Airports authority of india (aai) training report

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AAI training report on Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS)

Transcript of Airports authority of india (aai) training report

  • Airports Authority of India Regional Training Center (CNS),ER N.S.C.B.I Airport,Kolkata-700052 A Project Report On- Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) Submitted By- Arnab Bhattacharya, B.Tech(ECE), 3rd year JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani
  • Contents Acknowledgement. Introduction Of AAI. Functions of AAI CNS (Communication Navigation Surveillance). Communication Briefing. Flight Plan &Notam VHF Communication. HFRT Communication. AMSS (Automatic Message Switching System). VOLMET. ILS (Instrument Landing System). VOR & DVOR. DME. RADAR. ATCRBS ASMCGS. HF Transmitter. HF Receiver. ADS. Conclusion. Reference.
  • Acknowledgement I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide Mr Subikash Roy AGM (Com.ops) for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout this training. Sitting at the office of the airport and listening to the lectures of the aircraft communication ,made us think that it was an easy task to fly into the vast expanse on CNS(COMMUNICATION NAVIGATION & SURVEILLANCE),but it was only when we gathered knowledge about this topic, we realized how much helpful were some people to us. Without them this exploration could never have been materialized. Acknowledgement is something which really comes from the bottom of the heart of every writer .I am obliged to staff members at AAI of NSCBI airport, for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment.
  • Introduction To Regional Training Centre (CNS), Eastern Region of AAI Airports Authority of India (AAI) was constituted by an Act of Parliament and came into being on 1st April 1995 by merging erstwhile National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority of India. The merger brought into existence a single Organization entrusted with the responsibility of creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure both on the ground and air space in the country. It covers 2.8 million square nautical miles area which includes oceanic area of 1.7 million square nautical miles. During the year 2008-09, AAI handled aircraft movement of 1306532 nos. [International 270345 & domestic 33785990] and the cargo handled 499418 tones [international 318242 & domestic 181176].
  • Functions of AAI The functions of AAI are as follows: 1. Design, Development, Operation and Maintenance of international and domestic airports and civil enclaves. 2. Control and Management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO. 3. Construction, Modification and Management of passenger terminals. 4. Development and Management of cargo terminals at international and domestic airports. 5. Provision of passenger facilities and information system at the passenger terminals at airports. 6. Expansion and strengthening of operation area, viz. Runways, Aprons, Taxiway etc. 7. Provision of visual aids. 8. Provision of Communication and Navigation aids, viz. ILS, DVOR, DME, Radar etc.
  • Communication Navigation Surveillance (CNS) Communication, Navigation and Surveillance are three main functions (domains) which constitute the foundation of Air Traffic Management (ATM) infrastructure. The following provide further details about relevant domains of CNS: Communication:-Communication is the exchange of voice and data information between the pilot and air traffic controllers or flight information centres. Navigation:- Navigation Element Of CNS/ATM Systems Is meant To provide Accurate, Reliable And Seamless Position Determination Capability toaircrafts. Surveillance:- The surveillance systems can be divided into two main types:- Dependent surveillance and Independent surveillance. In dependent surveillance systems, aircraft position is determined on board and then transmitted to ATC. The current voice position reporting is a dependent surveillance systems in which the position of the aircraft is determined from on-board navigation equipment and then conveyed by the pilot to ATC. Independent surveillance is a system which measures aircraft position from the ground. Current surveillance is either based on voice position reporting or based on radar (primary surveillance radar (PSR) or secondary surveillance radar (SSR)) which measures range and azimuth of aircraft from the ground station.
  • FLIGHTPLAN (FPL) & NOTAM The figure above shows the International Flight Plan registration form.The main information provided in the flight plan is as follows: 7 letter Aircraft Identification Code Flight Rules - I (IFR), V (VFR) or Y (Both) Type of Flight N (Non Scheduled), S (Scheduled) or M (Military) Number Denotes number of aircraft (1 for normal flights, more for formation flights) Type of Aircraft Boeing (B737), Airbus (A320, A380), ATR flights (AT72), etc. Wake/Turbulence Category L (Light, less than 7000Kg), M(Medium, 7000-136000Kg) or H(Heavy, greater than 136000Kg) Equipment N (NDB), V (DVOR), I (ILS), etc. Departure Aerodrome (4 letter Airport Identification Code)
  • Time Time of departure in GMT Cruising Speed (expressed in Nautical Miles per hour) Level Denotes flight level or the altitude Route The full route from source to destination, via all the major airports Destination Aerodrome (4 letter Airport Identification Code) Estimated time to reach destination aerodrome 1st alternate aerodrome 2nd alternate aerodrome NOTAMis quasi-acronym for Notice To Airmen. NOTAMs are created & transmitted to all airport operators under guidelines specified by Annex 15. Aeronautical Information Services of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (CICA) specified the term NOTAM for more formal notice to airman following the ratification of CICA, which came into effect on 4th April, 1947. Previously NOTAM from a particular airport was published after a specific time. Due to various developments of AAI now-a-days it is possible to automatically update the information i.e. NOTAM to pilots. NOTAM is issued (and reported) for a numbers of reasons following: Hazards such as air-shows, parachute jumps, kite flying etc. Flights by important people such as heads of state (Terminal Flight Restrictions, TFRs). Closed runways. Inoperable radio navigational aids. Military exercises with resulting airspace restrictions. Inoperable light on tall obstructions.
  • Temporary erection of obstacles near airfields. Passages of flocks of birds through airspace (a NOTAM in this category is known as BIRDATM). Notifications of runway/taxiway/apron status with respect to snow, ice & standing water (SNOWTAM). Notification of an operationally significant change in volcanic ash or other dust contamination (an ASHTAM). Software code risk announcements with associated patches to reduce specific vulnerabilities. Aviation authorities typically exchange NOTAMs over AFTN circuits
  • VHF (Very High Frequency) (Frequency range : 30 - 300 MHz.) Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted High frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as Ultra high frequency (UHF). The frequency allocation is done by ITU. These names referring to high-end frequency usage originate from mid-20th century, when regular radio service used MF, Medium Frequencies, better known as "AM" in USA, below the HF. Currently VHF is at the low-end of practical frequency usage, new systems tending to use frequencies in SHF and EHF above the UHF range. See Radio spectrum for full picture. VHF propagation characteristics are ideal for short-distance terrestrial communication, with a range generally somewhat farther than line-of-sight from the transmitter (see formula below). Unlike high frequencies (HF), the ionosphere does not usually reflect VHF radio and thus transmissions are restricted to the local area (and don't interfere with transmissions thousands of kilometres away). VHF is also less affected by atmospheric noise and interference from electrical equipment than lower frequencies. Whilst it is more easily blocked by land features than HF and lower frequencies, it is less affected by buildings and other less substantial objects than UHF frequencies. Two unusual propagation conditions can allow much farther range than normal. The first, tropospheric ducting, can occur in front of and parallel to an advancing cold weather front, especially if there is a marked difference in humidities between the cold and warm air
  • masses. A duct can form approximately 250 km (155 mi) in advance of the cold front, much like a ventilation duct in a building, a