Aircraft Ground De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field ... De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field

download Aircraft Ground De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field ... De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field

of 229

  • date post

    28-Jul-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    214
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Aircraft Ground De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field ... De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field

  • APS AVIATION INC.

    TP 13318E

    Prepared for

    Transportation Development Centreon behalf of

    Civil Aviation

    Safety and SecurityTransport Canada

    and

    The Federal Aviation AdministrationWilliam J. Hughes Technical Centre

    by

    December 1998

    Aircraft Ground De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field Testing Program

    for the 1997-98 Winter

    Final Version 1.0

  • APS AVIATION INC.

    TP 13318E

    cm13

    80/re

    port/

    hot_

    subs

    /ver

    _3/M

    AST

    ER2.

    DR

    W

    by

    John D'Avirro,Michael Chaput,

    Medhat Hanna, andAntoni Peters

    December 1998

    Aircraft Ground De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field Testing Program

    for the 1997-98 Winter

    Final Version 1.0

  • PREFACE

    X:\@APS ARCHIVE\CM1380 (TDC Deicing 1997-98)\REPORT\HOT_SUB\Final Version 1.0\Final Version 1.0.DOC Final Version 1.0, October 06 iii

    PREFACE At the request of the Transportation Development Centre of Transport Canada, APS Aviation Inc. has undertaken a research program to further advance aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing technology. Specific objectives of the APS test program were: To develop holdover time tables for new Type IV fluids and to validate

    fluid-specific tables and SAE tables; To determine the influence of fluid type, precipitation, and wind on location

    and time to fluid failure initiation, and also failure progression on the Canadair Regional Jet and on high-wing turboprop commuter aircraft;

    To establish experimental data to support the development of a deicing only

    table to serve as an industry guideline, and to evaluate freeze point temperature limits for fluids used as the first step of a two-step deicing operation;

    To establish conditions for which contamination due to anti-icing fluid failure

    in freezing precipitation fails to flow from the wing of a jet transport aircraft when subjected to rotation speeds;

    To document the appearance of fluid failure and the characteristics of the

    fluid at time of failure, through conduct of a series of tests on standard flat plates; and

    To determine the feasibility of examining the condition of aircraft wings prior

    to takeoff through use of ice contamination sensor systems. The research activities of the program conducted on behalf of Transport Canada during the 1997-98 winter season are documented in separate reports. The titles of these reports are as follows: TP 13314E Research on Aircraft Deicing Operations for the 1997-98 Winter; TP 13315E Aircraft Deicing Fluid Freeze Point Buffer Requirements: Deicing

    Only and First Step of Two-Step Deicing; TP 13316E Contaminated Aircraft Takeoff Test for the 1997-98 Winter; TP 13317E Characteristics of Aircraft Anti-Icing Fluids Subjected to

    Precipitation; TP 13318E Aircraft Ground De/Anti-icing Fluid Holdover Time Field Testing

    Program for the 1997-98 Winter; and

  • PREFACE

    X:\@APS ARCHIVE\CM1380 (TDC Deicing 1997-98)\REPORT\HOT_SUB\Final Version 1.0\Final Version 1.0.DOC Final Version 1.0, October 06 iv

    TP 13489E Deicing with a Mobile Infrared System. This report, TP 13318E addresses the following objective: To conduct flat plate tests under conditions of natural snow and freezing

    precipitation to record the holdover times, and to develop individual holdover time tables based on samples of new and previously qualified Type IV fluids under as wide a range of conditions as possible.

    This objective was met by conducting tests on different Type IV fluids in simulated freezing precipitation at National Research Council Canadas Climatic Engineering Facility in Ottawa, as well as tests in natural snow conditions at the APS test facility at Dorval Airport in Montreal. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Research has been funded by the Civil Aviation Group, Transport Canada, with support from the Federal Aviation Administration and US Airways Inc. This research program could not have been accomplished without the participation of many organizations. APS would therefore like to thank Transport Canadas Transportation Development Centre, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, US Airways Inc., National Research Council Canada, Atmospheric Environment Services, and the fluid manufacturers for their contributions to, and assistance with, the program. Special thanks are extended to US Airways Inc., Air Canada, National Research Council Canada, Canadian Airlines International, Inter-Canadien, AroMag 2000, Aroport de Montreal, RVSI, Cox and Company Inc., KnightHawk, and Shell Aviation for provision of personnel and facilities, and for their co-operation on the test program. Union Carbide, Octagon, SPCA, Kilfrost, Clariant, and Inland Technologies Inc. are thanked for provision of fluids for testing. APS would also like to acknowledge the dedication of the research team, whose performance was crucial to the acquisition of hard data leading to the preparation of this document.

  • Transport Canada

    Transports Canada PUBLICATION DATA FORM

    1. Transport Canada Publication No.

    TP 13318E 2. Project No.

    9326 (DC 161) 3. Recipients Catalogue No.

    4. Title and Subtitle

    5. Publication Date

    December 1998

    6. Performing Organization Document No.

    7. Author(s)

    J. DAvirro, M. Chaput, M. Hanna, and A. Peters 8. Transport Canada File No.

    ZCD2450-B-14

    9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. PWGSC File No.

    XSD-7-01411

    11. PWGSC or Transport Canada Contract No.

    T8200-7-7557

    12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 13. Type of Publication and Period Covered

    Final

    14. Project Officer

    Barry B. Myers

    15. Supplementary Notes (Funding programs, titles of related publications, etc.)

    Research reports produced on behalf of Transport Canada for testing during previous winters are available from the Transportation Development Centre (TDC). Six reports (including this one) were produced as part of this winters research program (1997-98). Their subject matter is outlined in the preface.

    16. Abstract

    17. Key Words

    Anti-icing, deicing, deicing fluid, holdover times, precipitation

    18. Distribution Statement

    Limited number of copies available from the Transportation Development Centre

    19. Security Classification (of this publication)

    Unclassified

    20. Security Classification (of this page)

    Unclassified

    21. Declassification (date)

    22. No. of Pages

    xxiv, 204, apps

    23. Price

    Shipping/ Handling

    CDT/TDC 79-005 Rev. 96 v

    Aircraft Ground De/Anti-Icing Fluid Holdover Time Field Testing Program for the 1997-98 Winter

    APS Aviation Inc. 1100 Ren Lvesque Blvd. West Suite 1340 Montreal, Quebec H3B 4N4

    Transportation Development Centre (TDC) 800 Ren Lvesque Blvd. West Suite 600 Montreal, Quebec H3B 1X9

    The primary objective of the 1997-98 holdover time test program was to evaluate the performance of new andpreviously qualified Type IV fluids over the entire range of conditions encompassed by the holdover time tables.Type IV fluid thickness was evaluated for all fluids used in holdover time testing. Additional tests evaluated theholdover time and compatibility performance of recycled fluids. The effect of different variables, such as test plate slope, wind velocity, and fluid application procedure, on the holdover time of Type IV fluids was also studied.

    The holdover time test procedure consisted of pouring fluids onto clean aluminum test surfaces inclined at 10and recording the onset of failure as a function of time in natural snow and in simulated freezing fog, freezingdrizzle, light freezing rain, and rain on a cold-soaked wing. Type IV fluids, supplied by Clariant, Kilfrost, Octagon,SPCA, and Union Carbide, were tested in neat and diluted forms. Recycled fluids were supplied by InlandTechnologies. Over 1200 holdover time tests were performed either at the APS Dorval Airport test facility or atNational Research Council Canadas Climatic Engineering Facility in Ottawa.

    Type IV fluid holdover times were determined using a multi-variable regression analysis, resulting in the generation of one generic SAE Type IV fluid table and seven fluid-specific Type IV fluid tables. Thickness profiles of the Type IV fluids were similar to those observed in 1996-97 tests. The performance of recycled fluids wassimilar to that of Type I fluids in holdover time and fluid compatibility tests.

  • Transports Canada

    Transport Canada FORMULE DE DONNES POUR PUBLICATION

    1. No de la publication de Transports Canada

    TP 13318E 2. No de ltude

    9326 (DC 161) 3. No de catalogue du destinataire

    4. Titre et sous-titre

    5. Date de la publication

    Dcembre 1998

    6. No de document de lorganisme excutant

    7. Auteur(s)

    J. DAvirro, M. Chaput, M. Hanna et A. Peters 8. No de dossier - Transports Canada

    ZCD2450-B-14

    9. Nom et adresse de lorganisme excutant 10. No de dossier - TPSGC

    XSD-7-01411

    11. No de contrat - TPSGC ou Transports Canada

    T8200-7-7557

    12. Nom et adresse de lorganisme parrain 13. Genre de publication et priode vise

    Final

    14. Agent de projet

    Barry B. Myers

    15. Remarques additionnelles (programmes de financement, titres de publications connexes, etc.)

    Les rapports sur les recherches effectues au cours des hivers prcdents pour le compte de Transports Canada sont disponibles au Centre de dveloppement des transports (CDT). Six rapports, dont le prsent, ont t produits dans le cadre des recherches menes pendant lhiver 1997-1998. Leur objet est