques on safety management were supported by research he conducted while employed as an engineer for an insurance company. His major research study concerned the causes of accidents and comprised a subjective assessment of the accident cause in 75,000 accident insurance cases. He concluded that 88 per cent of accidents resulted from 'unsafe acts' and 10 per cent from 'unsafe conditions', making a total of 98 per cent judged to be preventable, with the remaining 2 per cent judged as unpreventable. Heinrich advocated a multi-disciplinary approach to safety, focused upon engineering, psychology, management and 'salesmanship' (Pope, 1981:62). The emphasis on psychology supported his theory that accidents were caused primarily by the 'unsafe acts' of employees. The minimization of technical fault supported the concept of the culpability of the injured person in accident compensation cases (Hale, 2002).
The techniques for health and safety management advocated by Heinrich in 1931 are evident today in health and safety programs and systems. Techniques for safety management proposed by Heinrich include close supervision; safety rules; employee education through training, posters and films; hazard identification through analysis of past experience, survey and inspection; accident investigation; job analysis; methods safety analysis; production of accident analysis sheets; approval processes for new construction, installation of new equipment, and changes in work procedures or processes; establishment of safety committees and arrangements for emergency and first aid. Also reminiscent of current approaches is the parallel drawn between the controls in safety and the control of the quality, cost and quantity of production. The causes of accidents and production faults Heinrich viewed as similar and the control methods as equivalent. Safety, he argued, should be managed like any other business function.
Heinrich's theories of accident causation similarly have continued impact. Perhaps the most enduring legacy of Heinrich is the dichotomy between 'unsafe acts' and 'unsafe conditions', or the influence of unsafe behaviour versus hazards/technical deficiencies as the cause of accidents. At the heart of Heinrich's prevention philosophy was the axiom that the unsafe acts of persons are responsible for a majority of accidents. The axiom was central to Heinrich's domino model of accident causation, which depicted five dominoes ready to fall in sequence, portraying five inter-connected factors in an accident sequence. Unsafe acts/conditions were placed in the central position, preceded by inherited or acquired personal faults, and followed by an accident and injury. The removal of the unsafe act/condition was expected to interrupt the sequence. The expected result was prevention of the accident and possible injury. Control of the individual behavior of employees was the key.
1.2.1 Profile of Sameer Group
The Sameer Group is a leading economic force in East Africa. We have over thirty years experience in Kenya's industrial and economic development. Our investment in the Kenyan economy provides direct and indirect employment for over 30,000 people.
We are proactive in the development of Africa. We are improving the key infrastructure of the region by building better roads, a better communication network and empowering the communities around our agricultural facilities to better them. We build schools and hospitals for these people, laying the foundation for future generations to prosper.
The Sameer Group is perfectly placed, in our understanding of the workings of the people and the government, to combine our expertise with that of all those who wish to profitably invest into Africa's bright future. The group is involved in industries including: agriculture, manufacturing, distribution, high-tech, construction, transport and finance. The company's offices are located in Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya, and the largest metropolitan area in that country. The shares of stock of some of the group's subsidiaries are listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange
Endowed with the knowledge, vision, experience and skills derived from over thirty years experience in Kenya's industrial and commercial development, and partnered by internationally recognized businesses, names and brands, the Sameer Group is in a unique position to offer advice and assistance to all those who wish to invest profitably in the future of Africa.
The Group is active in a diverse range of businesses all in eminently critical sectors for the development of business across Africa. The success attributable to the Sameer Group as a whole, and to the individual companies, is by no means a coincidence. Rather, it is the result of a shared vision, sound business skills and expert management all drawn from years of conducting business and managing investments in the region.
Figure 1.1 Organizational Structure of Sameer Goup Limited
Source: Sameer Goup Limited (2014)
1.3 Statement of the ProblemThe Private sector and more importantly Small Medium Enterprises has over the years been under great pressure due to a number of factors: high turnover of employees, loss of employees lives, legal battles with injures employees and pressures from workers unions for better working conditions and increase of enumeration. These factors have seriously constrained effort to increase functionality and operations of Small Medium Enterprises, as a result many Small Medium Enterprises have not experienced maximum output out of the capital and investments they make.The consistent changes in the Labor and Human Resource Department has had negative influence on the implementation and monitoring Occupational Health Safety. It has hampered continuity; institutional memory and policy follow through. The need to have a clear direction to improve implementation of Occupational Health and Safety and reduce the high rates of occupational injuries requires a supportive organizational and management framework with a strong flexible and knowledgeable leadership, able and willing to take informed decisions.
1.4 General ObjectivesThe general objective of the study was to find out the factors affecting implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety in The manufacturing industry in Kenya. A case study of Sameer Group1.4.1 Specific ObjectivesThis study aimed at investigating the factors affecting implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety in The manufacturing industry in Kenya. The study aims at achieving the following objectives:-
i. To establish the effect of training on implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industryii. To determine the effect of government regulation on implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industryiii. To assess the effect of finance on the implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industry.
iv. To determine how technology affects implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industry.
1.5 Research Questionsi. How does training affect the implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industry?
ii. How does government regulation affect implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industry?
iii. To what extent does finance affects implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industry?
iv. How does technology affect implementation of Occupational Health and Safety in the manufacturing industry? 1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is important as it contributes to the existing literature on the following: 1.6.1 The Sameer Group of CompaniesSameer Group of Companies will benefit from the finding of the study in that it will support them to identify the factors that affect implementation of Occupational Health and Safety.This will provide a background for better, effective and efficient implementation of Occupational Health and Safety. The top management and departmental managers of Sameer Group of Companies will be informed on the issues slowing down the implementation of Occupational Health and Safety. This will enable it address issues and possibly roll out the strategy to the rest of its sister companies and other affiliations. 1.6.2 The Government of Kenya As the demand to scale up working conditions of workers increases in Kenya there is need to conduct this study in order to take stock of the gains made and the existing challenges and how the government can work with employers, trade unions and workers for a better working environment. The findings of the study will help the Government acknowledge challenges facing the implementation of Occupational Health and Safety.1.6.3 Other ResearchersAcademically, this research will generate fresh knowledge to researchers who wish to carry out further investigation on the issue with possible recommendations on any area in need of revision. The study will also provide some baseline data that will guide future studies on factors affecting provision of quality service in public health sector. Future researchers will benefit in that they will be able to increase their understanding of the pertinent issues that underpin the study. 1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.7.1 Uncooperative Respondents Some of the workers were uncooperative claiming that some of the information will be critical to share and beyond their knowledge. The respondent has to get ago ahead from his seniors to be able to share some information which is required.
Also there was possibility of phobia and unavailability of respondents during data collection exercise. The researcher will overcome this challenge by designing questionnaire. No confidential and personal information questions and briefly explained the purpose of the study before administering the questionnaires to reduce cases of non-response.
1.7.2 AccessibilityIt is anticipated that there would be difficulties in terms of information and access to the Premises. However, the research was to overcome this by first of all seeking permission from the relevant Management personnel. Also the Group may not grant permission for the study to be conducted and that not all questions are clear and relevant. Caution was taken during the construction of the questionnaire to ensure that the questionnaire items are clear, unambiguous and elicit the intended data.1.7.3 Communication Barriers
The study may be limited by communication barriers. This means the respondents may give very brief information on the given questionnaires which could not be understood by the researcher hence making the information not easily interpreted. The researcher may try to compare the two methods of data collection whereby the researcher will have to use both secondary and primary source of data collection instruments to enable comparison in order to bring clarity.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study focused on factors affecting implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety at Sameer Group of Companies. The study was confined at Sameer Group of companies with Head offices in Westlands and branches on Mombasa Road and Athi River. A total of 180 questionnaires were distributed and collected; their findings was analyzed and presented into a final report between the months of March and May 2014. The purpose of this study was to exploit the factors affecting implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety in Small Medium Enterprises.CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 IntroductionThis chapter contains the review of the theoretical literature, review of analytical literature, summary and the gap to be filled by the study and the conceptual framework.
2.2 Review of Theoretical LiteratureQuality as defined by international organization for standardization is a relative concept and if the inherent characteristic of a service that meets the requirements of the customer, it can be rated as high quality (Reinartz 2004). In a service industry experience of the employees plays a crucial role in rating and assessment of quality of services accorded them by the employers. Quality in occupational health and safety implementation may comprise of newer technology, newer and effective machines, a large operations room to employee ratio. In service and manufacturing industry implementation of Occupational Health and safety policy has become an imperative in providing employee satisfaction because delivering quality service directly effects the customer satisfaction, loyalty and financial profitability of service business. In manufacturing, service quality can be broken into two quality dimensions: technical quality and functional quality (Dean, 2008).
In Kenya, Occupational Health and Safety services are provided by the employing agency both private and public. The government policy on implementation of Occupational Health and Safety is supported by inspector from the Directorate of Public Safety who visits business settings to ascertain levels of application and implementation of its policy. These efforts are supplemented by Non Governmental Organizations and Trade Unions.
More than 100 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for hazard control in the workplace contain requirements for training aimed at reducing risk factors for injury or disease; others limit certain jobs to persons deemed competent by virtue of special training. A literature review was undertaken to assess the merits of such training rules to achieve this objective and to sort out factors of consequence. The review focussed heavily on published reports, wherein training was used as an intervention effort to reduce risk of work-related injury and disease. Eighty (80) such reports were found and gave over whelming evidence to show the merits of training in increasing worker knowledge of job hazards, and in effecting safer work practices and other positive actions in a wide array of worksites. Reports from select surveys and investigations of worker injuries and workplace fatalities were also accessed with many implicating lack of training as a contributing factor to the mishaps. In still other studies, workplace training devoted to first aid instruction showed linkage to reduced worker injury rates, suggesting that even this kind of training has benefits to job safety overall.
A critical analysis of the above findings found certain qualifications in viewing training impacts and successes with regard to current workplace standards. For example, most of the reported training intervention studies did not address OSHA training rules per se, and knowledge gain and safe behavior measures were used in many evaluations as opposed to actual injury/disease indicators. Also, in some instances, the training was coupled with other forms of intervention to make attribution difficult. Training deficits noted in some surveys of work injury cases lacked for confirmation and no information was available on the quality of the instruction if given at all.
Despite the above reservations and uncertainties, trainings role as a necessary element in developing and maintaining effective hazard control activities remained firmly supported by the available literature. What did emerge from this review and analysis was an appreciation of meaningful training procedures and the recognition of factors both within and beyond the training process that could greatly affect its impact. In this regard, the OSHA voluntary training guidelines were described along with illustrations from the reports to show how the various steps contained within them can be met in realistic ways and have merit in framing an effective program. In addition, factors both within and beyond the training process were assessed for their effects on training outcomes based on data found in the reviewed literature. Variables such as size of training group, length/frequency of training, manner of instruction, and trainer credentials were each shown to be significant determinants to the training process. Equally important were extra-training factors such as goal setting, feedback and motivational incentives along with managerial actions to promote the transfer of learning to the jobsite.
Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job. It is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for definite purpose. Gupta (2008) Training refers to acquisition of knowledge, skills and competences as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to the specific useful skills. Saleemi (1997) Training means the planned and organized activities of a consultant to impart skills techniques and methodologies to employers and their employees to assist them and the establishment. According to Armstrong 2000 training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education institution development and explained experience. To bring change and remain competitive in business employees needs to be trained and equipped with all the necessary skills required to do the job. Knowledge is power, empowering employees means giving them the knowledge they need to do the job they can. Training is the short term learning process which is applicable on specific intended for improving skills or knowledge which has an immediate application to the benefit of the individual as well as the organization,
Development is the process of transition of an employee from a lower level of ability skill and knowledge to trial of higher level. This transition is influenced by education, training experience and environment Nair (2006). For the employer investments in training and development people is a means of attracting and retaining human capital as well as getting better return from those investments. These returns are expected to be improvement in performance implementation efficiency and the capacity to innovate that should return from enlarging the skill base and increasing levels of knowledge and competence resulting in higher provision of quality services.
Gupta (2005) outlines various needs and benefits of training and development. These needs include new environment, lack of trained personnel, advanced technology faulty methods, prevention and accidents and needs for carrier development. Gupta opens that the benefits of training are increased efficiency, job satisfaction reduction of accidents and better use of resources reduce suspension, greater flexibility stability and growth. In most developing countries like Kenya, there is a chronic sufferance of administrative inadequacy, changing environment and other intrinsic and extrinsic problems. If the government is not keen to respond to human needs effectively and rapidly it has no alternative but to change about administrative reforms with the aid of modern projects management skills to adjust to these changes. The management should not remain static over a period of time, because there is always scientific, economic, political, and social cultural change all over the country. Such a turbulent environment being faced by a country becomes too difficult to control or to manage hence the reason why many projects are failing partly as a resultant factor of poor management. This is because they are faced with challenges in decision making planning and control. (Drucker, 1995).
Armstrong (2004) states that training in health and safety is the key factor in prevention of accidents. Training programs should start with an induction course. It should also take place following a transfer to a new job or a change in work methods. Safety training spells out rules and provides information on potential hazards and how to avoid them. Further refresher training should be provided and special courses taken to deal with new aspects of health and safety or area in which safety problems have emerged. Contemporary enhancement training practices take a substantially more developmental approach than the provisions of the classical systematic training cycle. Learners are at the heart of such practices rather than administrative efficiency. Trainers have the responsibility to develop knowledge behavior and attitudes in people. The role of training is positively intervening in this relationship may be debatable but knowledge behavior and attitude can be feared by human resource management is arguably a more appropriate frame of mind to adopt.
Training is classically limited as a systematic process with the inherent and generally acceptable logic that begins with identifying needs designing and intention implementing it then evaluating. This logic often represent in the form of a training cycle. Managerial and administrative is equally part of the convention of thin training cycle. Development is a distinct from training. Interpersonal skills are vital too. They include managers, ability to understand alter and control the behavior of other individuals and groups. They also include the ability to communicate, coordinate and motivate people and mould them into a cohesive team. These skills enable one to understand organizational behavior because it has an impact on project performance. Managers therefore use human skills to show how people form attitudes, how they perform work environment, how their personality influence their reaction to work, assess the asset of social values and social beliefs that affects people, relationship with each other and how the process of management and the nature of people at work may be Intergrated in a defined work environment to influence work performance in project implementation (Klein, 2004).
Psychological also provide an insight to the management application of human skills in understanding people. They say that an individual; s unique characteristics are as a result of their personality development hence a manager develop a corporate image, they also have to consider that people become from diversified cultures that have distinct social ethics. Therefore if managers can perform those tasks they can be described as being effective. Technical skills are also key. They are the job specific knowledge and techniques that are required to perform tasks for instance knowledge in manufacturing , auditing etc. these skills are needed to execute specific duties and are acquired through formal training. Managers should ensure they get the most competitive employees through use of revised recruitments and selection procedure and place them in the right position to do the right job at the right cost and time. To improve and maintain employees technical skills arrangements for training both orientation and regular should be programed and implemented. Performance management and appraisal should be done both annually and by- annually depending on the employees output and life span of the project. Rewarding employees for their effort is motivational as well as promotions so that they contribute effectively towards realizing the set goals (Chitaku, 2006)
Capacity Development is the ability of individuals, institutions and society to obtain strength and the capability to perform functions, solve problems and set achievable objectives. It describes the task of developing levels of human and institutional capacity. This involves concentrating effort on contributing to the pursuits of strategic objectives by providing deeper and concentrated support services, right materials specifically through capacity development materials. In accordance with programmer vision on strategic objectives in capacity development areas are to organize for training needs, giving priority and developing staff institutions in transition and to foster the development and community programs.
Flippo, B. (1999) Apart from training needs survey where employees organizations provide direct services to members resulting close interaction between its staff and enterprises. However in some areas training undertaken by employees organizations and other institutions. An example is negotiation skills in which business education in some counties have highly effective programmes; another is human resource management. Therefore its important for employers organization to develop an expertise in training in industrial relations. Its a subject in which it can develop a comparative advantage especially since in many countries such training is seldom offered by other institutions Even if other institutions do they may alack the practical experience employers organizations develop if they provide direct service to members. An increasing important target group is small enterprise sector which unlike the large scale sector, usually lacks human resources manager or training policy in house training facilities. A special needs assessment may have to be conducted in this sector as its needs tend to differ from those of large and medium scale organization. Some of the areas in which an employers organization can undertake training (Robbins, 2003).
Juran (1989) training should start with executive assessing the organizations quality position and creating quality vision. It goes to say that after executives have undergone their training the rest of the organization has to undergo training too. The overall object of these is to help people personally committed to participate in the implementation process. This will ensure that customers are going to be expecting and getting good quality from employees. There is need for selective hiring of qualified staff. Successful recruitment and retention of staff is tied to empowerment of staff that must be treated as full partners in the organizations operation and given opportunities for advancement.
2.2.2 Government Regulation
The design and institutional framework of competition authorities is linked to internal customary and administrative structures. Sustainability and success of regulatory models depends considerably on the establishment of effective and autonomous regulatory institutions. Overall, competition authorities should be delegated the power to implement competition policies at the national level and also guaranteeing their close coordination with sector regulators. In ideal situations, where a regulator has full information, is benevolent and able to fulfil any promises made, competition cannot improve upon regulated monopolies. In such circumstances, the regulator will ensure the firm produces the ideal range of services at the lowest possible cost and will set welfare-maximizing prices for these services (Joskow, 2005).
Consequently, the supply sector of the manufacturing industry will not improve if the government operated in this setting. However, market information is naturally scanty and regulators invariably lack important information about the markets they oversee. On the other hand, the regulated firm will be better informed about the demand for the regulated services, the minimum possible costs and potentials for less costly future provisions. This information asymmetry gives rise to an unavoidable trade-off between rent and efficiency: the firm can be motivated to operate efficiently but only if awarded substantial rent for doing so. In particular, the firm will operate at minimum cost and attempt to supply quality petroleum products to the customers only if it is awarded the full surplus that its activities generate. However, such an incentive to the regulated firm typically will provide it with significant rent, and thereby reduce the net benefits enjoyed by consumers, hence the need to limit it.
Lyson and Brian (2006) stated that a policy is a body of principles, expressed or implied, laid down to direct an enterprise towards its objectives. Policies are mandatory and must be adhered to by all people in their activities throughout the organization. At corporate and operational level, policies have the following advantages; they provide authority based on principles for a given course of action, they provide guidelines when formulating functional and operational strategies, they provide basis for management control and allows coordination across organizational units thus reducing the time managers spend in making decisions.
Cochran (2004) describes policy as a deliberate plan action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s). The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. A good example of policies includes; presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order. Policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important organization decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanism arranged to reach explicit goals. Definition of policy and research done into the area of policy are frequently performed from the perspective of policies created by national governments, or public policy.
According to Birkland, (2001) there is a lack of consensus on the definition of policy. Bridgman et al, the term public policy always refers to the actions of government and the intentions that determine those actions. Processes vary significantly from the stringent to the very informal. Large corporations and governmental entities are most likely to have stringent and formal processes.
The goals of policies may vary widely according to the organization and the context in which they are made. Broadly, policies are typically instituted in order to avoid some negative effects that have been noticed in the organization, or to seek some positive benefit. Corporate purchasing policies provide a good example of how organizations attempt to avoid negative effects. Many large companies have policies that all purchases above a certain value must be performed through a purchasing process, like in government entities they use the public procurement and disposal Act, 2005 and Regulation, 2006 which acts as policies to govern public spending. The policy formulation process typically includes an attempt to assess as many areas of potential policy impact as possible, to lessen the chances that a given policy will have unexpected consequences. Because of the nature of some complex adaptive systems such as societies and governments, it may not be possible to assess all possible impacts of a given policy.
In political science the policy cycle is a tool used for the analyzing of the development of a policy item. It can also be referred as a strategist approach. Bridgman & Davis model (2000) puts a range of postmodern academic challenge linear cycle models as unresponsive and unrealistic. Policies are typically promulgated through official written documents. Such documents have standard formats that are particular to the organization issuing the policy. While such formats differ in terms of their form, policy documents usually contains certain standard components including: a purpose statement, outlining why the organization is issuing the policy, and what its desired effects is.
Birkland, (2001) says an applicability and scope statement describing who the policy affects and which actions are impacted by the policy. This applicability and scope may expressly exclude certain people, organizations, or actions from the policy requirements definitions providing clear and unambiguous definitions for terms and concepts found in the policy document. Policy addresses the intent of the organization, whether government, business, profession, or voluntary. Policy is intended to affect the real world, by guiding the decisions that are made. Whether they are formally written or not, most organizations have accepted and adopted policies.
Policies may be classified in different ways. The following are samples of several different types of policies broken down by their effect on members of the organization distributive policies extend goods and services to members of the organization, examples of this include; government policies that impact spending for welfare, public education, highways, and public safety, or a professional organizations policy on membership training. Regulatory policies, or mandates, limit the discretion of individuals and agencies; otherwise compel certain types of behavior. These policies are generally thought to be best applied in situations where good behavior can be easily defined and bad behavior can be easily regulated and punished through fines and sanctions. A good example of this public regulatory policy is Dana Leigh that of a speed limit.
Constituent policies create executive power entities, or deal with laws. Miscellaneous policies are dynamic policies; they are not just static lists of goals or laws. Policy blue prints have to be implemented, often with unexpected results. Social policies are what happen on the ground when they are implemented, as well as what happens at the decision-making or legislative stage. When the term policy is used, it may also refer to: Official government policy (guidelines that govern how laws should be put into operation). Blakemore, (1998) a company or organizations policy on a particular topic, For example, the equal opportunity policy of a company shows that the company aims to treat its entire staff equally. A fundamental requirement of policy- writing is its use of a standard format within an organization, including a complete history of changes made to the document. This standard format, called a writing format, is at the heart of any policies system. Typically, the format includes a purpose, persons affected, scope, sometimes a background section, a policy section, definitions, responsibilities, and a procedures section. The format when put into a template can also include information about the title, effective date, revision date, and an approval section. The writing format is extremely important to the integrity of the policy and procedure system. Consistency is the key.
The prime requirement for regulation is to license all organizations that wish to be actively involved in the supply sector. The license defines the parameters within which the licenses are empowered to operate and lays down rules on the provision of quality petroleum products to customers. Monopoly providers have no external commercial incentive to become more efficient. Thus left to themselves, they go for monopoly pricing, normally high, with declining quality of services because the customer is captive and has no choices. Price controls on regulated monopolies are an attempt to combat monopoly pricing and to try to stimulate the monopoly to act a if it were in open competition with others. This can be through revenue, profit or cost caps. The most effective method of price control is to cap the revenue generated since it is easily verifiable unlike profit and costs. Improvement in customer care in a monopoly is an offshoot of price control, in that the quality control of services to customers can be quantified in terms of the satisfaction that customers experience when they are compensated for a failure by the monopoly to undertake an action as set out in the rules and regulations.
Theoretically, quality should be such that the cost of the last unit of quality improvement equals the aggregated marginal willingness to pay for the additional quality (Hirschhausen et al, 2004). State-owned utilities are likely to over-invest if they face no hard budget constraints. On the other hand, un-regulated monopolies will supply too much (or too little) depending on whether the marginal willingness to pay for quality by the marginal consumer is higher (lower) than the average willingness to pay in the group of consumers. Regulatory processes affect maintenance and expenditures and capital allocations. In the electricity sub-sector, quality measurements arising from regulatory processes are interpreted as reductions of power outages.
Though difficult to clearly establish, outcome indicators include adequacy of amount of investments, level of capacities shortages and outages, the size of system losses (technical and non-technical) and the percentage of nonpayments. Others include price trends, switching rates in retail competition and the cost of regulation per unit of energy delivered. These measures can be looked at country by country over time. For instance, In the UKs regulatory agency, there were large price reductions in regulated transmission and distribution charges of about 30% and 50% respectively, between 1993 and 2005 (Green et al., 2006).
2.2.3 Finance Financial management, in service organizations, has been a constraint and an obstacle to other functions that contribute to service delivery Adams and Cleburne, (1999). They suggest an enlightened approach to finance in service organizations. This consists of more participative and positive approach where far from being an obstacle, it contributes to strategic planning, costing systems, personnel motivation, quality control, continued Solvency and keeping outsiders confidence in management Arhin-Tenkorang, (2000). In particular, there is a need to distinguish good costs that improves organizational capabilities and quality service delivery from bad cost that increase bureaucracy hence becoming obstacles to service delivery Sun and Shibo, (2005).
Financial accountability using monitoring, auditing and accounting mechanisms defined by the country legal and institutional framework is a prerequisite to ensure that allocated funds are used for the intended purposes Oliveira-Cruz, Hanson, and Mills. (2001). In many developing countries, governments do not have the financial and technical capacity to effectively exercise such oversight and control functions, track and report on allocation, disbursement and use of financial resources (Smee, 2002). Political and bureaucratic leakage, fraud, abuse and corrupt practices are likely to occur at every stage of the process as a result of poorly managed expenditure systems, lack of effective auditing and supervision, organizational deficiencies and lax fiscal controls over the flow of public funds Peters, Elmendorf, Kandola and Chellaraj, (2000). Falsification of financial statements is more of a problem in proprietary (private) Hospitals. Executives will sometimes exaggerate revenue and misstate expenses in order to meet expectations of industry analysts and shareholders (Maureen, 2005). The manufacturing industry in Kenya are in dire need of funding to rehabilitate, redesign, equip and staff them to ensure effective and efficient service delivery to Kenyans (RoK, 2001).
Low funding for The manufacturing industry in the country has adversely affected the delivery of proper services (Maureen, 2005). Most of the The manufacturing industry in Kenya especially rural areas are in a sad state that has incapacitated them from offering efficient services to clients and to alleviate the deplorable condition proper measures must be taken into consideration (Maureen, 2005). Kotler (2002) in this way, the document that make up the basis agreement of program finance will be based on the technical financial and economical of the project which is to be implemented. The main aspects involved in the program finance document are as follows: economic consideration for the financing of the project. The relationship between resources and safety of workers is widely documented in a high income country setting but has rarely been empirically investigated in low income countries Bakeera et al (2009). Delivery of service is closely related to availability of financial resources. Provider payment mechanism may include differential payment to foster provision in specific geographical areas as well as among priority population.
2.2.4 TechnologySome industries and specific organizations have successfully implemented numerous information technologies and as a result, enjoy great competitive advantage. Dertouzos (2006) says others have not. This transformation which some have argued is a dramatic as the industry revolution, is changing the way work is done and live in our society. Sometimes generically called the information revolution, it is driven by the integration of organization process through enabling information technologies and systems. The outcome of transformation is unknown, but the researchers and policy have cast the problem in familiar terms. On one side we have those who question the societal benefit of technology and wish to limit its use, that is the government and on the other hand we have those who equate technology with progress and promote its adoption in all areas.
According to Opiyo (2006) equipment replacement and upgrading are primary emphasis in these programs, but the allocations under the programs may also be used for associated supplies and remodeling lab / modernization programs in various years. Equipment purchased through the programmes that is no longer useful for the purpose for which it was originary purchased should first be used for other useful needs. The virtues of collaborative partnership are touted and government reformers generally high technology advocated more particularly, and information resource management specialist most precisely. Calling attention to the use of various structural arrangements in the adoption and implementation of technology. Cooperative technology has made sufficient inroads so that there is no longer a single, dominant technology paradigm.
According to Kathy (2006) technology is the most dramatic force that is now shaping the destiny of the organization. The much headed information change of technology can now render a product or service absolute. New technology replaces the old in order for efficient to be obtained and quicker innovation to be exercised. Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology with telecommunication technology. Its significantly influence or drive the fundamental building blocks of our information systems that is people data process and interface. Organizations are not served by a single information system but instead by a federation information system that support various business functions. Business have both front office information system that support system reach out to customers as well as back office information system feed data to management information system decision support system contemporary information system interface with customers and supplies using electronic commerce technology or the internet. Finally most companies have some sort of internet to support communication between employees and communication system Cole (2004)
According to Bocji (2006) new technology creates opportunity and forward thinking organizations. High level of automation, high speed communications and improved access to information can all provide significant communication and improved access to information can all provide significant benefit to modern business organizations. However the benefits of new emerging technologies can only be realized once they have been harnessed and directed towards organizational goals. The management combines management business skills and expertise in areas of information technology and information system in problem solving and development of an individual to become better managers. Business firms have increasingly turned to computers to help perform vital project function in the face of rapid changes of todays environment.
Management information for instance provides information for planning, controlling, and transaction systems assisting marketing managers in production expeditions. This also provides forecasting and present products and determining the channels of communication. Technology seems to offer us high possibility and hope. Technical advances seem to bring with them vision to increase of efficiency while reducing the need for labor time saving accuracy among other advances. Further the personal computer pc offers a high level of playing field and brings instantaneous information to everyone even those who might be house bound or even in remote areas. Technology involves knowledge, tools, equipment and work techniques used by organization in determining its products and services. Technology may be referred to as know or some knowledge expertise and skills necessary to establish expertise that will treat and operate on patients effectively (Mullins, 1996).
Technology for harnessing of Information and data play a critical role in the quality service delivery in hospitals (Allen, 2001). Investments in Technology that facilitate service assessment and improvement process is essential. According to the Government of Kenya (2001) report, successful Technology strategy that needs to be employed by the manufacturing industry and this must involve four main commitments: a willingness to invest in Information Technology, Working with staffs and others to customize an information system to meet specific needs and culture of the institution; nurturing and encouraging buy-in so new systems will be utilized and their benefits will be realized and devising information technology systems that provide real-time feedback to the industrial workers as they go about their duties. The main ingredients of a real-time system involve its timeliness. The manufacturing industry wants to develop a system that allows all workers to have access to relevant information as soon as it is available. To that end, the The manufacturing industry have or are adopting applications that do the following: Reduce time lags in getting laboratory and imaging results. Whether an information system is completely home-grown or purchased off the shelf, Information Technology must be customized to incorporate and meet the particular needs and circumstances of the SME . This is not a one-time process, but one that must engage clinicians and administrators to adapt and refine systems over time. Technology systems reflect the The manufacturing industry Commitment and willingness to invest in the tools that promote quality
Assel (2000) says e- business project management is a subject to frequent change due to a number of factors like economic change, technological advancement and market situation. It needs feasibility and subjective study of project management parameters and effective detailing of e- commerce and detailing of e- commerce terms and trading. Once these efforts have been integrated successfully, the first and foremost challenge in any technology situation is keeping up with the technology itself, and knowing how to communicate these needs to the business. The technology field is generally characterized by a high degree of variation in the way in which technology is used and implemented by introducing technology institutions. Since the success of new technology depends on its capability of surviving this turbulent stage lots of research been produced to identify the reason for this trouble. The research steam on innovation diffusion started by (Rodgers 1995) highlight the market side and customers lack of formality with the new technology as a possibility explanation.
Various concepts have been developed in relation with the dynamics of technological evolution. The concept of technological guideposts has been introduced it refers to major technological advances that are capable of setting a direction to be followed by more incremental innovations. In this framework technological guidepost are chosen among various alternative essentially by chance. The institutions choice of a core technical concept established the agenda for the technological development, customers preferences determine the hierarchy of technical problems to be solved Finally another concept often associated with technological change to technological disruptiveness Markides (2003) Disruptive new technologies are technological discontinuities sharing the following characteristic products incorporating the disruptive technological underperforming on the attributes mainstream customers value at the time of their introduction.
Communication should be direct and understandable, not confusing for the employee to work effectively for the benefit of the organization, poor communication will hinder productivity and competitiveness Goodrich (2000) thus affecting service delivery. Communication can therefore be regarded as the foundation upon which organization and administration must be built. He goes further to say that the first executive function is to develop and maintain a system of communication.
2.3 Review of Critical Literature
Project management is the use of knowledge and skills in planning and controlling tasks and resources needed for the project which is the key while implementing projects. Gordon J (2005) states that the important elements Include managing work plans, monitoring time schedule, budgets, managing risks and issues need to be applied in the implementation of projects to have successful projects. Whereas this is true the author failed to show how project management skills affect the implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) policy in Kenya SMEsFinances are required in any implementation of any project. Insufficient financial resources and delays in disbursement of funds can affect project activities. Fowler (1997) defines quality funds for civil societies as being from stringent conditions, allocation on programs rather projects, not constrained by administrative requirements, predicable and reliable in terms of flow, disbursement timely, and based on demonstrated performance.
Every organization requires training having employees with knowledge and skills to perform tasks allocated to them. Human resource capacity building is the enhancement of knowledge which acts not only as motivator to the employees but also an opportunity or a better job that has more responsibilities and authority with good involvement. Training help in staff motivation it improves individual team and corporate performance in terms output, quality, speed and overall productivity. The level of education tends to increase the level of general knowledge and hence may positively influence ability of an individual to deliver. Lower levels of education are associated with low delivery of healthcare services while delivery of healthy medication increased with higher level of formal education. Education levels particularly in rural areas may influence the ability of individuals to judge when care is available and its potential benefits may be incomplete or totally unknown (Turin, 2010)
Training consist of programs designed to improve performance at the individual, group or organizational level, Cascio (1992) with an improved performance on the part of the individual group or organizational there have been measurable changes or enhancement in the knowledge, skills attitude and social behavior. Training as the teaching or learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Training therefore needs to be seen as a long term investment in its human resource.
Dessler (2008) sees training as the means of giving new or current employees the skills they need to perform at their various jobs. Continuing he sees training as the hall mark of good management and thus when managers ignore training they are doing so to the great disadvantage of the organizations they are managing. This is because having high potential employee does not still guarantee they will perform on the job. This is why every employee must do what management wants to do n how he must do it. Training therefore has hard affair impressive record of influencing organizational effectiveness. Cole (2004) argued that human resource are the most dynamic resource of all the resources at the disposal of the organization and thus the human resource needs to be given considerable attention from management to enable this resource realize their full potential in their work. For this reason management must address motivation, leadership, communication work restructuring, payment system and training development. He further provided some definitions that are worth noting: Education- usually intended to mean basic instruction in knowledge and skills designed to enable people to make the most of life in general.
Robbins (2005) says employees training is a learning experience. It seeks a relation permanent change in employees that improves job performance. Thus training involves changing in skills, knowledge, altitude or behavior. This may mean changing what employees know how they work or their attitude towards their job, coworkers managers and the organization. It has been estimated for instance that US business firms alone spend billions of dollars each year on formal courses and training programmes to develop workers skills managers, whereas this is true the study has failed to show as the relationship between the training and provision of quality services in public hospitals. The study was therefore conducted to fill in the gaps left.
2.4 Summary of the Gap to be Filled
Communication should be direct and understandable not confusing for the employees to work effectively to the benefit of the organization, Poor communication will hinder the productiveness thus affecting service delivery. Communication can therefore be regarded as the foundation upon which organization and administration must be build. Inadequate communication result to waste of time while those receiving it try to understand what is being said hence affecting service delivery. A leader may gain a considerable knowledge and a better commitment on the part of the person involved by consulting the subordinate. As already noted this is true in developing verifiable objective under system of managing by objectives. Furthermore a manager dealing with a group of research scientist may give them free reign in developing their inquiries openly. But the same manager might be autocratic in enforcing a rule stipulating that employee wears a protective covering when handling certain dangerous chemicals.
Employee training improves skills or adds to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is well equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for higher position with increased responsibility. However, individual growth is not an end in itself organizational growth should be meshed with individual growth. The effective functioning of the organization requires that employees learn to perform their jobs at satisfactory level of proficiency. An effective organization wishes to have amongst his ranks individual that are qualified to accept increasing responsibilities.
2.5 Conceptual FrameworkThe conceptual framework below considers how the independent variable training, technology and finances and Government Policy affects implementation of quality Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) policy in Kenya SMEs
Figure 2.1 Conceptual FrameworkIndependent Variables
Sources: Author (2014)
The training of the workers gives them the knowledge to undertake the activities in the organization easily. With quality training it will mean that the employees will have better knowledge on what needs to be done which will bring easy talent management in healthy sector.
2.5.2 Government Regulations
These are Public policies, the principle guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
Finance is the driver of the business organizations and other institutions. In this regard its well known that the organization that has the availability of finances will find it easier for them to implement in the organizations since the organization will not be challenged by the shortage of finances which may result from the financial constraints
2.5.4 TechnologyCommunication is the act by which one person gives to or receives information from person information about that persons needs, desires, perception, knowledge or effective state. Information technology is one of the most important factor in management of the talent. In this regard the organization with good information technology will find it easy to implement talent management since it will need very little costs to be catered for in regard to areas connected to technology matters.
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY3.1 1ntroductionThis chapter highlights the methodology and the procedure that was used in collecting and analyzing of data in this study. It further describes the type and source of data, the target population, sampling design and the techniques that were used to select the size, the instrument and data collection methods and explain how the analysis of the data to be collected and be carried out.
3.2 Study DesignThis is the overall plan of conducting the study in order to answer the research questions and achieve the objectives of the study. The study will adopt a descriptive survey approach in collecting data from the respondent. The descriptive survey method were used because it ensures complete description of the situation, making sure that there was minimum bias in the collection of data and finding out the what, where, and how of a phenomenon( Kothari 2008). It is basically the plan and structure of investigation. Descriptive research design seeks to establish factors associated with certain occurrences, outcomes, conditions or type of behavior. Descriptive research is a scientific method of investigation in which data was collected and analyzed in order to describe the current conditions, terms or relationship concerning a problem (Kothari, 2005).
3.3 Target PopulationAccording to Mugenda & Mugenda (2003) target population is a universal set of the study of all number of real or hypothetical set of people, event and objects to which an investigator wishes to generalize the result, a population is an entire group of individuals, events or objects with some common observable characteristics. The population under the study will be 180 staff working in Sameer Industrial Group of Companies. The target population of the study was as follows;
Table 3.1 Target PopulationCategoryTarget PopulationPercentage
Source: Author (2014)3.4 Sampling Design
According to Oso & onen (2009), a sample is part of the target (or accessible) population that has been procedurally selected to represent it. The study used stratified random sampling technique as the study population is not homogenous as it consists of middle management, senior managers, support staff in the categories of drivers, mechanics, engineers, support staff and casual laborers, making it the most appropriate sample to come up with the target sample. The organization consists of 180 working staff. From the study population a sample size of 40% was drawn from the total population.Table 3.2 Sample SizeCategoryTarget PopulationSample SizePercentage
Sources: Author (2014)
3.5 Data Collection Methods and Instruments UsedThis involves the methods that were used to collect data from the respondents. Questionnaire was used in the study. They were hand delivered and collected after a few days. The type of questions that were used included both open and closed ended. Closed ended question were used to ensure that the answers are relevant. The research questions were clear in order to make clear dimension along with respondents and analysis. In open ended questions, space was provided for relevant explanation by the respondents, thus giving them freedom to express their feelings. This method was considered effective to the study in that; it creates confidentiality. The presence of the researcher was required as the questionnaires were self-administered.3.5.1 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument
Research instruments were pre-tested to increase the validity and reliability of the response. Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) suggest that pre-testing allows errors to be discovered as well as acting as a tool for training a research team. Expert validity views and suggestion of supervisors will be incorporated in the questionnaire and then pretesting was done on three respondents: however this respondent was not be included in the study sample. As a result of pilot test changes in words selection and instructions made to the questionnaires. The research assistant was trained before participating in the study. Regular cross checking, inspection and scrutinizing of information on the research instrument were done to ensure accuracy, relevance, completeness, consistency and uniformity of the data collected.
The instruments that were used were questionnaire both open ended and closed ended questions. The secondary data were collected by the use of text books, journals, magazines, library, and internet and from previous research.
The questionnaires were preferred to other techniques because the respondent in the population are literate, time saving and convenient to the respondent and the author. The questionnaire were both semi-structured and unstructured to avoid being too rigid and to quantify the data more likely where structured items are applicable. The questionnaires were left with respondents who filled them at their comfort.
3.6 Data Analysis Method
Data analysis is the process of packaging the collected information in a form that can be understood by the person who is doing the research. Data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. It involves analyzing of both open ended and closed ended questions. There was use of various tables and graphs to help those who are not numerate to understand as they provide easy and attractive means of representing the data. Descriptive statistics will be used before summarizing and communicating the research results. Data from questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistic with the help of analysis software- statistical package for social sciences package which offers extensive data handling capabilities and numerous statistical analysis routines that can analyze small to very large data statistics.CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
The chapter presents results and discussion of the study from the data collected from the questionnaire whereby the researcher sorted views and opinions on the factors affecting the volume of sale of insurance policies in insurance industry. The chapter analysis the findings of interest and presents data in line with the objective of the study.
4.2 Presentation of Findings
4.2.1 Response Rate
Table 4.1 Response Rate
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.1: Response Rate
Source: Author (2014)
Table 4.1 and figure 4.1 show that the analysis of response rate. As indicated above, the researcher intended to target a total of 180 respondents. Out of 70 questionnaires issued 64 were adequately answered and returned and this constituted to 91%. However 6 questionnaires were not returned and this was presented by 9%. Based on the findings, the number of questionnaire returned was considered definite to be used in the final analysis of the study.
4.2.2 Gender AnalysisTable 4.2 Gender of the Respondents
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.2 Gender of Respondents
Source: Author (2014)The table 4.2 and figure 4.2 above represent the analysis of gender in this organization. Based on the analysis above, 75% of the total respondents were male while 25% of the total respondents were female. It can be concluded that majority of the respondents in this organization are male.
4.2.3 AgeTable 4.3 Age of the RespondentCategoryFrequencyPercentage
Between 18-25 years1523
Between 26-35 years1422
Between 36-45 years1625
Between 46-55 years1117
Above 55 years813
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.3 Age of the Respondent
Source: Author (2014)
The table 4.3 and figure 4.3 above shows that 23% of the respondents are in the age between 18-25 years years, 22% are in the age between 26-35 years, 25% are in the age between 36-45 years, 17% are in the age between 46-55 years and 13% of the respondents are above 55 years. It can be deducted from the findings that majority of employees are in the age between of 36-45years at Sameer Group.
4.2.4 Highest Education Level
Table 4.4 Highest Education Level of the Respondents
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.5 Highest Education Level of Respondents
Source: Author (2014)
Table 4.4 and figure 4.4 above show how the respondents relate to levels of education. The study findings indicate that 38% of the respondents were secondary school leavers. 28% were college graduates, while 12% were university graduates, 22% of the respondents were primary school leavers. This indicated that the majority of respondents were graduates from college and university; it indicated that most of the employees were learned meaning they can perform better in their roles therefore promoting proper and effective systems in the sales volume of the insurance policies.
4.2.5 Number of Years ServiceTable 4.5 Number of Years ServiceCategoryFrequencyPercentage
Less than 5 years1218
Above 18 years69
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.5 Number of Years Service
Source: Author (2014)
The table 4.5 and figure 4.5 above shows that 18% of the respondents have working experience of less than 5 years, 25% have work experience of between 5-8 years, 32% have work experience between 9-13 years, 16% have work experience between 14-18 years and 9% of the respondents had worked for more than 18 years . It can be deducted from the findings that majority of employees have a working experience of 9-13 years at Sameer Group.
4.2.6 Respondents CategoryTable 4.6 Respondents CategoryCategoryFrequencyPercentage
Middle Level Management69
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.6 Respondents CategorySource: Author (2014)
From table 4.6 and figure 4.6 above, the results according to the level of management of the respondents shows that majority of the respondents were lower level management representative by 6% of the actual response, 9% of the respondents were middle level management and 85% of the respondents were top level management. This shows that majority of workers in Sameer Group are at the lower level management.
4.2.7 TrainingTable 4.7 Whether Training Affects Implementation of Health and Safety PolicyResponseFrequencyPercentage
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.7 Whether Training Affects Implementation of Health and Safety Policy
Source: Author (2014)
The table 4.7 and figure 4.7 is an analysis of the effects of training on implementation of occupational health and safety policy in the manufacturing industry in Kenya. The majority response of 69% indicated that training plays a major role in the implementation of occupational health and safety policy in the manufacturing industry. The organization has been striving to ensure that it maintains proper training programmes so that it can equip the employees with skill that are necessary and applicable to their job.4.2.8 TrainingTable 4.8 Rating the Effect of Training on Implementation of Health and Safety PolicyResponseFrequencyPercentage
Very High Extent2437
None at all1422
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.8 Rating the Effect of Training on Implementation of Health and Safety Policy
Source: Author (2014)
The table 4.8 and figure 4.8 above indicate the rating extent which training plays a major role in the on implementation of occupational health and safety policy. The majority response rated the training to be very great extent effect by responding 37% of the respondents, whereas 25% of the response was of the practice being of high extent. The response of the effect being of low extent was indicated by 16% and finally there was a 22% of no effect at all on the category. By comparing the responses it can be concluded that training has been acknowledged greatly which is a recommendable in playing a vital role in the implementation of occupational health and safety policy in Sameer Group.
4.2.9 Government RegulationTable 4.9 Whether Government Regulation Affects Implementation of Health and Safety PolicyResponse FrequencyPercentage
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.9 Whether Government Regulation Affects Implementation of Health and Safety Policy
Source: Author (2014)
The above table 4.9 and Figure 4.9 indicate the response got on the analysis of whether government regulation affects the implementation of occupational health and safety policy in Kenya. The response of 78% indicated yes that government regulation affects the implementation of occupational health and safety policy while 22% indicated No that it does not affect. This assisted in drawing the conclusion that for performance and competency to be achieved the organization has to adhere to the government regulation during the process of implementing occupational health and safety policy4.2.10 Government RegulationTable 4.10 Rating the Effect of Government Regulation on Implementation of Health and Safety PolicyResponseFrequencyPercentage
Very High Extent2843
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.10 Rating the Effect of Government Regulation on Implementation of Health and Safety PolicySource: Author (2014)
The above table 4.10 and figure 4.10 indicates the response got on the rate of effect of government regulation in the implementation of occupational health and safety policy in the organization. The response of the 43% indicated a very high extent, while 22% indicated a high extent, 16% indicated medium effect and 19% indicated a low extent that government regulation has no effect on the expansion of retail services in Kenya. From the above conclusion it can be concluded that government regulation has a very high effect on the implementation of occupational health and safety policy in Kenya.
4.2.11 FinanceTable 4.11 Whether Finance Affects the Implementation of Health and Safety PolicyCategory FrequencyPercentage (%)
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.11 Whether Finance Affects the Implementation of Health and Safety Policy
Source: Author (2014)
According to both table 4.11 and figure 4.11 represents, 88% of the respondents said that finance affect the implementation of occupational health and safety policy in Kenya. On the other hand, 12% of the respondents indicated that finance do not affect. This study revealed that the Sameer Group is affected by inadequate funds which also drag behind the implementation of occupational health and safety policy.
4.2.12 FinanceTable 4.12 Rating the Effects of Finance on the Implementation of Health and Safety Policy
Category FrequencyPercentage (%)
Source: Author (2014)
Figure 4.12 Rating the Effects of Finance on the Implementation of Health and Safety Policy