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Acacia Acacia Acacia greggii Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Mimosoideae Tribe: Acacieae Genus: Acacia Miller Species About 1,300; see List of Acacia species Acacia (pronounced /əˈkeɪʃə/)is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first de- scribed in Africa by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus in 1773. The plants tend to be thorny and pod-bearing. The name derives from ακις (akis) which is Greek for a sharp point, due to the thorns in the type-species Acacia nilotica ("Nile Acacia") from Egypt. [1] Acacias are also known as thorntrees or wattles, including the yellow-fever acacia and umbrella acacias. There are roughly 1300 species of Acacia worldwide, about 960 of them native to Aus- tralia, with the remainder spread around the tropical to warm-temperate regions of both hemispheres, including Europe, Africa, south- ern Asia, and the Americas. Classification Acacia berlandieri Acacia pycnantha From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Acacia 1

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Acacia

Acacia

Acacia greggii

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Subfamily: Mimosoideae

Tribe: Acacieae

Genus: AcaciaMiller

Species

About 1,300; see List of Acacia species

Acacia (pronounced /əˈkeɪʃə/)is a genus ofshrubs and trees belonging to the subfamilyMimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first de-scribed in Africa by the Swedish botanistCarolus Linnaeus in 1773. The plants tend tobe thorny and pod-bearing. The name derivesfrom ακις (akis) which is Greek for a sharppoint, due to the thorns in the type-speciesAcacia nilotica ("Nile Acacia") from Egypt. [1]

Acacias are also known as thorntrees orwattles, including the yellow-fever acaciaand umbrella acacias.

There are roughly 1300 species of Acaciaworldwide, about 960 of them native to Aus-tralia, with the remainder spread around the

tropical to warm-temperate regions of bothhemispheres, including Europe, Africa, south-ern Asia, and the Americas.

Classification

Acacia berlandieri

Acacia pycnantha

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The genus Acacia is apparently not mono-phyletic. This discovery has led to the break-ing up of Acacia into five new genera as dis-cussed in list of Acacia species.In commonparlance the term "acacia" is occasionallymisapplied to species of the genus Robinia,which also belongs in the pea family. Robiniapseudoacacia, an American species locallyknown as Black locust, is sometimes called"false acacia" in cultivation in the UnitedKingdom.

Geography

Acacia smallii

The southernmost species in the genus areAcacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), Acacia longi-folia (Coast Wattle or Sydney Golden Wattle),Acacia mearnsii (Black Wattle), and Acaciamelanoxylon (Blackwood), reaching 43°30’ Sin Tasmania, Australia, while Acacia caven(Espinillo Negro) reaches nearly as far southin northeastern Chubut Province of Argen-tina. Australian species are usually calledwattles, while African and American speciestend to be known as acacias.

Acacia albida, Acacia tortilis and Acacia ir-aqensis can be found growing wild in theSinai desert and the Jordan valley. It is foundin the savanna vegetation of the tropical con-tinental climate.

DescriptionThe leaves of acacias are compound pinnatein general. In some species, however, moreespecially in the Australian and Pacific is-lands species, the leaflets are suppressed,

Acacia retinodes

Acacia dealbata

and the leaf-stalks (petioles) become vertic-ally flattened, and serve the purpose ofleaves. These are known as phyllodes. Thevertical orientation of the phyllodes protectsthem from intense sunlight, as with theiredges towards the sky and earth they do notintercept light so fully as horizontally placedleaves. A few species (such as Acacia glauc-optera) lack leaves or phyllodes altogether,but possess instead cladodes, modified leaf-like photosynthetic stems functioning asleaves.

The small flowers have five very smallpetals, almost hidden by the long stamens,and are arranged in dense globular or cyl-indrical clusters; they are yellow or cream-colored in most species, whitish in some,even purple (Acacia purpureapetala) or red(Acacia leprosa Scarlet Blaze). Acacia flowerscan be distinguished from those of a large re-lated genus, Albizia, by their stamens whichare not joined at the base. Also, unlike indi-vidual Mimosa flowers, those of Acacia havemore than 10 stamens.[2].

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The plants often bear spines, especiallythose species growing in arid regions. Thesesometimes represent branches which havebecome short, hard and pungent, or some-times leaf-stipules. Acacia armata is theKangaroo-thorn of Australia and Acacia erio-loba is the Camelthorn of Africa.

Symbiosis

Acacia collinsii Thorns

In the Central American Acacia sphaeroceph-ala, Acacia cornigera, and Acacia collinsii(collectively known as the bullthorn acacias),the large thorn-like stipules are hollow andafford shelter for ants, which feed on a secre-tion of sap on the leaf-stalk and small, lipid-rich food-bodies at the tips of the leafletscalled Beltian bodies; in return they add pro-tection to the plant against herbivores.[3]Some species of ants will also fight off com-peting plants around the acacia, cutting offthe offending plant’s leaves with their jawsand ultimately killing it, while other ant spe-cies will do nothing to benefit their host.

Similar mutualisms occur on Acacia treesin Africa. The Acacias provide nectar in ex-trafloral nectaries for their symbiotic ants.The ants protect the plant by attacking largemammalian herbivores and stem-boringbeetles that damage the plant.

PestsIn Australia, Acacia species are sometimesused as food plants by the larvae of hepialidmoths of the genus Aenetus including A. lig-niveren. These burrow horizontally into thetrunk then vertically down. Other Lepidop-tera larvae which have been recorded feed-ing on Acacia include Brown-tail, Endoclita

Acacia tree near the end of its range in theNegev Desert of southern Israel.

malabaricus and Turnip Moth. The leaf-min-ing larvae of some bucculatricid moths alsofeed on Acacia: Bucculatrix agilis feeds ex-clusively on Acacia horrida and Bucculatrixflexuosa feeds exclusively on Acacia nilotica.

Acacias contain a number of organic com-pounds that defend them from pests andgrazing animals.[4]

UsesFood usesAcacia seeds are often used for food and avariety of other products.

In Burma, Laos and Thailand, the featheryshoots of Acacia pennata (common name cha-om, ???? and su pout ywet in Burmese) areused in soups, curries, omelettes, and stir-fries.

Honey made by bees using the acaciaflower as forage is considered a delicacy, ap-preciated for its mild flowery taste, soft run-ning texture and glass-like appearance. Aca-cia honey is one of the few honeys whichdoes not crystallize.[5]In Mexico the seeds are known as Guajes:Guajes or huajes are the flat, green pods ofan acacia tree. The pods are sometimes lightgreen or deep red in color—both taste thesame. Guaje seeds are about the size of asmall lima bean and are eaten raw withguacamole, sometimes cooked and made intoa sauce. They can also be made into fritters.The ground seeds are used to impart aslightly garlicy flavor to a mole called guax-mole (huaxmole). The dried seeds may betoasted and salted and eaten as a snack re-ferred to as "cacalas". Purchase whole long

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pods fresh or dried at Mexican specialtymarkets.

Acacia is listed as an ingredient in Fresca,a citrus soft drink, Barq’s root beer, FullThrottle Unleaded Energy Drink, Strawberry-Lemonade Powerade[6] as well as in Läkerolpastille candies, Altoids mints,Langer’s Pine-apple coconut Juice and Wrigley’s Eclipsechewing gum.

GumVarious species of acacia yield gum. Truegum arabic is the product of Acacia senegal,abundant in dry tropical West Africa fromSenegal to northern Nigeria.

Acacia arabica is the gum-Arabic tree ofIndia, but yields a gum inferior to the truegum-Arabic.

Acacia covenyi

Medicinal usesMany Acacia species have important uses intraditional medicine. Most all of the useshave been shown to have a scientific basis,since chemical compounds found in the vari-ous species have medicinal effects. In Ay-urvedic medicine, Acacia nilotica is con-sidered a remedy that is helpful for treatingpremature ejaculation. A 19th centuryEthiopian medical text describes a potionmade from an Ethiopian species of Acacia(known as grar) mixed with the root of thetacha, then boiled, as a cure for rabies.[7] Anastringent medicine, called catechu or cutch,is procured from several species, but moreespecially from Acacia catechu, by boilingdown the wood and evaporating the solutionso as to get an extract.[8]

Dietary consumptionThe most well known visitor to the Acacia isthe known giraffe. Giraffes eat the most

famous in Africa, the Acacia Tree. The Acaciatree is famous for its marvelous leaves.

Ornamental usesA few species are widely grown as ornament-als in gardens; the most popular perhaps isAcacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), with its at-tractive glaucous to silvery leaves and brightyellow flowers; it is erroneously known as"mimosa" in some areas where it is cultiv-ated, through confusion with the relatedgenus Mimosa.

Another ornamental acacia is Acaciaxanthophloea (Fever Tree). SouthernEuropean florists use Acacia baileyana, Aca-cia dealbata, Acacia pycnantha and Acaciaretinodes as cut flowers and the commonname there for them is mimosa.[9]

Ornamental species of acacia are alsoused by homeowners and landscape archi-tects for home security. The sharp thorns ofsome species deter unauthorized personsfrom entering private properties, and mayprevent break-ins if planted under windowsand near drainpipes. The aesthetic character-istics of acacia plants, in conjunction withtheir home security qualities, makes them aconsiderable alternative to artificial fencesand walls.

PaintsThe ancient Egyptians used Acacia in paintsand stuff.[10]

Perfume

Acacia farnesiana

Acacia farnesiana is used in the perfume in-dustry due to its strong fragrance. The use ofAcacia as a fragrance dates back centuries.

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Tannin Content of Various Acacia SpeciesBark Dried Leaves Seed Pods

Species Tannins [%] Tannins [%] Tannins [%]Acacia albida 2-28%[13] 5-13%[13]

Acacia cavenia 32%[14]

Acacia dealbata 19.1%[15]

Acacia decurrens 37-40%[15]

Acacia farnesiana 23%[15]

Acacia mearnsii 25-35%[13]

Acacia melanoxylon 20%[14]

Acacia nilotica 18-23%*[13]

Acacia penninervis 18%[14]

Acacia pycnantha 30-45%[14] 15-16%[14]

Acacia saligna 21.5%[15]

In the Bible, burning of acacia wood as aform of incense is mentioned several times.

Symbolism and ritualThe Acacia is used as a symbol in Freema-sonry, to represent purity and endurance ofthe soul, and as funerary symbolism signify-ing resurrection and immortality. The treegains its importance from the description ofthe burial of Hiram Abiff, the builder of KingSolomon’s Temple in Jerusalem.

Several parts (mainly bark, root and resin)of Acacia are used to make incense forrituals. Acacia is used in incense mainly in In-dia, Nepal, Tibet and China. Smoke from Aca-cia bark is thought to keep demons andghosts away and to put the gods in a goodmood. Roots and resin from Acacia are com-bined with rhododendron, acorus, cytisus,salvia and some other components of in-cense. Both people and elephants like an al-coholic beverage made from acacia fruit.[11]According to Easton’s Bible Dictionary, theAcacia tree may be the “burning bush”(Exodus 3:2) which Moses encountered in thedesert.[12] Also, when God gave Moses the in-structions for building the Tabernacle, hesaid to "make an ark of acacia wood" and"make a table of acacia wood" (Exodus 25:10& 23, Revised Standard Version)

In Russia, Italy and other countries it iscustomary to present women with yellowmimosas (among other flowers) on Interna-tional Women’s Day (March 8). These "mimo-sas" are actually from Acacia dealbata (SilverWattle).

Tannin

A bottle of tannic acid.

The bark of various Australian species,known as wattles, is very rich in tannin andforms an important article of export; import-ant species include Acacia pycnantha (GoldenWattle), Acacia decurrens (Tan Wattle), Aca-cia dealbata (Silver Wattle) and Acaciamearnsii (Black Wattle).*Inner bark

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Approximate wood densities of various acacia speciesDensity Heartwood

DensitySapwoodDensity

Species [kg/m³] [kg/m³] [kg/m³]Acacia acuminata 1040[17]

Acacia amythethophylla 1170[18]

Acacia catechu 880[19]

Acacia confusa 690-750[19]

Acacia erioloba 1230[18]

Acacia galpinii 800[18]

Acacia goetzii 1025[18]

Acacia karoo 800[18]

Acacia leucophloea 760[19]

Acacia mellifera subsp. mellifera 1100[18]

Acacia nilotica 700[19] 1170[18]

Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens 827-945[18]

Acacia nilotica subsp. nilotica 800[18] 1170[18]

Acacia polyacantha subsp.campylacantha

705[18]

Acacia sieberiana 655[18]

Black Wattle is grown in plantations in SouthAfrica. Most Australian acacia species intro-duced to South Africa have become anenormous problem, due to their naturally ag-gressive propagation. The pods of Acacianilotica (under the name of neb-neb), and ofother African species are also rich in tanninand used by tanners.

Wood

Acacia koa Wood

Some Acacia species are valuable as timber,such as Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood)from Australia, which attains a great size; its

wood is used for furniture, and takes a highpolish; and Acacia omalophylla (Myall Wood,also Australian), which yields a fragrant tim-ber used for ornaments. Acacia seyal isthought to be the Shittah-tree of the Bible,which supplied shittim-wood. According tothe Book of Exodus, this was used in the con-struction of the Ark of the Covenant. Acaciakoa from the Hawaiian Islands and Acaciaheterophylla from Réunion island are bothexcellent timber trees. Depending on abund-ance and regional culture, some Acacia spe-cies (eg. Acacia fumosa), are traditionallyused locally as firewoods.[16]

Acacia heterophylla Wood

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In Indonesia (mainly in Sumatra) and inMalaysia (mainly in Sarawak) plantations ofAcacia mangium are being established tosupply pulpwood to the paper industry.

Phytochemistry of AcaciaAlkaloids

Egyptian goddess Isis

As mentioned previously, Acacias contain anumber of organic compounds that defendthem from pests and grazing animals.[4]Many of these compounds are psychoactivein humans. The alkaloids found in Acacias in-clude dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and N-methyltryptamine (NMT). The plant leaves,stems and/or roots are sometimes made intoa brew together with some MAOI-containingplant and consumed orally for healing, cere-monial or religious uses. Egyptian mythologyhas associated the acacia tree with charac-teristics of the tree of life (see the article onthe Myth of Osiris and Isis).List of acacia species having little or no alkal-oids in the material sampled:[31]

0% C 0.02%, C...Concentration ofAlkaloids [%]

• Acacia acinacea• Acacia baileyana• Acacia decurrens• Acacia dealbata• Acacia mearnsii• Acacia drummondii• Acacia elata• Acacia falcata• Acacia leprosa• Acacia linearis• Acacia melanoxylon• Acacia pycnantha• Acacia retinodes• Acacia saligna• Acacia stricta• Acacia verticillata• Acacia vestita

Cyanogenic glycosidesNineteen different species of Acacia in theAmericas contain cyanogenic glycosides,which, if exposed to an enzyme which spe-cifically splits glycosides, can release hydro-gen cyanide (HCN) in the acacia "leaves."[60]This sometimes results in the poisoning deathof livestock.

If fresh plant material spontaneously pro-duces 200 ppm or more HCN, then it is po-tentially toxic. This corresponds to about 7.5μmol HCN per gram of fresh plant material.It turns out that, if acacia "leaves" lack thespecific glycoside-splitting enzyme, then theymay be less toxic than otherwise, even thosecontaining significant quantities of cyanicglycosides.[31]

Some Acacia species containingcyanogens:• Acacia erioloba• Acacia cunninghamii• Acacia obtusifolia• Acacia sieberiana• Acacia sieberiana var. woodii[61]

SpeciesThere are over 1,300 species of Acacia. SeeList of Acacia species for a more completelisting.

Famous acaciaPerhaps the most famous acacia is the Arbredu Ténéré in Niger. The reason for the tree’sfame is that it used to be the most isolatedtree in the world, approximately 400 km from

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Acacias Known to Contain Psychoactive AlkaloidsAcacia

acuminataUp to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf[20]

Acacia adunca β-methyl-phenethylamine, 2.4% in leaves[21]

Acacia alpina

Active principles in leaf[22]

Acacia aneura

Ash used in Pituri.[23] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[24]Not known if psychoactive per se.

Acaciaangustissima

β-methyl-phenethylamine[25], NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)[26]

Acacia aroma

Tryptamine alkaloids.[27] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.[28]

Acaciaauriculiformis

5-MeO-DMT in stem bark[29]

0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydrohar-man[22][30][31]

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Acaciabaileyana

Acaciabeauverdiana

Psychoactive[32] Ash used in Pituri.[23]

Acaciaberlandieri

DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine[33]

Acacia catechu

DMT[34] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

Acacia caven

Tryptamines

Acacia chundra DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, barkAcacia colei DMT[35]

Acaciacomplanata

0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman,with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine[36][37][38]

Acacia concinna

Nicotine[39]

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Acacia confusa

DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem.[22]Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[40]

Acaciaconstricta

β-methyl-phenethylamine[25]

Acacia coriacea Ash used in Pituri.[23][41] Not known if psychoactive.

Acaciacornigera

Psychoactive,[41] Tryptamines[11]

Acaciacultriformis

Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem[22] and seeds.[28] Phenethylamine in leaf andseeds[28]

Acaciacuthbertsonii

Psychoactive[32]

Acacia delibrata Psychoactive[32]

Acacia falcata Psychoactive,[32] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[31]

Acaciafarnesiana

Traces of 5-MeO-DMT[42] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower.[43] Eth-er extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[24] Alkaloids are present inthe bark[44] and leaves.[45] Amphetamines and mescaline also found intree.[11]

Acacia filiciana Added to Pulque, but not known if psychoactive[41]

Acaciafloribunda

Tryptamine, phenethylamine,[46] in flowers[28] other tryptamines,[47] phen-ethylamines[48]

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Acacia greggii

N-methyl-β-phenethylamine,[25] phenethylamine[4]

Acaciaharpophylla

Phenethylamine, hordenine at a ratio of 2:3 in dried leaves, 0.6% total[21]

Acaciaholoserica

Hordenine, 1.2% in bark[21]

Acacia horrida

Psychoactive[41]

Acacia implexa

Psychoactive[49]

Acacia jurema DMT, NMT

Acacia karroo

Psychoactive

Acaciakempeana

Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[41]

Acaciakettlewelliae

1.5[21]-1.88%[50] alkaloids, 92% consisting of phenylethylamine.[21] 0.9% N-methyl-2-phenylethylamine found a different time.[21]

Acacia laeta DMT, in the leaf[22]

Acacia lingulata Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[41]

0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine inflowers,[46] 0.2% DMT in plant.[51] Histamine alkaloids.[31]

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Acacia niloticasubsp.

adstringens

Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf

Acaciaobtusifolia

Tryptamine,[47] DMT, NMT, other tryptamines,[53] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark,0.07% in branch tips.[54]

Acacia oerfota Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[30][55] NMTAcacia

penninervisPsychoactive[32]

Acaciaphlebophylla

0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT[22]

Acaciapodalyriaefolia

Tryptamine in the leaf,[22] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine,trace amounts[46]

Acaciapolyacantha

DMT in leaf[22] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

Acaciapolyacantha

ssp.campylacantha

Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf,bark[56]

Acaciaprominens

Phenylethylamine, β-methyl-phenethylamine[21][46]

Acaciapruinocarpa

Ash used in Pituri.[23][41] Not known if psychoactive.

Acaciapycnantha

Ash used in Pituri,[41] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids.[31] Not known ifpsychoactive.

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Acaciaretinodes

DMT, NMT,[57] nicotine,[11] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids found[31]

Acacia rigidula

DMT, NMT, tryptamine, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others[58]

Acaciaroemeriana

β-methyl-phenethylamine[25]

Acacia salicina

Ash used in Pituri.[23][41] Not known if psychoactive.

Acacia sassa Psychoactive[41]

Acaciaschaffneri

β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine[4] Amphetamines and mescalinealso found.[11]

Acacia schottii β-methyl-phenethylamine[25]

Acacia senegal

Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[22] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant,[43]DMT in bark.[28]

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Acacia seyal

DMT, in the leaf.[22] Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass.[24]

Acaciasieberiana

DMT, in the leaf[22]

Acacia simplex

DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark,MMT[22][59]

Acacia taxensis β-methyl-phenethylamine[25]

Acacia tortilis

DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines[53]

Acacia vestita Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem,[22] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[31]

Acacia victoriae Tryptamines,[47] 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine[28]

any other tree. The tree was knocked downby a truck driver in 1973.

Identification galleryFlowers

Acaciaaneura

Acacia catechu

Acaciabaileyana

Acaciaberlandieri

Acaciaconfusa Acacia con-

stricta, Las Ve-gas, Nevada,

USA

Acaciacovenyi

Acaciadealbata

Acaciadenticulosa

Acaciadrummodii

Acacia erio-loba Sossus-

vlei,Namibia

Acacia fim-briata Aus-tralian Na-

tional

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BotanicGardens,Canberra

Acaciaheterophylla Acacia

longifoliaAcacia

melanoxylonNazaré,Portugal Acacia

salignaSide,

Turkey

AcaciaschinoidesAustralianNationalBotanicGardens

Acacia tetra-gonophylla

Geelong Botan-ic Gardens,

Victoria,Australia

Acacia pen-nata inTalakonaforest, inChittoorDistrict ofAndhraPradesh,India

Acacia pen-nata at An-anthagiriHills, inRangareddydistrict ofAndhraPradesh,India.

Bark

Acacia an-eura Bark

Acaciaauriculiformis

Bark

Acacia ber-landieri

Bark

Acaciacollinsii

Bark

Acacia con-fusa Bark,

Hawaii, USA

Acaciadealbata

Acaciadecurrens

Acaciaerioloba

Acaciaestrophiolata

Bark

Acacia greg-gii Bark

Acaciaheterophylla

Bark

Acaciapennatatrunk inTalakonaforest, inChittoorDistrictofAndhraPradesh,India.

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Foliage

Acaciacatechu

AcaciacollinsiiFoliage

Acacia con-cinna

Foliage

Acaciadenticulosa

Foliage

AcaciakarrooFoliage

AcacialeprosaFoliage Acacia pen-

nata inTalakonaforest, inChittoorDistrict ofAndhraPradesh,India.

Acacia pen-nata at An-anthagiriHills, inRangareddydistrict ofAndhraPradesh,India.

Seed pods

Acaciaaneura

Acaciacatechu

Acaciaconfusa

Acaciaconstricta

Acaciadealbata Acacia

heterophyllaAcacia

melanoxylon

Seeds

Acaciabaileyana

Acaciaberlandieri

Acaciaconfusa Acacia

constrictaAcacia

dealbataAcacia

farnesiana

Acaciacyclops

Acaciadecurrens

Acaciagreggii

Acacialongifolia

Acaciamearnsii Acacia

melanoxylon

Acaciapycnantha

Acaciarigidula

Acaciatortuosa

Thorns

Acaciacatechu Acacia

collinsii

Acaciacornigera Acacia

horrida

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Acaciafarnesiana

var.farnesiana

Acacia pen-nata inTalakonaforest, inChittoor Dis-trict ofAndhraPradesh,India.

Tree

Acaciaaneura

Acaciaberlandieri

Acaciaconfusa Acacia

constricta

Acaciadealbata Acacia

heterophylla Acaciakoa Acacia

leprosa

Wood

Acaciakoa

Acaciaheterophylla

Acaciaschaffneri

See also• List of Acacia species• Plant defense against herbivory• Psychedelic plants

Notes[1] http://allafrica.com/stories/

200712130315.html. Accessed 9/16/2008

[2] Singh, Gurcharan (2004). PlantSystematics: An Integrated Approach.Science Publishers. pp. 445. ISBN1578083516. http://books.google.com/books?id=In_Lv8iMt24C.

[3] "Evolutionary change from induced toconstitutive expression of an indirectplant resistance : Abstract : Nature".www.nature.com.http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n6996/abs/nature02703.html.Retrieved on 2008-04-20.

[4] ^ Chemistry of Acacias from South Texas[5] "Seggiano Honeys".

www.seggiano.co.uk.http://seggiano.co.uk/products/10honey/honey.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.

[6] [1][7] Richard Pankhurst, An Introduction to

the Medical History of Ethiopia (Trenton:Red Sea Press, 1990), p. 97

[8] An OCR’d version of the US Dispensatoryby Remington and Wood, 1918.

[9] World Wide Wattle[10]Excerpt from A Consumer’s Dictionary of

Cosmetic Ingredients: Fifth Edition(Paperback) Amazon.com

[11]^ Naturheilpraxis Fachforum (German)[12]Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Bush[13]^ Purdue University[14]^ Google Books Select Extra-tropical

Plants Readily Eligible for IndustrialCulture Or Naturalization By Ferdinandvon Mueller

[15]^ Plants for a Future Database[16]Maugh, T.H.II. (2009-04-24). "New

species of tree identified in Ethiopia".Los Angeles Times.http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-sci-tree25-2009apr25,0,402549.story.Retrieved on 2008-04-24.

[17]Aussie Fantom[18]^ The timber properties of Acacia

species and their uses[19]^ FAO[20]Lycaeum[21]^ Fitzgerald, J.S. Alkaloids of the

Australian Legumuminosae -- TheOccurrence of PhenylethylameDerivatives in Acacia Species, Aust. J .Chem., 1964, 17, 160-2.

[22]^ Shaman Australis[23]^ Duboisia hopwoodii - Pituri Bush -

Solanaceae - Central America

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Acacia

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Page 19: Acacia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. P.D.F.'s/Acacia-Tree... · 2019-10-28 · The plants often bear spines, especially thosespeciesgrowinginaridregions.These sometimes represent

[24]^ Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12March 2002, Canberra March 2003RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDCProject No WS012-06

[25]^ Glasby, John Stephen (1991).Dictionary of Plants ContainingSecondary Metabolites. CRC Press.pp. 2. ISBN 0850664233.http://books.google.com/books?id=te53VV5u8YMC&pg=RA1-PA2&ots=e5Swnj0FN9&dq=acacia+alkaloids&sig=ph1WfGlPnw5YMc3SReh2P5li2ls.

[26]English Title: Nutritive value assessmentof the tropical shrub legume Acaciaangustissima: anti-nutritional compoundsand in vitro digestibility. PersonalAuthors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D.O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L.,Hegarty, M. P. Author Affiliation: CSIROLivestock Industries, Long PocketLaboratories, 120 Meiers Road,Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia.Document Title: Animal Feed Scienceand Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No.1/2) 175-190

[27]Maya Ethnobotanicals[28]^ Acacia (Polish)[29]Lycaeum[30]^ www.serendipity.com[31]^ Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen By

Robert Hegnauer[32]^ www.bushfood.net[33]Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and

Natural Amphetamine[34]Sacred Elixirs[35]www.abc.net.au[36]Acacia Complanata Phytochemical

Studies[37]Lycaeum -- Acacias and Entheogens[38]Lycaeum[39]SBEPL[40]NMR spectral assignments of a new

chlorotryptamine alkaloid and itsanalogues from Acacia confusa MalcolmS. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, DavidPass, Ronald J. Quinn MagneticResonance in Chemistry Volume 45,Issue 4 , Pages359 - 361. John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.

[41]^ Index of Rätsch, Christian.Enzyklopädie der psychoaktivenPflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologieund Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. ATVerlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN3855025703 at [2]

[42]Lycaeum[43]^ Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and

Ethnobotanical Databases

[44]www.bpi.da.gov.ph[45]Purdue University[46]^ Hegnauer, Robert (1994).

Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Springer.pp. 500. ISBN 3764329793.http://books.google.com/books?id=9fDv1RYqIRkC&dq=chemotaxonomie+der+pflanzen&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=kkne5dmPiX&sig=iprrFOkR3ClREUcAyMORs0lGjdY#PPA290,M1.

[47]^ www.bluelight.ru[48]Lycaeum (Acacia floribunda)[49]wiki.magiskamolekyler.org (Swedish)[50]Acacia kettlewelliae[51]Lycaeum Acacia longifolia[52]extentech.sheetster.com[53]^ wiki.magiskamolekyler.org (Swedish)[54]Acacia obtusifolia Phytochemical Studies[55]Plants Containing DMT (German)[56]Hortipedia[57]Pflanzentabelle APB (German)[58]Magiska Molekylers wiki[59]Arbeitsstelle für praktische Biologie

(APB)[60]Cyanogenic Glycosides in Ant-Acacias of

Mexico and Central America David S.Seigler, John E. Ebinger TheSouthwestern Naturalist, Vol. 32, No. 4(December 9, 1987), pp. 499-503doi:10.2307/3671484

[61]FAO Kamal M. Ibrahim, The currentstate of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora...

General references• Clement, B.A., Goff, C.M., Forbes, T.D.A.

Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Acaciarigidula, Phytochem. 1998, 49(5), 1377.

• Shulgin, Alexander and Ann, TiHKAL theContinuation. Transform Press, 1997.ISBN 0-9630096-9-9

External links• World Wide Wattle• Acacia-world• Wayne’s Word on "The Unforgettable

Acacias"• The genus Acacia and Entheogenic

Tryptamines, with reference to Australianand related species, by mulga

• A description of Acacia from Pomet’s 1709reference book, History of Druggs

• www.serendipity.com• Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and

Ethnobotanical Databases• Flora identification tools from the State

Herbarium of South Australia• Tannins in Some Interrelated Wattles

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• List of Acacia Species in the U.S.• FAO Timber Properties of Various Acacia

Species• FAO Comparison of Various Acacia

Species as Forage• Long-term effects of roller chopping on

antiherbivore defenses in three shrubspecies, Jason R. Schindlera, Timothy E.Fulbright

• Vet. Path. ResultsAFIP Wednesday SlideConference - No. 21 February 24, 1999

• Acacia cyanophylla lindl as supplementaryfeed/for small stock in Libya

• Description of Acacia Morphology• Nitrogen Fixaton in Acacias• Acacias with Cyagenic Compounds• Acacia Alarm System

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia"

Categories: Acacia, Excipients

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