Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
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Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)ELG 4152 ProjectProfessor Riadh HabashTA: Fouad KhalilGroup Memebers:Mirza Abdel Jabbar Baig (3256498)Mohammad Ali Akbari (3299852)Navid Moazzami (3413826)Hasan Ashrafuzzaman (3384661)
Reference A Safe Longitudinal Control for Adaptive Cruise Control and Stop-and-Go Scenarios Martinez, J.-J.; Canudas-de-Wit, C.; Volume 15, Issue 2, March 2007 Page(s):246 258
 Modeling a Cruise Control http://www.library.cmu.edu/ctms/ctms/examples/cruise/cc.htm
 Highway Speed Controllerhttp://www.site.uottawa.ca/~misbah/elg4392/HC12CodeWarriorC/HighwaySpeedController/project.c
 W. Jones, Keeping cars from crashing, IEEE Spectrum, vol. 38, no.9, pp. 4045, Sep. 2001.
 M. A. Goodrich and E. R. Boer, Designing human-centered automation:Tradeoffs in collision avoidance system design, IEEE Trans. Intell.Transp. Syst., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4054, Mar. 2000.
Problem StatementThe main problem regarding the normal Cruise Control technology is that it is not aware of other vehicless movementThe driver must be always aware. Hence, possibility of mistakesPossibility of collision with the leading car if not manually slowed down
Proposed SolutionIntroduce Adaptive Cruise Control for longitudinal control of the vehicleSpeed would be automatically adjusted for safe inter-distanceOnce safe inter-distance is reached, the speed would return to the desired speed set by the driver
Technical ObjectivesTo design a control system for ACC.No overshootSettling Time of about 4-7 seconds. No oscillation (because no overshoot)A steady-state error of 0
Vehicle CharacteristicsIf the inertia of the wheels is neglected, and it is assumed that friction (which is proportional to the car's speed) is what is opposing the motion of the car, then the problem is reduced to the simple mass and damper system shown in the next slide.
System Block Diagram 
Which kind of Controller is the best?No controller.P controller.PI controller.PID controller.PD controller.
Controller SelectionP ControllerNo ControllerSettling time = 76.7 sSteady state error > 98%Kp = 10000Settling Time = 0.389sSteady state error = 2%
Controller SelectionKp=800, Ki=40Settling time = 4.89 sSteady state error = 0PI Controller*Final choice is PI Controller*
Distance Checking Three scenarios:dr > d0, cruises at desired speed, ACC inactivedr < dc, danger zone, ACC enables to slow downd0 < dr < d0, ACC is enable to reach safe inter-distance
Implementation of Distance Checking The distance checking algorithm only requires a minimum distance and a range. The algorithm calculates the actual minimum distance (> provided distance) and maximum distance and then outputs the new speed of the vehicle. The user can also provide a maximum and minimum speed for the vehicle.
Implementation of Distance Checking temp=(300*(speedmax-speedmin))/(12*range)
max_Distance = minimum_Distance + (3*range) if (distance > (max_Distance)) speed = speedmax; if (distance < minimum_Distance) speed = 0; if ((distance < max_Distance) and (distance>minimum_Distance)) if leader_speed > 0 speed = ((100*speedmin-(kvit*(minimum_distance))) + temp * distance)/100; else speed = ((100*speedmin+(kvit*(max_Distance))) + temp * distance)/100;
SimulationMaximum follower vehicle speed = 100 m/sMinimum follower vehicle speed = 0 m/sMinimum distance = 40 mRange = 20 mInitial distance = 80 mKp = 800Ki = 40b = 50m = 1000The following parameters were used for the simulation:
Final Model (simplified)
SimulationYellow: Distance between two vehiclesBlue: Speed of the leader vehiclePurple: Speed of the follower vehicle
Limitations/ConclusionNot a complete transfer function of the vehicle and environment.Linear distance-checking model.No limitations on the acceleration and jerk.Our model is simplified compared to real-time models, but can be used to implement a practical ACC.
Change background colorAdd the block diagram of the system.Add the matlab output response.Add matlab output.