A Small Dose of PBDEs 10/15/05 A Small Dose of Toxicology Phasing Out Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers...

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Transcript of A Small Dose of PBDEs 10/15/05 A Small Dose of Toxicology Phasing Out Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers...

PowerPoint PresentationA Small Dose of Toxicology
Phasing Out Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
and PBTs
Preventing Toxic Threats to our Children’s Health”
October 15, 2005
www.asmalldoseof.org
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Infant & Child Health
A Small Dose of Toxicology
“Children can develop and mature in an environment that allows them to reach and maintain their full potential.”
Vision for Child Health
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Purpose of PBDEs
Injures more than 20,000
$11 billion in damage
PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ether
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Structure of PBDEs
e.g. decaPBDE has 10 Bromines
PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ether
A Small Dose of Toxicology
How much PBDEs are used?
Millions of lbs used/year (2001)
Total world-wide 148.3 M lbs/yr
Data from BSEF (2001)
A Small Dose of Toxicology
PBDEs in Consumer Products
Plastics - Deca, Octa, Penta
Computers, televisions, hair dryers, curling irons, copy machines, fax machines, printers, coffee makers, plastic automotive parts, lighting panels, PVC wire and cables, electrical connectors, fuses, housings, boxes and switches, lamp sockets, waste-water pipes, underground junction boxes, circuit boards, smoke detectors
Textiles - Deca, Penta
Back coatings and impregnation of home and office furniture, industrial drapes, carpets, automotive seating, aircraft and train seating
Hong Kong --
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
PBDEs in Consumer Products
Polyurethane foam - Penta
Home and office furniture (couches and chairs, carpet padding, mattresses and mattress pads) automobile, bus, plane and train seating, sound insulation panels, imitation wood, packaging materials
Rubber - Deca, Penta
Paints and lacquers - Deca, Penta
Marine and industry protective lacquers and paints
Hong Kong --
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Sunlight / UV light breaks down PBDEs (encourages debromination)
Slower to break down in doors – increased in door exposure to deca
Debrominates to more toxic PBDEs
Degradation of PBDEs
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Atmospheric transport – found in artic sediment, mussels and animals
Remote Canadian lakes
Island in Baltic
A Small Dose of Toxicology
PBDEs in House Dust (ppb)
From EWG - Toxic Fire Retardants Contaminate American Homes - http://www.ewg.org/reports/inthedust/summary.php
Hong Kong --
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Found in animals
Increase in fish
Increase in whales
Found in human (breast milk)
Bioavailability of PBDEs
A Small Dose of Toxicology
PBDEs Breast Milk - Sweden
(Norén and Mieronyté, 1998)
A Small Dose of Toxicology
PBDEs in Breast Milk (ppb)
From EWG - Toxic Fire Retardants in Breast Milk from American Mothers - http://www.ewg.org/reports/mothersmilk/es.php
Hong Kong --
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Flame Retardants In Puget Sound Residents - A study of toxic body burdens
Joint study by Northwest Environmental Watch and Washington Toxics Coalition
What was found in women’s breast milk
9 samples – range 13 to 156 ppb PBDEs
Median 50 ppb (parts per billion)
Japan blood median 1.3 ppb
Swedish breast milk median 2.1 ppb
WA State PBDEs Burdens
A Small Dose of Toxicology
PBDEs In Milk Fat
ELSI - 2/10/04
13
13
13
26
50
56
117
126
156
Sheet1
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Data from Northwest Environmental Watch - report Fig 1 PBDE levels in milk fat among nine Puget Sound mothers
Sheet1
ppb
Sheet2
Median ppb
Comparison of World Wide PBDE levels in lipid
Sheet3
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Texas 2002 – Breast milk from 47 mothers – median 34 ppb
Across U.S. - 20 breast milk samples – median 58 ppb
Additional Reports - PBDEs
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Additional Reports - PBDEs
ELSI - 2/10/04
Comparison of World Wide PBDE levels in lipid
1.3
2.1
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34
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50
Sheet1
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Data from Northwest Environmental Watch - report Fig 1 PBDE levels in milk fat among nine Puget Sound mothers
Sheet1
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ppb
13
13
13
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Sheet2
Median ppb
Comparison of World Wide PBDE levels in lipid
Sheet3
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Importance of Breast Feeding
Absolutely the best infant food
Despite the chemical found in breast milk, the benefits outweigh any risk
Reduces incidence of a number of diseases and infections
Formula milk may also have contaminants
Breast feeding good for mothers too
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Similar to PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls)
PBT (Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicant)
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Health effects – deca-PBDE?
Human studies?
Metabolism – is deca-PBDE metabolized to more toxic metabolites? How fast? Persistent in body?
Break down – does deca-PBDE break down in the environment to penta or octa? Impact of UV light?
Do we need to know more?
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
PBDEs migrate out of products
Found in the environment and animals
Found homes and mother’s breast milk
PCBs and PBDEs very similar
PBDEs have health effects at low doses
Deca-PBDE has effects (may be from metabolites)
Deca-does break down and is metabolized
Therefore we need to adapt a precautionary approach
What do we know?
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Europe
Deca will be banned by 2006
PBDEs – International Status
A Small Dose of Toxicology
U.S. EPA and a U.S. chemical manufacturer, agreed to phase out Penta and Octa-PBDE by end of 2004
Deca-PBDE in consumer electronics (80% of the chemical's commercial use) – no agreement
PBDEs – National Status
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Legislation to ban - Penta and Octa-PBDE
Did not ban Deca-PBDE
Must report amount of electronic waste and toxic chemicals in waste such as PBDEs, metals
PBDEs – California Status
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Jan 2004 - Governor Locke issued an Executive Order directing the Department of Ecology to develop a phase out plan
March 2004 - March 2004, the Washington State Legislature funded the development of a PBDE phase out plan
Advisory panel formed
PBDEs & WA State
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Dept. of Ecology Draft Report
A complete ban on Penta and Octa-PBDE
A ban on Deca-PBDE in consumer electronics (80% of the chemical's commercial use).
Public hearing October 19th
PBDEs & WA State - Status
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Buy products with natural fibers (cotton and wool) that are naturally fire resistant.
Choice materials that do not have or need flame-retardants (IKEA uses no PBDEs)
Manufactures are redesigning products
Research for new flame-retardants
A Small Dose of Toxicology
“When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be take even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.”
Wingspread Conference, 1998.
A Small Dose of Toxicology
FDA regulations of Drugs (1938)
FDA regulations of Dietary Supplements (Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA))
Ephedra present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury (Dec, 2003)
Safety & Efficacy vs Harm
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty
Shifting the burden of responsibility to the proponents of an activity
Exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions
Increasing public participation in decision making
Wingspread Conference, 1998.
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Changes in purchase policy to less toxic cleaners & paints
Integrated pest management
Approach to decision making
Examples of Precautionary Approach
A Small Dose of Toxicology
The Potential of Children
A Small Dose of Toxicology
A Small Dose of ™ PBDEs
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Additional Information
Flame Retardants In Puget Sound Residents - A study of toxic body burdens (http://www.northwestwatch.org/pollution/)
Washington Toxics Coalition (www.watoxics.org)
Washington State – Department of Ecology – (http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/pbt/pbde/index.html)
Birnbaum, L. S., & Staskal, D. F. (2004). Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environ Health Perspect, 112(1), 9-17. (available on line at www.ehponline.org)
Hooper, K., & McDonald, T. A. (2000). The PBDEs: an emerging environmental challenge and another reason for breast-milk monitoring programs. Environ Health Perspect, 108(5), 387-392. (available on line at www.ehponline.org)
ELSI - 2/10/04
A Small Dose of Toxicology
A Small Dose of Toxicology
A Small Dose of Toxicology
Contact Information
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: www.asmalldoseof.org
ELSI - 2/10/04
1.3
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(2000)
Sweden
(2001)
Canada
(2001-02)
Texas
(2002)
United
States
(2002-03)
Puget
Sound
(2003)
(ppb)
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26
50
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117
126
156
0
25
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75
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175
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